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Nov 29, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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Abstract

Twenty
-
four flies were randomly a
ssigned to either the traumatic compression condition
in which a direct blow was administered or to the sham compression condition in which
the blow was administered beside the subjects. Taming was defined as making no
attempt to flee or attack when touch
ed. It was hypothesized that greater taming would
occur in the traumatic compression condition. Results showed that flies in the traumatic
compression condition were significantly less tense and more quiescent than those in
the sham compression group. T
hese differences appeared to be long lasting. Taming
was assumed to result from physiological changes in the subjects. It was concluded
that there are some taming techniques that can be used effectively with the house fly.










Title: Taming Effects of Traumatic Compression of the House Fly.


Author Name & Affiliation: student (s) submitting paper


Running Head:Taming Effects of Compression


Header Text: Taming Effects





2


Introduction:


During the 1960's
researchers examined
techniques used to tame the
house fly (
Musca domestica
)
{add Smedley, & Smith &
Jones citations here].
Recently, these efforts have
taken on increased importance as the human race braces

itself for the

global warming effect that is expected during
the next

century. Research has shown that
as temperatures rise, the activity level of the
fly increases [add Smedley citation here]
and this, in turn, increases the human
irritability index. In order to keep the
irritability index at a tolerable level, a taming
technique must be developed. The
purpose of the present study was to examine one particular taming technique, traumatic
compression.

*Citati
ons:

Enrichment of early experience in Musca domestica
by Arthur Smedley. Journal of Experimental
Psychology, Vol 23, 1965, pages 117
-
128.


Adam Smith and George K. Jones, 1962, vol 37,
pages 216
-
219 (Animalistic Behavior)
Counterconditioning of the escap
e response in the
house fly.

Citation:

Chapter by Arthur Smedley in book
edited by Alan Simpson called
Psychophysiology. Chapter is called
Physiology and behavior change. pages
25
-
45, 1965, New York, McGraw House.





3


Previous attempts to
tame the house fly using
conditioning techniques [Cite
Sturge here], threats of
punishment [Cite Smith &
Jones here], or m
anipulation of
early experience [Cite Smedley
here] met with a consistent
lack of success. Researchers
[Cite Sweeney here]
hypothesized that the
ineffectiveness of conditioning
techniques was due to the
flighty behavior of the subjects.

The typical hyper
active
behavior of flies made it difficult to capture and maintain their attention, a condition that
is necessary before conditioning can occur. Smith and Jones found that threats of
punishment were ineffective because the quickness of the subjects enable
d them to
engage in avoidance behavior and thus the punishment was rarely administered.
Manipulation of early experience has proven difficult due to the mobility of the young
and the inability of researchers to identify subjects accurately [Cite Smedley a
rticle].

Citations:

Research by Sturge done in 1939, described in a
book by Albert Sweeney in 1960 called Backwaters of
behavioral
research. Maudley and Carter Publishers
in London.


Adam Smith and George K. Jones, 1962, vol 37,
pages 216
-
219 (Animalistic Behavior)
Counterconditioning of the escape response in the
house fly.


Chapter by Arthur Smedley in book edited by Alan
Simpson
called Psychophysiology. Chapter is called
Physiology and behavior change. pages 25
-
45, 1965,
New York, McGraw House.


Albert Sweeney, Backwaters of behavior research,
1960 book from London, Maudley and Carter
Publishers.


Adam Smith and George K. Jones,
1962, vol 37,
pages 216
-
219 (Animalistic Behavior)
Counterconditioning of the escape response in the
house fly.





4


In all of these cases, the
physiological nature of the fly
appears to re
nder the taming
techniques ineffective.
However, a technique that
alters the physiological
structure may prove to be
effective in taming the fly.
Traumatic compression is one
such technique. Smedley [cite Smedley chapter] provided evidence that traumati
c
compression alters the physiological structure of the fly in such a way that hyperactivity
and mobility are greatly reduced. In a quite different vein, Spock [insert date] found that
mild traumatic compression was useful in taming immature primates. Ta
ken together,
this research suggests that traumatic compression may be an effective technique for
taming the house fly.


The present study examined the effectiveness of traumatic compression as a
taming procedure. The term "taming" was defined behaviora
lly as occurring when the
subject makes no attempt to either flee or attack upon being touched by the
experimenter's finger. Subjects were assigned to either the experimental group in
which traumatic compression was applied or to the control condition in
which sham
compression was applied. Because traumatic compression alters the physiological
make
-
up of the subjects and has a direct impact on their activity level, it was
hypothesized that the traumatic compression condition would produce greater taming
t
han the sham compression condition.

Citations:

Enrichment of early experience in Musca domestica
by Arthur Smedley. Journal of Experimental
Psychology, Vol 23, 1965, 117
-
128.


Chapter by Arthur Smedley in book edited by Alan
Simpson called Psychophysiology. Chapter is called
Phy
siology and behavior change. pages 25
-
45, 1965,
New York, McGraw House.


Spock, A., 1963. Child care and survival. In the
Quarterly Journal of Mental Health, Vol. 23, pages
8
-
12.





5

Method Section

Subjects


The subjects were 24 randomly selected flies from a population maintained in the
animal room of the J.M.U. psychology laboratory. Twelve subjects were randomly
assigned to each group. Two su
bjects in the experimental group were not measured
since they could not be located after the experimental manipulation.

Apparatus


Compression was applied with a Swanson Model 28
-
B swatter1, having a 20 gm.,
100 x 150 cm. perforated polyethylene head on
a flexible 14
-
gauge twisted wire shaft.
All work was carried out on a stainless
-
steel counter top.

Procedure


The subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the traumatic
compression group or the sham compression group. Subjects were handle
d one at a
time. All subjects were tested within a one
-
hour period on each of the successive days.

Each subject was confined within a bell jar and placed on the counter over a drop of
honey. When the subject alighted on or near the honey, the jar was ca
refully removed.

Flies in the experimental group were traumatically compressed with a sharp blow. The
swatter at impact had a measured velocity of 5.13 m./sec. Flies in the control group
were given sham compression by having the blow land just to the si
de of the subject.


An assistant, unaware of the experimental condition and the hypothesis,
measured the tameness of each subject. Tameness in terms of the response to being
touched with a finger was measured on a 10
-
point scale with 10 being totally tam
ed.
Tameness was tested immediately after compression and 24 hours later.





6

Results




Raw data table below is to be used to compute results
--
don’t include raw data in the
manu獣物p琮

Subject Number

Immediate Test

24
-
hour Test

Traumatic Compression
Group



1



2



3

9

10

4

10

10

5

9

9

6

9

10

7

8

9

8

9

9

9

10

10

10

10

10

11

9

9

12

10

10




Sham Control Group



13

1

2

14

2

3

15

1

1

16

2

2

17

1

1

18

1

2

19

1

1

20

2

2

21

1

1

22

2

2

23

2

2

24

2

3





7

The mean tameness score for
all participants at the
immediate test was [ insert
mean and, within parentheses,
the standard deviation] while
after 24 hours t
he mean
tameness score was [insert
mean and, within parentheses,
the standard deviation]. See
Table 1 for the descriptive statistics for the tameness scores of each condition.


The immediate scores and
the 24
-
hour scores are illustrated
in Figure 1. The independent t
-
test performed on the tame
ness
scores indicated that the traumatic
compression group was
significantly more tame than the
sham compression group on the
immediate test,
t
(20) = 30.575,
p
<.001, one
-
tailed, and on the
24
-
hour test,
t
(20) = 28.562,
p
<.001, one
-
tailed. The 24
-
hour scor
es were negligibly different from the immediate
scores for each group. All of the sham compression subjects, but none of the traumatic
compression subjects, ate and behaved normally after compression.

Discussion



The results supported the hypothesis th
at traumatic compression does produce
greater taming than sham compression. The 24
-
hour scores indicated that the
Use APA format and insert Table 1 as

follows:

Title: Descriptive Statistics for the Immediate and
24
-
hour Tameness of the Traumatic and Sham
Compression Groups

Compression

Immediate

24
-
hour

Condition

Score

Score

Traumatic


M

[Mean]

[Mean]


SD

[SD]

[SD]

Sham Control


M

[Mean}

[Mean]


SD

[SD] [SD]

Using Excel or SPSS set up Figure 1 as follows:


Y
-
axis, labeled Tameness, sca
led from 1 to 10.

X
-
axis labeled overall Time of Testing, two positions
marked Immediate and 24
-
hour

Plot two lines, one for the traumatic condition, the
other for the sham condition. Use a key or legend to
identify the two conditions.


Use the following
figure caption:

Mean tameness scores taken immediately after
treatment and 24
-
hours later for traumatic and sham
compression conditions.





8

tameness is relatively long lasting. It thus appears that traumatic compression is a
suitable means of inducing tameness in the house fly. T
he effectiveness of this
procedure is presumably due to the actual contact, since the sham group experienced
the same handling and feeding as well as the same acoustic stimulation. The impaired
behavior of the experimental subjects suggests that physiolog
ical processes influenced
by the compression (Smedley, 1965b) are probably important in the observed
tameness.


The results of the present study are consistent with previous research on
traumatic compression. Trau
matic compression did alter the physiological structure of
the subjects in a manner
similar to that observed by
Smedley [insert date]. Most
notably, the body shape of
subjects became more
flattened and the wings
became less rigid. In addition,
the compre
ssion reduced the mobility of the subjects. Together, these changes
resulted in greater tameness. The present study also extends Spock's [insert date]
findings that traumatic compression (though of a relatively reduced intensity) was useful
in taming imm
ature primates and demonstrates that it is also effective with at least one
other species.


In the present study only one velocity level was used to bring about compression.
Future research could compare the effectiveness of several velocity levels used
to
induce traumatic compression and the relationship of size to velocity level. It seems
reasonable that the velocity level needed for taming may be related to the overall size
of the fly.


Citations:

Chapter by Arthur Smedley in book edited by Alan
Simpson called Psychophysiology. Chapter is called
Physiology and behavior change. p
ages 25
-
45, 1965,
New York, McGraw House.


Spock, A., 1963. Child care and survival. In the
Quarterly Journal of Mental Health, Vol. 23, pages
8
-
12.





9





Remember to insert reference page in APA format here.


Use th
is author note: Requests for reprints should be addressed to Your Name,
Graduate School of Education, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22807.


Insert the following footnote:
1
Swanson Model 28
-
B swatters can be purchased from
R. R. Hardware Co., Box
229, Harrisonburg, VA, 22801.



By studying these variables, the optimal level of compression may be found.