Landscapes in Indiana Dunes

plantationscarfAI and Robotics

Nov 25, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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L
andscapes in Indiana Dunes

Landscape features are dynamic and
can be dated:


100s


1000s of years for dunes


10s


100s of years for blowouts

Big blowout ~ 150
years old

Chloroplast coverage and polymorphisms

Position (kb)

Chloroplas
t

Genome

Coverage

Chloroplast
phylogeny


Neighbor joining tree
based on 140kb


Named
haplogroups

have >50% bootstrap


Unfilled lines indicate
low
-
coverage sample

Chloroplast
phylogeny

Chloroplast
phylogeny

Nuclear genome: Multidimensional scaling

~11000 nuclear loci,
mean of 100
random allele
samples

Nuclear loci: Structure analysis

Bayesian clustering algorithm

~11000 nuclear loci, random allele sample, Burn
-
in 10K, Run 10K

E
cotypic

diversity in switchgrass


Switchgrass and other wide
-
ranging grassland species have
many ecotypes


Great
variability in size, shape,
color,
and habitat
preference


Example: Upland/lowland divergence

Upland (Michigan)

Lowland (Oklahoma)

Adapted to:

S
horter growing season,

Drier climates

Adapted to:

Long growing season,

Wet climates

Reconstructed grassland experiments at
Fermilab

(2008
-
2010)


Two experiments on
diversity vs. ecosystem
service
relationships:

1.
Field trial:


G
enetic diversity


Species diversity


Functional diversity


+/
-

nitrogen input

2.
Plot experiment:


Genetic diversity (++)


Species diversity


Field trial: Experimental
design

Treatment

Rationale

KA

Kanlow cultivar (OK)

Lowland SG cultivar

CR

Cave
-
in
-
Rock cultivar
(IL/KY)

Upland SG cultivar

SL

Southlow ecopool
(MI)

Local SG
ecopool

SG

3 SG mixed

High diversity SG

BB

3 SG mix

+ 3 Big Bluestem

Warm season mix

CW

3 SG mix

+ Canada Wildrye

Warm season + cool
season

PR

3 SG mix

+ 3 Big Bluestem

+ Canada Wildrye

+ Indiangrass

+ 3 legumes

+ 5 other forbs

Prairie mix

Diversity

+

-

7 Plant treatments X

N fertilization
(+/
-
)

42 x 720m
2
plots on a 10 acre site:

Biomass yield (Fall 2010
-
3
rd

year)

N
-
Fertilized

Control

N fertilization:

60 lbs/acres of urea

Ecotype diversity experiment

1
-
SG



6
-
SG


6
-
BB


3
-
BB
+

3
-
SG


4
-
SG


4
-
BB


2
-
BB
+

2
-
SG


2
-
SG


2
-
BB


1
-
BB+
1

-
SG

1
-
BB

Genetic diversity

Mix

_

+

Species

Cultivar

Origin

Switchgrass

Kanlow


Oklahoma (Lowland)

Cave
-
In
-
Rock

Illinois/Kentucky

Southlow

S Michigan (Ecopool)

Blackwell


N Oklahoma

Forestburg


Central South Dakota

Sunburst


SE South Dakota

Dacotah

North Dakota

Big Bluestem

Southlow


S Michigan (Ecopool)

Rountree


Iowa

Epic


Missouri

Pawnee

Southeast Nebraska

Bonanza


Selection from Pawnee

Champ


Sand Bluestem hybrid (NE/IA)

Suther


North Carolina

1) 14 grass varieties

2) 4 levels of diversity

Ecotype diversity effects

Genetic diversity in switchgrass mixtures