Chapter 5 - OnLiNeiTcLaSs

plainspecialSoftware and s/w Development

Dec 14, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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IT ESSENTIALS V. 4.1

Module 5

Fundamental Operating Systems


What controls almost all functions on a
computer?

The operating system

What are the roles of an operating system?

Control hardware access

Manage files and folders

Provide user interface

Manage a
pplications

What is a device driver?

A small program written by the hardware manufacturer and supplied
with the hardware component

What is PnP?

Plug and Play

What does PnP do?

Operating system automatically detects the device and installs the
driver for

that component

What is contained in the registry?

Information about application, users, hardware, network settings, and
file types

What is a file?

A block of related data that is given a single name and treated as a
single unit

What are the two types o
f user interfaces?

CLI


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1.

32
-
bit can address only 4
GB of RAM

64
-
bit can address more than 128 GB of RAM

2.

Memory management is different. 64
-
bit programs have
enhanced performance

3.

64
-
bit has additional security features

What does mandatory driver signing do?

Unsigned drivers cannot be used

What are the two

common architectures
used by CPUs to process data?

X86 (32
-
bit)

X64 (64
-
bit)

What is a register?

Storage areas used by the CPU when performing calculations

What determines the type of operating
system selected?

The customer’s requirements for the comput
er

What are the characteristics of a desktop
operating system?

1.

Supports a single user

2.

Runs single
-
user applications

3.

Shares files and folders on a small network with limited
security

What are the three groups of the most
commonly used desktop operating sy
stems?

1.

Microsoft Windows

2.

Apple Mac OS

3.

Unix/Linux

Which operating system is the oldest?

Unix

Who developed Linux?

Linus Torvalds

What is meant by open source?

The source code can be distributed and changed by anyone as a free
download or from other devel
opers

What are the characteristics of a network
operating system?

1.

Supports multiple users

2.

Runs multi
-
user applications

3.

Is robust and redundant

4.

Provides increased security

What is a hardware compatibility list (HCL)?

A detailed inventory of hardware that
has been tested and is known to
work with the operating system

Where might you find a HCL?

Manufacturer’s website

What is the installation and initial booting of
the operating system called?

Operating system setup

What is the most common installation
me
thod for an operating system?

CDs and DVDs

What happens when you partition a hard
drive?

It is logically divided into one or more areas

Where is the primary partition?

The first partition

What is the active partition?

The partition used by the operating

system to boot the computer

What is a logical drive?

A section of an extended partition that can be used to separate
information for administrative purposes

Why do you format a drive?

To prepare a file system in a partition to store filed

What is the f
irst phase of the installation
process?

Partitioning and formatting the hard drive

What does the file system provide?

The directory structure that organizes the user’s operating system,
application, configuration, and data files

What are the two file sys
tems used by
Windows XP?

FAT


File Allocation Table

NTFS


New Technology File System

What is a clean installation?

There is no existing Windows installation

If no Windows installations are found, which
option is disabled?

Upgrade

What is the default a
dministrator account
named?

Administrator

How does the user account differ from the
computer administrator?

User account has fewer permissions

Why should you register your copy of
Windows XP?

A legal copy enables you to download patches and service packs

How do you access Windows Update in
Windows Vista?

Start > All Programs>Windows Update

What can you use to locate problems and to
install the correct or updated drivers?

Device manager

What does a yellow exclamation mark
represent?

A problem with the d
evice

What does a red X represent?

Device has been disabled

How do you enable a device?

Right click the disabled device and select enable

What is disk cloning?

Creates an image of a hard drive of a computer

Where are the Windows XP installation files
f
ound?

I386 folder on the installation disk

When would you use a recovery disk?

When there has been a system failure and other recovery options
have failed

What is a factory recovery partition?

A partition on the disk that contains an image of the bootabl
e
partition that is created when the computer was built.

How do you find out how to access the
factory recovery partition and restore the
original configuration of the computer?

Contact the manufacturer

What is Windows registry?

Files followed by the nam
e of the portion of the operating system
under their control

How do you edit the registry?

regedit

What command is used to execute command
line programs and utilities?

Cmd

What key do you press during the boot
process to open the Windows Advanced
Startu
p Options menu?

F8

What drivers are loaded in safe mode?

Drivers for basic components such as keyboard and display

What is loaded if you boot to last known
good configuration?

The configuration settings of Windows that were used the last time
that Window
s started successfully

How is the root level of the Windows
partition labeled?

C:
\

What are the naming conventions for
Windows files?

1.

Maximum of 255 characters

2.

Slash or backslash not allowed

3.

Extension of 3 or 4 letters to identify file types

4.

Not case sen
sitive

What file extension indicates a graphics file?

Jpg

What file extension indicates compression
format?

zip

What are the most common file attributes?

R, A, S, H

What command will show filenames,
extensions, and attributes?

Attrib

How do you displa
y a DOS window?

Start > Run > Type CMD Press Enter

What are the differences between FAT 32
and NTFS?

Security, NTFS supports larger files

How do you convert partitions from FAT 32
to NTFS?

Use convert.exe utility

What is a desktop?

A graphical represen
tation of a workspace

What allows you to manipulate files?

Icons, toolbars, and menus

What is the sidebar in Windows Vista?

A graphical pane on the desktop that keeps small programs called
gadgets organized

What are gadgets?

Small applications

How do y
ou access the start menu?

Click the start button

What is included in the start menu?

All applications installed in the computer, a list of recently opened
documents, and a list of other elements.

How do you access the various drives
installed in the comp
uter?

Double
-
click the My Computer icon

What is the part in order to change your
wallpaper?

Start > Control Panel > Display > Settings Tab > Advanced

What are the three main areas of
administration addressed by the computer
management consoler?

1.

System to
ols

2.

Storage

3.

Services and applications

What is necessary to access the computer
management console?

Administrative privileges

What does the task manager do?

Allows you to view all applications that are currently running and to
close any applications that
have stopped responding

How do you access task manager?

CTRL


ALT


DEL

Can anyone access the services console?

No, you have to have administrative privileges

What does the system monitor display?

Real
-
time information the processors, disks, memory and

network
usage for your computer

What logs a history of events regarding
applications, security, and the system?

Event Viewer

What is remote desktop?

Allows one computer to remotely take control of another computer

Why should you always use the Add or
R
emove program utility when installing or
removing applications?

The utility tracks installation files so that the application can be
uninstalled completely

What should you do before upgrading an
operating system?

Check minimum requirements

Check HCL

Back
up all data

What is included in preventive maintenance
for an operating system?

Organizing the system

Defragmenting the hard drive

Keeping applications current

Removing unused applications

Checking system for errors

What is the goal of an operating preve
ntive
maintenance plan?

To avoid problems in the future

What are the benefits of preventive
maintenance?

1.

Decreased downtime

2.

Improved performance

3.

Improved reliability

4.

Decreased repair costs

What do firmware updates do?

Increase the speed of certain types
of hardware

Enable new features

Increase the stability of a product

What are service packs?

Downloads that contain multiple updates

How do you access the Windows Task
Scheduler?

Start > All Programs > Accessories > System Tools > Scheduled Tasks

What is

a restore point?

An image of the computer settings

When should a restore point be created?

1.

Before updating or replacing the operating system

2.

When an application is installed

3.

When a driver is installed

What is the probable cause if your
computers locks a
nd/or displays a blue
screen?

Computer is overheating

Operating system files may be corrupt

Incorrect driver installed

Power supply, RAM, hard drive, or motherboard may be defective