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Today’s Agenda
More on potentiometers
Introduction to AC signals
1
EGR 101
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What Potentiometers Look Like:
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Trimmer potentiometers.
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Potentiometer construction.
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The effect of turning the control shaft on the component
resistances
.
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Potentiometer in Multisim
Found in Basic category
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•
Pressing the ‘a’ key increases percentage
•
Pressing ‘Shift a’ decreases percentage
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Note, in Multisim, if you place the potentiometer with the arrow
angled down, the resistance will change in the opposite direction
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Information on Lamps in Multisim
The lamp you’ll need for the prelab can be found under
Indicators/Virtual_Lamp
11
12
12
Chapter 9 Alternating Current
DC & AC Circuits
13
13
DC: Direct Current
A DC current is a current that
does not change direction in time.
EGR 101
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14
Example of DC circuits:
Portable flashlight circuit.
Internal circuit inside a DMM to
measure resistance.
Circuit to control a dimmer light
using a potentiometer, as you will on
Thursday.
15
15
AC: Alternating Current
An AC current is a current that
changes direction in time.
EGR 101
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16
Imagine you take a battery with one polarity between
times t
0
and t
1
(top schematic).
Flip polarity between t
1
& t
2
(bottom schematic).
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17
Flipping batteries is unrealistic. However, you
can built an AC circuit using two batteries and a
SPDT switch, as shown below.
When the switch is flipped to the right you get
+15 V.
When the switch is flipped to the left you get

15
V.
EGR 101
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18
In

Class Activity 1
Working in pairs, simulate the circuit below in Multisim.
The single pole, double throw (SPDT) switch can be
found in the Basic, switch category.
Flip the SPDT switch using the space key and watch
how the meter reading
alternates
between
+15 V and

15 V.
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19
Oscilloscope
–
piece of equipment that provides
a visual representation of a voltage waveform
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20
In

Class Activity 2
Repeat simulation using an oscilloscope (4
th
instrument down on right column).
Watch on the scope how fast the voltage
alternates:
click the space bar slowly. (see slide 21)
click the space bar fast. (see slide 22)
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21
Slow Clicks (Low Frequency AC)
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22
Fast Clicks (High Frequency AC)
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23
AC using 555 timer
Although you can easily create the previous AC circuit using
two batteries and SPDT, you can automate the circuit using
a 555 timer, as you are going to do in your semester
projects, as shown in the next slide.
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24
Switching between two batteries automated
using 555 timer
555 timer
SPDT
replaced
with Relay
two
batteries
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25
How do we characterize the differences in
the waveforms we generated?
Insert Figure 9.39
For periodic rectangular waves:
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26
Rectangular Waves

Terminology and Time Measurements
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27
Rectangular Waves

Duty Cycle
–
ratio of pulse width to cycle time
where
PW
= the pulse width of the circuit input
T
= the cycle time of the circuit input
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In

Class Activity 3
a)
For the following waveforms, specify the pulse width, space
width and period:
2 ms
5 ms
10 ms
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29
One of the most important AC signals is the periodic
sinusoid, as shown below.
Power generation power plants.
Design of radios and radio stations.
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30
Difference between AC & DC
Demo.
Loss of DC power over long distance.
AC power transport is more efficient
.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/edison/sfeature/acdc.html
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31
Generating a Sine Wave
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32
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33
Insert Figure 9.3
Alternations and Cycles
Alternations
–
the
positive and negative
transitions
Cycle
–
the complete
transition through one
positive alternation and
one negative alternation
Half

Cycle
–
one
alternation
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34
Cycle Time (Period)
–
The time required to complete one cycle of a signal
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35
In

Class Activity 4
Calculate
T
in
ms
Calculate
T
in
ms
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36
Frequency
the rate at which the cycles repeat themselves
Unit of Measure
–
Hertz (
Hz
) = cycles/second
T = 200 ms = 0.2s
f = 1/0.2 = 5 cps
= 5 Hz
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37
Relation between Cycle Time (Period) and
Frequency
where
T
= the cycle time (period) of the waveform in seconds
Another way to describe periodicity of the wave is through the
angular frequency defined as
where
=
angular velocity, in radians per second
2
=
the number of radians in one cycle
f
= the number of cycles per second (frequency)
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38
Note that is not the
same thing as
What is a radian?
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39
1 Radian
–
the angle formed within a circle by two radii
separated by an arc of length equal to the radii
when
r
a
=
r
1
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where
V
pk
is the
magnitude
of the voltage.
In terms of
f,
Instantaneous Value
–
the value of a sinusoidal voltage or current at a
specified point in time can be expressed as:
EGR 101
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41
In

Class Activity 5
An AC voltage in volts is given by
what is the unit of the number 10?
what is the unit of the number 377?
what is the angular frequency in
rad
/
s
?
what is the frequency in
Hz
or
cps
?
what is the period in
ms
?
EGR 101
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42
In

Class Activity 5
A device emits a sinusoidal signal that has a magnitude of
1 volt and a frequency of 690
kHz
.
what is the angular frequency in
rad
/
s
?
what is the period in
ms
?
Express this signal as
(i.e. fill in the values
for
A
and
)
Express this signal as
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