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NA
-
ASC
-
500
-
12 Issue 20


June 2012


The Meisner Minute



Guest editorial by Michel McCoy, ASC Program Director,

Lawrence Livermore
National
Laboratory


Prescience,
Persistence and Mission


the Enduring Impact of NNSA Leadership on HPC


As NNSA works with the Office of Science to build a national consensus in supporting
substantial investments to develop functional, low
-
power
-
consuming exascale systems, and as
ASC is
broadly

questioned about the validity of our NNSA
-
related requirements and strategies, it
is good to take stock on what we have achieved this past decade in HPC technology development.
In short, what have we nurtured and what has flourished?


ASC is often

asked why we want to engage in and support the development of technology. Isn’t
that expensive? Why do we want to lead? Why don’t we let other government agencies, or even
other nations, like Japan or China do the development? Why don’t we simply buy exis
ting
technology, execute our missions, and be done with it? A former high
-
ranking Congressman
asked us just this question in the context of China.


The answer is that NNSA laboratories have led because it is the best and perhaps the only way to
influence
technology providers to build machines that actually meet our national security
requirements. Indeed,

ASC’s ability to deliver to the Stockpile Stewardship Program was
historically
enabled
by its leadership position in HPC.
It is also remarkable that these

innovations had broad applicability and enduring impact worldwide, providing clear advantages
for American influence and interests.


Instead of embarking here on a tedious retrospective of all past ASCI and ASC investment
strategies, successes, and failur
es, consider the key investment categories that have enjoyed the
greatest impact:
Platform

procurements, frequently

leveraging
PathForward

investments, and
ASC
-
supported but lab
-
initiated investments that developed into mainline ASC tools. The impact
of these investments has been phenomenal. Evidence from just a few examples makes the case.


Bob Meisner


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Red Storm
was seminal in vitalizing Cray in 2005 d
uring an extremely difficult period for the
company. The machine’s inexpensive design and novel architecture featured a high
-
performance interconnect highly suitable for NNSA applications that also provided the
foundation for future Cray systems. Today, Cr
ay has 16 systems out of 50 on the Top 500 list,
an enviable record. Red Storm and its derivative systems have not only contributed to
stockpile workloads but have also helped to identify the cause of the Shuttle Columbia
accident and to safely bring down
the Burnt Frost satellite.




Blue Gene/L, /P and /Q systems

were born from early IBM
PathForward

investments. With a
revolutionary approach to low
-
power
-
consuming, high
-
peak
-
but
-
reliable computers featuring
system
-
on
-
a
-
chip technology, BG/L, at 1.6 MW for
a 360 TF peak, represented a visionary
advance. Further, such was its stability that it was used to support resolution of the plutonium
aging debate in the first months of its lifetime. The machine was the ancestor of BG/P and
BG/Q. Over 600 Blue Gene rack
s have been sold worldwide, including the Sequoia system
going into service this year to support the B61 and W78 LEPs.




Roadrunner
represented the first large
-
scale, heterogeneous HPC system deployed. Initially
skeptical, industry soon followed with accel
erator
-
based systems. The design further
advanced the state of energy efficiencies begun with Blue Gene and introduced a level of
programming complexity to gain the utility power advantage. The industry is now looking at
energy
-
optimized system designs in
general and is employing many of the approaches
introduced in Roadrunner.




The TLCC1 and TLCC2
commodity systems were the result of 10 years of investment by
ASC in Open Source software, interconnects, and architectural design. ASC investments in
open exte
nsible file systems (Lustre), interconnects (InfiniBand and OpenFabrics), and
schedulers (SLURM) among others catalyzed the evolution of production HPC commodity
clusters. In 2002, an institutionally funded cluster at a NNSA laboratory leveraging ASC
inves
tments was the first to break into the Top 10. Today, scalable Unit technology and the
Tri
-
Laboratory Operating System, TOSS, are gaining traction with the community. There are
literally hundreds of
InfiniBand clusters across U.S. academia, industry and go
vernment
agencies that utilize NNSA OpenFabrics investments.
Lustre is the most widely used file
system on the Top 500 fastest computers in the world, serving over 50 percent of the Top 500,
including eight out of the top ten fastest computers in the world

today.


Now
that

is impact.


It is true that NNSA systems are often not at the top of the lists; however, this is to miss the point,
which is:


-

The number of systems on the Top 500 whose technologies have been the beneficiaries of
ASC investments.

-

The
increasingly deep adoption of these technologies in entry
-
level HPC systems used by
businesses and academic labs now affording their own systems and thus accelerating
innovation and inspiring the next generation of HPC users.

-

The vendors that might not eve
n exist today.

-

The architectures that are influencing the thinking in the proposed Exascale Initiative,
born from ASC visions up to a decade ago.


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It is the prescience of ASC investments and the flexibility that created the breathing room to
imagine better
solutions that are at the heart of the issue. NNSA laboratories have shaped the
HPC ecosystem, through having the perception and flexibility to make the right investments at
the right time to initiate enduring change for national security and for the count
ry. Today, the
seasoned HPC

brain trust embodied at the national labs is poised to make the leap to exascale.


In short, it was mission
-
driven focus that was the pre
-
requisite for all that followed.


______________________________________________________


Red Storm Stands Down

By Neal Singer,
Sandia Lab

News

Contributor (reprinted with permission)


A quietly exuberant celebration took
place in Sandia’s Computer Science
Research Institute on May 15 to mark
finis to Red Storm, the Sandia
-
designed and
Cray Inc.
-
built
supercomputer that became one of the
most influential machines of its era,
with 124 descendants at 70 sites
around the world.


Cray Inc. President and Chief
Executive Officer Peter Ungaro did not
quibble in his praise. “Everything we
have d
one at Cray was spawned by this
project.” He later told the assembled
group, “Without Red Storm I wouldn’t be here in front of you today. Virtually everything we do
at Cray
-

each of our three business units
-

comes from Red Storm. It spawned a company aro
und
it
-

a historic company struggling as to where we would go next. Literally, this program saved
Cray.”


The supercomputer design and its descendants have logged more than a billion dollars in sales
for the company, he said.


Among the machine’s advances

were that it used off
-
the
-
shelf parts, which made it cheaper to
build, repair, and upgrade. It was air
-
cooled instead of water
-
cooled, so that replacement parts
and upgrades could be changed out while the machine was running. The only custom component
was

the Interconnect chip that made it possible to pass information more directly from processor
to processor while applications were running. High memory bandwidth kept the processors from
being starved for data. And its architecture was intended (and proved
) to be upgradeable, going
from a theoretical peak in 2005 of 41.47 teraflops to 124.42 teraflops in 2006 to 284.16 teraflops
in 2008, because (among other reasons) the machine was able to accommodate single, dual, and
quad
-
core processors that reached 12,
920 in number.




4

Among the machine’s technical achievements was the operation known as Burnt Frost, which in
2008 programmed a rocket to shoot down an errant satellite traveling at 17,000 miles per hour,
153 miles above the earth.

For months, Red Storm ran
calculations to fully examine a large number of shoot
-
down
scenarios, until Sandians were ready to brief then
-
President George W. Bush on his options.


The result: After the successful
take
-
down

with no collateral damage, a military commander
exulted, “We
can hit a spot on a bullet with a bullet.”


Red Storm’s role, classified for several years, was made known when DoD eventually released
the information. A Sandia video, using DoD images that showed the launch of the intercept
missile and the impact, opened

with the sentence: “This IS rocket science!”


Other operations of Red Storm, still classified, were described as having “a dramatic effect on
the history of the country.” The machine’s boilerplate description says it was used to solve
“pressing national s
ecurity problems in areas such as cyber defense, vulnerability assessments,
informatics (network discovery), space systems threats, and image processing.” One
nonclassified use for the machine and its more powerful descendant Jaguar at Oak Ridge, was to
pr
oduce high
-
fidelity climate models that revealed, for the first time in simulations, vortices
(swirls of water) in the Indian Ocean. That work was led by Sandia technical staff member Mark
Taylor.


“It’s over, but its influence is not,” said Bill Camp, the

retired Sandia director who worked
tirelessly to obtain support for the design first proposed by Sandia technical wizard Jim Tomkins
(retired)
.

______________________________________________________


Simulation
s Identify Requirements for
High Intensity
Laser Lab


A three
-
day run on the ASC Cielo supercomputer (see Fig
ure

1) identified requirements for a
future
Los Alamos (LANL)
signature facility and enabled discovery science in laser
-
ion
acceleration
,

overturning decades of conventional wisdom. VPIC cod
e simulations
helped
identify the
facility functional requirements for the High Intensity Laser Laboratory (HILL)
signature facility proposed at LANL.

Identified

in the Tri
-
Lab Facilities Roadmap, the HILL
facility is synergistic with the Matter
-
Radiation

Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) signature
facility being proposed at LANL.


Originally envisioned as part of the full MaRIE project, HILL was submitted as a separate
standalone facility. The program development for HILL would not have been possibl
e with
out
capability computing.



5



The p
roject led to discovery science in which
laser
-
generated ion beams were found to possess
“lobes” whose angle depends on laser focus and intensity.
As Figure 2 illustrates,
VPIC code
simulations of laser
-
ion acceleration at identical laser focus but different intensity show that
higher intensity l
eads to wider lobes, as predict
ed by analytic

theory.



Figure

2. Transverse profiles of the most energetic ions from VPIC modeling of laser
-
ion acceleration. The laser
propagates inward from the center of each figure. Higher intensity shows wider beam divergence, more
pronounced lobes.


These calculations enabled:
(
1) a better definition of HILL “first experiments” using laser
-
generated particle beams, and
(
2) a proposal for an LDRD
-
DR project to use isochoric heating


electron density n
e


C
+6
kinetic energy



electron density n
e


C
+6
kinetic energy

I=10
21

W/cm
2

I=5x10
21

W/cm
2

Fig
ure

1. Cielo is a 1.37 petaflops
capability
-
class supercomputer installed
at LANL, funded by the US DOE NNSA
for the ASC

Program, built by Cray,
Inc.



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with laser
-
gene
rated ion beams at the Trident Laser F
acility to understand mix morphology in
dense p
lasma. This work was published in
a high
-
profile journal article by Yin et al
,

Three
-
Dimensional Dynamics of Breakout Afterburner Ion Acceleration using High
-
Contrast Short
-
Pulse Laser and Nanoscale Targets
.”

Phys. Rev. Lett
. 107, 045003 (2011).
http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v107/i4/e045003



_____________________________________________________


Luna Supercomputer Providing Compute Cycles for Directed Stockpile Work


Luna, the newest
Tri
-
Lab Capacity Cluster (TLCC2) supercomputer deployed at Los Alamos
National Laboratory

(LANL)
, is providing much needed compute cycles for the Directed
Stockpile Work (DSW) Program, including the B61 Life Extension Program. Local integration
and securit
y testing, a
s well as approvals from the Department of Energy’s

Los Alamos Site
Office were completed in April 2012, two weeks earlier than planned.



Luna augments the existing ASC
TLCC1 c
apacity
platforms at LANL: Typhoon (106
teraFLOPS
) and
Hurricane (51
teraFLOPS
) and allowed Redtail (71
teraFLOPS
) to be retired. Luna is based on Appro's
Xtreme
-
X


Supercomputers which uses the Intel
®

Xeon E5 processor. It has a total of 24,640 processors
for a combined peak capability of 539.1
teraFLOPS
.


Users and developers are
seeing speedups of factors
of 2 to
4 on typical calculations

compared with
previous production machines such as Hurricane
and
Typhoon. Because of excellent scaling on Luna, users
can use more processors for a calculation compared
with previous production machines and achieve even
higher speedups.


“Luna is such a well
-
balanced machine that it is
changing the way we work,” say
s LANL user
Jas.
Mercer
-
Smith. He continues:

“Problems that used to
take 3 weeks can now be completed in a few days.”


The code developer perspective is also positive. Lagrangian Applications Project developer Rob
Ward notes, “
The performance improvements

in Luna have allowed us to turn around our testing
much faster.”


The speedup is thought to be due to the faster Luna interconnect and on
-
board hardware
improvements. Such speedups mean that users can get faster turnaround on their calculations
and/or run

with higher fidelity thus improving efficiency and/or results. This will be particularly
advantageous for weapons safety calculations at LANL.

____________________________________

__________________




Luna in production use by the DSW Program
since April 2012.


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L
ivermore

Delivers a Stellar Zin

Like a fine wine, it took time to mature, but Zin

one
of ASC’s “wine” systems that were

part of
the Tri
-
Lab Linux Capacity Cluster 2 (TLCC2) procurement

is generally available in the secure
computing environment (SCF). At 774
teraFLOPS
, Zin is rank
ed no.
27

on the
June 2012

TOP500 list

of world’s fastest supercomputers.


Zin, which was part of the Tri
-
Lab Capacity C
luster 2 (TLCC2) pro
c
urement, is generally available in the secure
computing environme
nt. Photo
:

courtesy of Jackie McBride,

LLNL.

Zin is the first ASC system to use Intel Sandy Bridge CPUs. This new hardware architecture also
required the development and installation of a new version of the operating system software
stack

TOSS 2.0. Mark Gr
ondona, summarizing the development work, said, “We had to work
extensively with Red Hat, Intel, and Appro to ensure full Sandy Bridge support was included in
RHEL 6.2, including testing and development of EDAC (ECC memory error detection), PAPI
(performan
ce counters), and other low
-
level hardware support. We also had to update QLogic
support for the new Sandy Bridge architecture, from the device driver level up to and including
MPI support for performance
-
scaled messaging.”

Early science runs on Zin were
invaluable for simulating ATP reactions in the kinesin Eg5
enzyme. The enabling of hyper
-
threading and support for Advanced Vector Extensions should
allow for improved parallelization and increased CPU performance and efficiency.

The Zin system consists of

18 TLCC2 scalable units (SU). Each SU has 154 compute nodes for a
total of 2772 compute nodes. There are 18 login nodes for interactive use. The system has a total
of 44,352 compute cores, with 88.7 TB of memory providing 922
teraFLOPS

peak performance.
T
he 72 Lustre routers provide 360 GB/s of peak performance to the Lustre file systems, and 36
NFS gateway nodes provide a peak 36 Gb/s of bandwidth to site
-
wide NFS servers.


8

Additionally, the TLCC2 system, Cab, entered General Availability on May 30. Cab is

a large
capacity resource shared by Livermore and ASC for small to moderate parallel jobs. It consists
of 8 SU, and its 1,296 nodes are identical to those in Zin. Each node has 16 CPUs and 32 GB
memory connected via Q
-
Logic quad data rate InfiniBand. Cab’
s theoretical system peak
performance is 431.3
teraFLOPS
.

______________________________________________________


Test Beds Available for Explorations of Next Generation Architectures


Sandia has created architecture test beds to support path
-
finding expl
orations of alternative
programming models, architecture
-
aware algorithms, low
-
energy runtime and system software,
and advanced memory subsystem development. The project is responsible for identifying and
acquiring key technology predicted to be applicable

to Exascale hardware.


The new advanced architecture systems are being used to develop Mantevo proxy applications,
enable application performance analysis with Mantevo proxy applications, support
heterogeneous computing and programming model R&D projects
, and for Structural Simulation
Toolkit (SST) HPC architectural simulation validation efforts. These systems can assess the
impact and value of upcoming computer technologies on ASC applications and supporting
software. Emphasis is currently on providing a

spectrum of node
-
level architectures. As such,
only small clusters are provided. Plans include introducing new memory, interconnect, and I/O
technologies, as well as processors.


The project provides system installation and administration, account setup
using SARAPE, and
user support (via email). The systems are not for production calculations, but for test pilots or
pioneers who are comfortable working with experimental hardware.


Several platforms have been set up. Currently, three of the test beds are
Internet facing, with the
goal of increasing this number over time. In brief, the platforms are:



An Intel® Many Integrated Core (MIC) 42
-
node test bed with Knights Ferry co
-
processors
;



An AMD Llano Fusion™ 104
-
node cluster
;



A Cray XK6 with 52 compute nodes
;



Two single node Intel Knights Ferry processors, connected to networks with different
security requirements
;



A heterogeneous cluster with Cray CX
-
1 nodes and Microway GPU enabled nodes
;



Two Convey HC
-
1ex nodes
;



Four Tilera TILE
-
Gx36 nodes
.


This project f
acilitates application enhancements to exploit technologies predicted to be
applicable to Exascale computers. The MIC architecture leverages many (10s of) low frequency
general
-
purpose x86 cores and presents a more traditional cache coherent memory space.
The
Cray XK6 loosely integrates few high frequency general
-
purpose x86 processors with a discrete
NVIDIA GPU, which contains a very large number (100s) of simple cores optimized for Single
Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) parallelism. The AMD Fusion archit
ecture is similar but the

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general
-
purpose x86 cores and the simple SIMD cores are more tightly integrated on the same
chip. Each of these architectures exposes a large amount of node level parallel processing
capability, but they will be exploited in diffe
rent ways. The Tilera and Convey architectures
allow Sandia to investigate advanced network and memory interfaces. Several of the platforms
have the potential to provide interfaces for software
-
level power management studies.




The largest of the test
beds, Arthur and Teller, are both accessible via Sandia’s Collaboration Network.


______________________________________________________


LANL ASC Science Underpins Stockpile Modernization


Before the end of
under
ground nuclear weapons testing, our nation
relied on theory, experiment
(testing), and simulation to engineer our nuclear weapons and to understand their performance.
In the absence of nuclear weapons testing, we are taking even greater advantage of high
-
performance computing (HPC) and simulation s
cience to ensure the safety and reliability of the
stockpile. An illustrative case study of this is the B61 Life Extension Program (LEP). The
National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) recently received approval from the Nuclear
Weapons Council to proce
ed with Phase 6.3 of the B61 LEP.


Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)


an NNSA national security laboratory

supports
three other weapon systems in the nation’s nuclear deterrent


W88, W76, and W78. All work
on the weapon systems, including the B61, r
equires a mix of simulations based on tools provided
by the Advanced Simulation & Computing (ASC) Program, experiments carried out by the
Science Campaigns, and underground test analysis by Directed Stockpile Work. LANL has
begun execution of the B61 LEP.


As the starting point for any work on the B61 LEP, B61 modern system baselines using modern
baselining tools will be used for the physics and performance assessments and to certify the B61
-
12. A system baseline is a collection of models of relevant nuclea
r tests and aboveground
hydrodynamic tests. The system baseline represents our best framework for ensuring confidence

10

in our scientific judgments concerning weapons performance, and ensures consistency and
change control as improvements are introduced over

time. Using system baselines has shed light
on the underlying physics of new insights as well as longstanding mysteries that had persisted
since the time of underground tests.


The B61 baselines are being transitioned to ASC simulations. For example, nume
rous
simulations were run in order to develop and understand multipoint safety options. All
theoretical work on the B61, as well as the other weapon systems, relies on the capabilities
provided by ASC. Capabilities include



Weapon, diagnostics, and safety
computer codes



Fundamental data for equations of state, opacities, and nuclear cross sections



Material models and parameters for strength, damage, high explosives, and mix



Setup tools, including the common model framework

The ASC Program provides the infra
structure for applying the capabilities, such as hardware,
software, and visualization tools. It provides verification and validation for all of the capabilities.
ASC provides capacity supercomputers to run the smaller simulations and capability
supercompu
ters to run the largest simulations. Software environments and computing facilities
are provided for the capacity and capability supercomputers.


Each year the LANL Director performs an annual assessment, which reaffirms the integrity of
the weapons’ certi
fication to the President. In this way, the nuclear stockpile remains safe,
secure, and reliable without the need to carry out underground testing.

______________________________________________________


Drop Accident Study Uses W80 System Model


Sandia

used the

W80 system model

to quantify the margins and uncertainties of nuclear
safety in
potential
abnormal mechanical environments
,

such as
a handling drop accident
.
Underpinning this
effor
t
were
uncertainty quantification methods and computational tools

developed by the ASC program, including SIERRA solid mechanics cod
es to perform the
simulations.


T
his study quantified the probability

of loss of assured safety in a worst
-
case (worst
orientation at impact) handling drop as a function of drop height. The

margin was
evaluated as the maximum drop height maintaining assured safety relative to the
maximum lift height during handling. Evaluating the performance of design and
components in terms of drop height set this study apart from past assessments, enablin
g
direct comparison of multiple
mechanical responses

(breach of exclusion region barrier

integrity
,
detachment

of nuclear safety critical components, and excessive shock to
stronglinks)
even though
each ha
d

different

failure

mechanisms

and criteria.



11


Abo
ve:
W80 system model showing damage resulting from a handling drop.


As an additional benefit, the results were immediately useful to the W80 system group in
providing a technical basis for what potential drop heights call for mobilizing an emergency
respo
nse.


Building on an extensive verification and validation effort that quantified the dominant
sources of uncertainty, the system model simulated handling drops spanning those
uncertainties (one model run result is shown in the figure above) using a novel
two
-
pronged sampling strategy that reduced the computational burden while ensuring the
accuracy of a sufficiently complete sampling.


The project has undergone peer review by a panel of experts in a series of evaluations,
most recently in April 2012.
Resul
ts will be included in the

201
2 W80 Annual Assessment
Report.



12

Office of Science Receives

Support in
Scientific Visualization and Analysis


Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)
is a member of the Scalable Data
Management, Analysis, and Visualization (SDAV) Institute that was selected by the DOE Office
of Science's Advanced Scientific Computing Research
(ASCR)
program to provide collaborators
with more effective and efficient ways

to manage, analyze, visualize, and understand their
scientific data.

Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced SDAV as part of the Obama Administration's "Big
Data Research and Development Initiative."

The institute, led by Lawrence Berkeley National Labora
tory, is made up of more than a dozen
national
laboratories and universities and is funded at $5 million per year for five years. SDAV
will help application teams achieve breakthrough science and provide solutions in the data
management, analysis, and visu
alization regimes that are broadly used by the computational
science community.

The LLNL team will focus on deploying solutions to customers within
ASC’s VisIt visualization and analysis tool. Eric Brugger is LLNL’s prin
cipal investigator for
the SDAV Ins
titute.


______________________________________________________


13

Major Software Releases of Qbox and Babel Will Aid Researchers


Lawrence Livermore

National Laboratory
(
LLNL
)

researchers released updates to two major
software packages in March. Erik Draeger
released version 2.0 of qb@ll, the LLNL version
of Qbox, and the Components Team released
Babel 2.0.0.


Qbox allows a user to calculate the properties of
materials directl
y from the physics equations
describing atoms

rather than from models or
after conducting experiments

with some
approximations to make things computationally
feasible. One of the major approximations is the
pseudo
-
potential, which basically replaces the
at
om with something that acts almost exactly like an atom in a given system of interest but is
much faster to compute.

"Since Qbox was written, users have been coming up with more and more clever and
complicated ways to build these pseudo
-
potentials to furth
er decrease the computational cost of a
given calculation," Erik said.

Qb@ll 2.0 is a major rewrite of the code that incorporates some of the newer approaches,
including the well
-
known
Vanderbilt
ultra soft

pseudo
-
potentials, without losing the massive
par
allelism that is Qbox's primary distinction from other first
-
principles materials codes.

"Support for these newer potential types is one of the major reasons the commercial VASP code
is so widely used, despite its limited scalability," Erik explained. "The

new version will let us
calculate bigger systems with predictive accuracy on large supercomputers and stay current with
the newest methods for accurately describing atoms."

The LLNL Components Team recently announced the release of Babel 2.0.0, the next m
ajor step
in Babel research. Babel is a tool that addresses problems of language interoperability,
particularly in scientific and engineering applications. At the simplest level, Babel generates glue
code so that libraries written in one programming langua
ge can be called from other
programming languages.

The new version of Babel supports a data type for structured data such as a C "struct." It also
includes mutex
-
free reference counting for GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) 4.1.2 and higher.
The mutex
-
free re
ference counting uses low
-
level atomic operations to avoid the performance
cost of a thread mutex. In addition, the team incorporated experimental fastcall support into the
new release.


14

"The addition of fastcall support removes essentially all Babel's per
formance overhead when a
C++ client is calling something in Babel that is already implemented in C++," Tom Epperly,
Babel project leader, explained. "It's an example of an approach that could be implemented for
other pairs of languages when the small perfo
rmance penalty is still too great."

Babel 2.0.0 also now includes an experimental version of BRAID, an ongoing effort to support
PGAS languages. The initial work focuses on Cray's Chapel language.

______________________________________________________

Livermore Requests Proposals for Extreme
-
Scale Computing Research

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)
announced a Request for Proposals (RFP) in
April for extreme
-
scale computing R&D under an initiative called
FastForward
. FastForward
seeks partnerships with multiple high performance computing (HPC) companies to accelerate the
R&D of technologies critical to the advancement of extreme
-
scale computing. A
pproximately
$60 million will be available over two years for accelerated R&D in three technology areas:
processors, memory, and storage.

FastForward is funded by the DOE’s Office of Science and
by
NNSA. LLNL is representing
seven DOE laboratories and the
DOE as the Source Selection Official for this RFP.

DOE’s strategic plan calls for ensuring U.S. security and prosperity by using transformative
science and technology to address the nation’s energy, environmental, and nuclear challenges.
This includes adva
ncing simulation
-
based scientific discovery by investing in applied
mathematics, computer science, and networking tools. These investments will enable th
e
research required to develop E
xascale computing platforms and the software environment
needed to supp
ort DOE energy, science, and security missions. Critical to this R&D effort is the
aggressive pursuit of energy
-
efficient HPC systems.

FastForward was born of the recognition that the broader computing market will drive
innovation in a direction that may n
ot meet the needs of the DOE mission. FastForward seeks to
fund innovative new and/or accelerated R&D of technologies targeted for use in the next 5

10
years.
Proposals were due May 11.

______________________________________________________



ASC at SC11


Video Now Available Online


Filmed onsite at the SC11 (Supercomputing 2011) Conference, a video featuring the ASC
booth is now available
online
. The 9
-
minute video, produced by Sandia, em
phasizes the
benefits that ASC’s presence at the conference brings to the program. The ASC booth theme,
“Taking on the World’s Complex Challenges,” reflected the “what’s new, what’s next”
atmosphere of SC11.


Held in Seattle from November 12
-
18, 2011, SC1
1 provided attendees and exhibitors the
opportunity to connect with the best and brightest in the
high performance computing

15

(
HPC
)

world and to learn about HPC technical advances and resulting modeling and
visualization capabilities.


____________________
__________________________________


Livermore Helps Local Students Prepare for SC12 Cluster Competition


Pictured above is a

team of University of the Pacific (UOP) students
who
will get hands
-
on
training with some of the fastest supercomputers in the world at Supercomputing 2012 (SC12)
this

November.

Through a partnership with
Lawrence Livermore National

Lab
oratory (LLNL)
, UOP's Team
Venus, made up of 12 female engineering, comp
uter science, and physics students, is preparing
to compete in the Student Cluster Competition at SC12. The competition is a real
-
time, 48
-
hour
challenge to design and assemble a state
-
of
-
the
-
art cluster computer on the exhibit floor and use
it to run scie
ntific applications, competing to achieve the greatest performance on a limited
power budget. In addition to the technical competition, students
will
also perform an educational
outreach mission by maintaining a booth on the exhibit floor.

UOP was invited
by LLNL to assemble an all
-
female team of students for competition.

Team
Venus will be mentored by LLNL engineers and UOP faculty. The team has secured $50,000 of
hardware for the competition.


______________________________________________________


16

Allan

Snavely Named Chief Technology Officer for Livermore Computing

Allan Snavely became the Chief Technology Officer (CTO) for
Livermore Computing on June 4. As CTO, Allan will be
responsible for developing ASC's overall supercomputing
architecture and technology strategy for LLNL and will have
primary responsibility for
procuring advanced computing
systems.

Allan has worked at the San Diego Supercomputer Center in
various roles since 2000, most recently as Associate Director.
He possesses deep and wide knowledge of high performance
computing
(HPC)
applications and design

of supercomputers,
is a two
-
time finalist for the Gordon Bell Prize, and winner of
the SC09 Data Challenge for the design of the first flash
-
based
supercomputer. Allan is a premier researcher in performance
modeling and a regular collaborator on DOE proje
cts. As
founder of the Performance Modeling and Characterization
Lab, he has developed numerous technologies for improving
the performance and energy efficiency of supercomputers.

He
designed and built the Gordon supercomputer, which set the bar for energy

efficiency and
capability on data
-
intensive HPC workloads.

Allan has a Ph.D. in computer science from
the University of California San Diego (
UCSD
)
, a
B.S. degree in computer engineering, and an

M.S. in computer science also from UCSD.


_________________
_____________________________________

Rob Neely Hosts HPC Portals Workshop

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (
LLNL
)

hosted a two
-
day workshop in early May on
behalf of the
Department of Defense (
DoD
)

High Performance Computing Modernization
Program. T
he "HPCMP 2
nd

Portals Workshop" convened experts from Hawaii to Washington
D.C. who are developing desktop and Web
-
based portals for accessing HPC systems, thereby
making HPC easier to use and more accessible to a wider range of users. LLNL employees gave
several presentations, including one demonstrating the Lorenz portal
(see the last issue of e
-
News)
. Rob Neely was the workshop host, and it was held in the HPC Innovation Center in the
Livermore Valley Open Campus.

"It is exciting to see the HPC
community beginning to pay greater attention to 'broadening the
base' of HPC usage by thinking about how to make our powerful, yet complex, platforms and
applications more easily accessible to a largely untapped pool of potential HPC users,” said Rob.
HPC
Portals could have a huge impact in lowering barriers to HPC adoption within DOE, DoD,
and the private sector, and is an area ripe for deep and lasting partnerships between those
groups."
http://nnsa.energy.gov/asc/ascnewsletters/ascenewsmar2012




17

ASC Salutes Dean L. Preston


With over 30 years of experience as a theoretical physicist at
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Dean L. Preston is
no stranger to the ASC Program. In a

recent classified
presentation to the ASC program staff at NNSA Headquarters
in Washington, DC, Dean talked about his current work


exciting research using quantum molecular dynamics (QMD)
to calculate the phase diagram of plutonium. The phase
diagram wi
ll be used to construct an advanced equation of
state (EOS) for plutonium that will improve the predictive
capability of weapon simulations. The calculations are
running on ASC’s Cielo Petaflop supercomputer. Plans are
underway to work with computational a
nd computer
scientists to speed up certain QMD numerical algorithms.


Dean is currently a member of the Materials and Physical Data Group in the Computational
Physics Division at LANL.


At one t
ime in his career, Dean served two

years as the Accelerated

Strategic Computing
Initiative (ASCI) Senior Project Leader for Weapon Physics and Physical Data. His work was
instrumental in establishing a post
-
testing
-
era experimental program on plutonium EOS
and dynamic response. This work revitalized shock wave phy
sics at the national
laboratories.


Dean received his Bachelor of Science degree from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in
Physics in 1975 and his Ph.D. in Theoretical Particle Physics from Princeton University in
1980. From 1980 to 1983 he held a
postdoctoral appointment in the Elementary Particles
and Field Theory G
roup at LANL. He left LANL for two
years to teach mathematical physics.
In 1985, he joined the Applied Physics (X) Division, where he changed his field to materials
physics. In 1994 he
constructed the Preston
-
Tonks
-
Wallace (PTW) material strength model,
now recognized internationally as a reliable model for simulations of explosively or laser
-
driven systems.


Dean received a DOE Award of Excellence for Significant Contribution to the Nu
clear
Weapons Program for his work on the first subcritical experiment, Rebound. From 2000

to
2004, Dean was group leader of the Materials Science Group in X
-
Division.


Currently
,

he is the principal investigator (PI) for an Institutional Computing Projec
t at
LANL. He is also the U
.
S
. Principal Investigator

for five material physics projects between
LANL and the Russian Federal Nuclear Centers. In 2011, Dean was elected a Fellow of the
American Physical Society (APS). The APS nomination credited Dean

f
or
rigorous scientific
contributions in the field of shock compression theory, and in particular for contributions
leading to a better understanding of material strength at very high strain rates.”


He has over 70 peer
-
reviewed publications in diverse areas o
f theoretical physics,
including elementary particle physics, theoretical/computational materials physics, and


18

plasma theory. He is a coauthor of the well
-
known Brown
-
Preston
-
Singleton (BPS) theory
of charged particle transport in plasmas. His current rese
arch is focused on QMD
calculations of the phase diagram of plutonium, the development of a dislocation dynamics
model of the plastic flow of polycrystals from quasistatic to very high strain rates, and
phase transformation kinetics in shock waves.





19

ASC

Relevant Research

Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

Citations for Publications


2012 Publications

1.

Anderson, A.T., McCallen, R.C., Nichols, A.L. (2012). “ALE3D Test Suite
Documentation,” LLNL
-
TR
-
556811.

2.

Antoun, T., Herbold, E., Johnson, S. (2012). “Dynamic Beh
avior of Sand: Annual Report
FY11,”

LLNL
-
TR
-
539077.

3.

Dobrev, V., Kolev, T., Rieben, R. (2012). “Preliminary BLAST Results for Elastic Bar
Benchmark Problem,” LLNL
-
TR
-
527715.


Sandia National Laboratories

Citations for Publications

Key:
DOI

= Digital Object Identifier


1.

Ang, J., Brightwell, R., Donofrio, D., Dosanjh, S., Hemmert, K. S., Rodrigues, A., Shalf,
J., Wheeler, K. (2011). "Exascale Computing and the Role of Co
-
Design,"
Advances in
Parallel Computing: High Performance Computing: Fro
m Grids and Clouds to Exascale
,
Edited by Foster, I., Gentzsch, W., Grandinetti, L., Joubert, G. R., IOS Press, Vol. 20, pp.
43
-
64.
DOI: 10.3233/978
-
1
-
60750
-
803
-
8
-
43
.
SAND2012
-
1640 J.


2.

Braeger, S., Arnold, N., Dechev, D. (2012). “Scalable N
-
Body Event Prediction,”
Central European Journal of Computer Science
, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 1
-
15. DOI:
10.2478/s13537
-
012
-
0005
-
9
.
SAND2012
-
1460 J.


3.

Bridges, P. G., Arnold, D., Pedretti, K. T., Sures
h, M., Lu, F., Dinda, P., Joseph, R.,
Lange, J. (2012). "Virtual
-
Machine
-
Based Emulation of Future Generation High
-
Performance Computing Systems,"
International Journal of High Performance
Computing Applications
, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 125
-
135. DOI:
10.1177
/1094342012436619
.
SAND2012
-
1507 J.


4.

Ferreira, K. B., Bridges, P. G., Brightwell, R., Pedretti, K. T. (2011). “The Impact of
System Design Parameters on Application Noise Sensitivity
,” Journal of Cluster
Computing
, Published online by Online Fist
TM

22 S
eptember 2011. DOI
10.1007/s10586
-
011
-
0178
-
3
.
SAND2009
-
2417C.


5.

Jin, S., Dechev
, D., Qu, Z. (2012). “Parallel Particle Swarm Optimization (PPSO) on the
Coverage Problem in Pursuit
-
Evasion Games,” Proceedings of the 20th ACM/SIGSIM
High Performance Comp
uting Symposium (HPC2012), Orlando, FL.
SAND2012
-
1459
C.

6.

Laros III, J. H., Pedretti, K. T., Kelly, S. M., Shu, W., Vaughan, C. T. (2012). "Energy
Based Performance Tuning for Large Scale High Performance Computing Systems,”

20

Proceedings of the 20th
ACM/SIGSIM High Performance Computing Symposium
(HPC2012), Orlando, FL. (Best Paper Award)
.
SAND2012
-
4347 C.


7.

Moreland, K., Ayachit, U., Geveci, B., Ma, K.
-
L. (2011). "Dax Toolkit: A Proposed
Framework for Data Analysis and Visualization at Extreme Sc
ale," IEEE Symposium on
Large Data Analysis and Visualization (LDAV), Providence, RI, pp. 89
-
96. DOI:
10.1109/LDAV.2011.6092322
.
SAND2011
-
2842C
.


8.

Vidal, A., Kassab, A., Mota, D.,
Dechev, D. (2012). “A Multithreaded Solver for the 2D
Poisson Equation,” Proceedings of the 20th ACM/SIGSIM High Performance Computing
Symposium (HPC2012), Orlando, FL.

SAND2012
-
1461 C.


CORRECTION TO
FY12 Q2 SUBMITTAL


Franke, B. C., Kensek, R. P. (2009
). “An hp
-
Adaptivity Approach for Monte Carlo Tallies,”
International Conference on Mathematics, Computational Methods and Reactor Physics (M&C
2009), Saratoga Springs, NY, on CD
-
ROM, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL.

SAND20
09
-
1201 C.



Los
Alamos National Laboratory

Citations for Publications (previously not listed)


2011 and 2012


1.

Agouzal, A., Lipnikov, K., Vassilevski, Y. (2011). "Families of meshes minimizing P(1)
interpolation error for functions with indefinite Hessian,"
Russian Journal

of Numerical
Analysis and Mathematical Modelling,

Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 337
-
352.


2.

Ahrens, J., Debattista, K. (2012). "Guest Editor's Introduction: Special Section on the
Eurographics Symposium on Parallel Graphics and Visualization (EGPGV),"
IEEE
Transactio
ns on Visualization and Computer Graphics,

Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 3
-
4.


3.

Ahrens, J.P., Hendrickson, B., Long, G., Miller, S., Ross, R., Williams, D. (2011). "Data
-
Intensive Science in the US DOE: Case Studies and Future Challenges,"
Computing in
Science &
Engineering,

Vol. 13, No. 6, pp. 14
-
23.


4.

Alexander, F.J., Hoisie, A., Szalay, A. (2011). "Big Data [Guest Editors' Introduction],"
Computing in Science & Engineering,

Vol. 13, No. 6, pp. 10
-
12.


5.

An, Q., Zybin, S.V., Goddard, W.A., Jaramillo
-
Botero, A., Bla
nco, M., Luo, S.N. (2011).
"Elucidation of the dynamics for hot
-
spot initiation at nonuniform interfaces of highly
shocked materials,"
Physical Review B,

Vol. 84, No. 22, article 220101.


6.

Anderson, B., Quist, D., Neil, J., Storlie, C., Lane, T. (2011). "Gr
aph
-
based malware
detection using dynamic analysis,"
Journal in Computer Virology,

Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 247
-
258.



21

7.

Anderson, L.A., McGillicuddy, D.J., Maltrud, M.E., Lima, I.D., Doney, S.C. (2011).
"Impact of eddy
-
wind interaction on eddy demographics and phy
toplankton community
structure in a model of the North Atlantic Ocean,"
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans,

Vol. 52, No. 1
-
2, pp. 80
-
94.


8.

Andrew, M., Sierawski, B.D., Warren, K.M., Mendenhall, M.H., Dodds, N.A., Weller,
R.A., Reed, R.A., Dodd, P.E., Shaney
felt, M.R., Schwank, J.R., Wender, S.A., Baumann,
R.C. (2011). "The Effects of Neutron Energy and High
-
Z Materials on Single Event
Upsets and Multiple Cell Upsets,"
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science,

Vol. 58, No. 6,
pp. 2591
-
2598.


9.

Arman, B., Brandl, C.
, Luo, S.N., Germann, T.C., Misra, A., Cagin, T. (2011). "Plasticity
in Cu(111)/Cu(46)Zr(54) glass nanolaminates under uniaxial compression,"
Journal of
Applied Physics,

Vol. 110, No. 4, article 043539.


10.

Atamturktur, S., Hemez, F., Williams, B., Tome, C., Unal, C. (2011). "A forecasting
metric for predictive modeling,"
Computers & Structures,

Vol. 89, No. 23
-
24, pp. 2377
-
2387.


11.

Baker, Z.K., Tripp, J.L. (2011). "Tuple spaces in hardware for accelerated implicit
routing,"
2011 IEEE International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing
Workshops and PhD Forum
, pp. 166
-
173.


12.

Balona, L.A., Guzik, J.A., Uytterhoeven, K., Smith
, J.C., Tenenbaum, P., Twicken, J.D.
(2011). "The Kepler view of gamma Doradus stars,"
Monthly Notices of the Royal
Astronomical Society,

Vol. 415, No. 4, pp. 3531
-
3538.


13.

Barron
-
Palos, L., Alarcon, R., Balascuta, S., Blessinger, C., Bowman, J.D., Chupp, T.
E.,
Covrig, S., Crawford, C.B., Dabaghyan, M., Dadras, J., Dawkins, M., Fox, W., Gericke,
M.T., Gillis, R.C., Lauss, B., Leuschner, M.B., Lozowski, B., Mahurin, R., Mason, M.,
Mei, J., Nann, H., Penttila, S.I., Ramsay, W.D., Salas
-
Bacci, A., Santra, S., Se
o, P.N.,
Sharma, M., Smith, T., Snow, W.M., Wilburn, W.S., Yuan, V. (2011). "Determination of
the parahydrogen fraction in a liquid hydrogen target using energy
-
dependent slow
neutron transmission,"
Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section

A
-
Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment,

Vol. 659, No. 1, pp.
579
-
586.


14.

Ben
-
Haim, Y., Hemez, F.M. (2012). "Robustness, fidelity and prediction
-
looseness of
models,"
Proceedings of the Royal Society A
-
Mathematical Physical and Engin
eering
Sciences,

Vol. 468, No. 2137, pp. 227
-
244.


15.

Bettis, J.L., Whangbo, M.H., Kohler, J., Bussmann
-
Holder, A., Bishop, A.R. (2011).
"Lattice dynamical analogies and differences between SrTiO(3) and EuTiO(3) revealed
by phonon
-
dispersion relations and dou
ble
-
well potentials,"
Physical Review B,

Vol. 84,
No. 18, article 184114.





22

16.

Bledsoe, K.C., Favorite, J.A., Aldemir, T. (2011). "Using the Levenberg
-
Marquardt
Method for Solutions of Inverse Transport Problems in One
-

and Two
-
Dimensional
Geometries,"
Nucle
ar Technology,

Vol. 176, No. 1, pp. 106
-
126.


17.

Bledsoe, K.C., Favorite, J.A., Aldemir, T. (2011). "Application of the Differential
Evolution Method to Solving Inverse Transport Problems,"
Nuclear Science and
Engineering,

Vol. 169, No. 2, pp. 208
-
221.


18.

Boera
s, D.I., Hraber, P.T., Hurlston, M., Evans
-
Strickfaden, T., Bhattacharya, T., Giorgi,
E.E., Mulenga, J., Karita, E., Korber, B.T., Allen, S., Hart, C.E., Derdeyn, C.A., Hunter,
E. (2011). "Role of donor genital tract HIV
-
1 diversity in the transmission bot
tleneck,"
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,

Vol.
108, No. 46, pp. E1156
-
E1163.


19.

Brown, D.W., Beyerlein, I.J., Sisneros, T.A., Clausen, B., Tome, C.N. (2012). "Role of
twinning and slip during compressive defor
mation of beryllium as a function of strain
rate,"
International Journal of Plasticity,

Vol. 29, pp. 120
-
135.


20.

Brown, G.W., Thompson, D.G., DeLuca, R., Rae, P.J., Cady, C.M., Todd, S.N. (2011).
"Dynamic and quasi
-
static measurements of C
-
4 and primasheet P
1000 explosives,"
Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series
, Vol. 6, pp.
329
-
336.


21.

Bussmann
-
Holder, A., Keller, H., Khasanov, R., Simon, A., Bianconi, A., Bishop, A.R.
(2011). "Isotope and interband effects in a multi
-
band mod
el of superconductivity,"
New
Journal of Physics,

Vol. 13, article 093009.


22.

Bussmann
-
Holder, A., Simon, A., Keller, H., Bishop, A.R. (2011). "Identifying the
Pairing Mechanism in Fe
-
As Based Superconductors: Gaps and Isotope Effects,"
Journal
of
Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism,

Vol. 24, No. 1
-
2, pp. 1099
-
1103.


23.

Chu, H.J., Pan, E., Han, X., Wang, J., Beyerlein, I.J. (2012). "Elastic fields of dislocation
loops in three
-
dimensional anisotropic bimaterials,"
Journal of the Mechanics and
Physics

of Solids,

Vol. 60, No. 3, pp. 418
-
431.


24.

Chu, H.J., Wang, J., Zhou, C.Z., Beyerlein, I.J. (2011). "Self
-
energy of elliptical
dislocation loops in anisotropic crystals and its application for defect
-
free core/shell
nanowires,"
Acta Materialia,

Vol. 59, No.

18, pp. 7114
-
7124.


25.

Close, S., Fletcher, A., Dunham, M., Linscott, I. (2011). "Coherent matched filter signal
-
processing algorithms for probing the ionosphere using broadband RF data,"
Journal of
Geophysical Research
-
Space Physics,

Vol. 116, article A1230
7.


26.

Csanak, G., Fontes, C.J., Hakel, P., Kilcrease, D.P. (2011). "The derivation of kinetic
equations for anisotropic plasmas from the impact approximation,"
Journal of Physics B
-
Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics,

Vol. 44, No. 21, article 215701.




23

27.

Csis
zar, G., Balogh, L., Misra, A., Zhang, X.H., Ungar, T. (2011). "The dislocation
density and twin
-
boundary frequency determined by X
-
ray peak profile analysis in cold
rolled magnetron
-
sputter deposited nanotwinned copper,"
Journal of Applied Physics,

Vol. 1
10, No. 4, article 043502.


28.

Cushing, M.C., Kirkpatrick, J.D., Gelino, C.R., Griffith, R.L., Skrutskie, M.F., Mainzer,
A., Marsh, K.A., Beichman, C.A., Burgasser, A.J., Prato, L.A., Simcoe, R.A., Marley,
M.S., Saumon, D., Freedman, R.S., Eisenhardt, P.R., W
right, E.L. (2011). "The
Discovery of Y Dwarfs using Data from the Wide
-
field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)
"
Astrophysical Journal,

Vol. 743, No. 1, article 50.


29.

Da Veiga, L.B., Lipnikov, K., Manzini, G. (2011). "Arbitrary
-
Order Nodal Mimetic
Discretiza
tions of Elliptic Problems on Polygonal Meshes,"
SIAM Journal on Numerical
Analysis,

Vol. 49, No. 5, pp. 1737
-
1760.


30.

Dai, W.W. (2011). "Application I/O and Data Management,"
2011 IEEE International
Conference on Cluster Computing
, pp. 446
-
454.


31.

Dai, W.W. (2011). "HIO: A library for high performance I/O and data management,"
IEEE International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing Workshops and
PhD Forum
, pp. 1759
-
1766.


32.

Dai, X., Dayeh, S.A., Veeramuthu, V., Larrue, A., Wang, J., Su, H.
B., Soci, C. (2011).
"Tailoring the Vapor
-
Liquid
-
Solid Growth toward the Self
-
Assembly of GaAs Nanowire
Junctions,"
Nano Letters,

Vol. 11, No. 11, pp. 4947
-
4952.


33.

Dayeh, S.A., Wang, J., Li, N., Huang, J.Y., Gin, A.V., Picraux, S.T. (2011). "Growth,
Defect
Formation, and Morphology Control of Germanium
-
Silicon Semiconductor
Nanowire Heterostructures,"
Nano Letters,

Vol. 11, No. 10, pp. 4200
-
4206.


34.

Deguen, R., Cardin, P., Merkel, S., Lebensohn, R.A. (2011). "Texturing in Earth's inner
core due to preferential growth in its equatorial belt,"
Physics of the Earth and Planetary
Interiors,

Vol. 188, No. 3
-
4, pp. 173
-
184.


35.

Demkowicz, M.J., Anderoglu, O.,
Zhang, X.H., Misra, A. (2011). "The influence of
Sigma 3 twin boundaries on the formation of radiation
-
induced defect clusters in
nanotwinned Cu,"
Journal of Materials Research,

Vol. 26, No. 14, pp. 1666
-
1675.


36.

Demkowicz, M.J., Hoagland, R.G., Uberuaga, B.
P., Misra, A. (2011). "Influence of
interface sink strength on the reduction of radiation
-
induced defect concentrations and
fluxes in materials with large interface area per unit volume,"
Physical Review B,

Vol. 84,
No. 10, article 104102.


37.

Dimonte, G., Te
rrones, G., Cherne, F.J., Germann, T.C., Dupont, V., Kadau, K., Buttler,
W.T., Oro, D.M., Morris, C., Preston, D.L. (2011). "Use of the Richtmyer
-
Meshkov
Instability to Infer Yield Stress at High
-
Energy Densities,"
Physical Review Letters,

Vol.
107, No. 26
, article 264502.



24

38.

Dupuy, J.L., Linn, R.R., Konovalov, V., Pimont, F., Vega, J.A., Jimenez, E. (2011).
"Exploring three
-
dimensional coupled fire
-
atmosphere interactions downwind of wind
-
driven surface fires and their influence on backfires using the HIGRAD
-
FIRETEC
model,"
International Journal of Wildland Fire,

Vol. 20, No. 6, pp. 734
-
750.


39.

Egedal, J., Le, A., Pritchett, P.L., Daughton, W. (2011). "Electron dynamics in two
-
dimensional asymmetric anti
-
parallel reconnection,"
Physics of Plasmas,

Vol. 18, No.
10,
article 102901.


40.

Ekdahl, C., Abeyta, E.O., Aragon, P., Archuleta, R., Cook, G., Dalmas, D., Esquibel, K.,
Gallegos, R., Garnett, R., Harrison, J., Johnson, J., Jacquez, E., McCuistian, B.T.,
Montoya, N., Nath, S., Nielsen, K., Oro, D., Rose, C., Sanche
z, M., Schauer, M., Schulze,
M., Seitz, G., Smith, V., Temple, R., Anaya, R., Caporaso, G., Chambers, F., Chen, Y.J.,
Falabella, S., Guethlein, G., Raymond, B., Richardson, R., Scarpetti, R., Watson, J., Weir,
J., Bender, H., Broste, W., Carlson, C., Fraye
r, D., Tom, C.Y., Trainham, C., Williams, J.,
Genoni, T., Hughes, T., Thoma, C., Prichard, B. (2011). "Beam Dynamics in a Long
-
pulse Linear Induction Accelerator,"
Journal of the Korean Physical Society,

Vol. 59, No.
6, pp. 3448
-
3452.


41.

El
-
Ghamrawy, S.M., E
l
-
Desouky, A.I. (2009). "Scalability and load balancing for
multiplatform communication system architecture based on intelligent agents,"
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LALP
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