The World of Androids

pillowfistsAI and Robotics

Nov 13, 2013 (4 years and 1 month ago)

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The World of Androids

Presented by:

Shipra Gupta

CSC 650

Overview


Brief introduction of robots & their history


Advent of androids


Issues and challenges


Dealing with challenges


Approach of their working


Detailed examples


Some in
-
process android projects


Popular androids and main industries using them


Advantages of androids


Future and fears of androids


What is a Robot?

Common Definition:

A programmable machine that imitates the

actions or appearance of an intelligent creature


usually a human.

Should be able to do two things:



Get information from its surroundings



Do something physical

Modern industrial robots have been around for less than 50
years.



First programmable Robot was developed in 1954 by

George Devol


-

Coined the name of the first Robot Company, “Unimation”.



Since then they are:


-

Painting cars at Ford plants


-

Assembling Milano cookies for Pepperidge Farms


-

Driving trains in Paris


-

Defusing bombs in Northern Ireland

The RUR Robot



Robot comes from
the Czech word

robota”




Described fabricated workers in
a fictional 1920s play called
Rossum’s Universal Robots



During early studies of literature and fiction, Asimov stated 3 laws:



A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a


human being to come to harm



A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where


such orders would conflict with the First Law



A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does


not conflict with the First or Second Law


(A zeroth law was added later as an extension of Law 1)


The World of Androids

Basis of Androids




High demand to do tedious and dangerous tasks



Advent of faster and cheaper processors



Make robots move and "think" to look more like humans



Psycological factors

These facts have gave birth to
ANDROIDS
.



Definition:

An android is an anthropomorphic robot


-

Looks like a human


-

Known as "humanoids"





The World of Androids
-

contd.



Had a limb control system, a vision system, and
a conversation system.



Could communicate in Japanese.



Measured distances and directions



Walked with his lower limbs



Gripped and transported objects

First Android: WABOT
-
1 by Waseda University (1973)

Development Issues



Design challenges



The need to coordinate sensors and artificial muscle



Intelligent programming



Efficient use of power

Operational Challenges



Need to create complex robot step
-
by
-
step


-

Develop separate technologies and integrate them together



Not foolproof to operate



Difficult to program a robot to walk



To rely upon built
-
in operating systems to run



To be designed for a novice user



Lack of sufficient funds




Dealing with the Challenges

Severe shortcomings of contemporary approach leads to:



Inventions of newer concepts of development



Used to “fight the establishment”



Solve many serious problems



Gains followers


General ideas followed to deal with the challenges are:




More software innovations required



Move to cell manufacturing systems



Develop new programming language



Design new operating system if required


Approach towards their Working




Use of rule
-
based logic in robotic "brains” (eg. Aibo, the pet dog)


-

Program vast amounts of information




Neural networks is another approach to artificial intelligence (eg. Kismet)


-

Work more like human brain


-

Can handle ambiguity better than rule
-
based systems.


-

Feature of "learning"
-

a helpful tool to add more human
-
like behaviors.




Stimulus
-
response mechanism (also known as subsumption
architecture, eg. Cog)


-

No memory or logical decision making


-

Hard
-
wired responses to stimulation

Example of an Android Design

Taking the example of
KISMET
, an android with facial expressions

and emotions built at MIT, by Dr Cynthia Brenzeal.




Had head with jaws



Eyes had color CCD camera



Small motors to move facial features



A network of 3 integrated circuits:


-

Control


-

Perception


-

Attention



Required special software. 3 drives are:


-

Social drive


-

Stimulation drive


-

Fatigue drive

Kismet’s Expressions


Calm


Interest


Angry



Happy



Sad


Surprise

Another example of an Android being
built by a company



“Asimo” is built by Honda (2 years old).

Stands for Advanced Step in Innovative


Mobility



Small and light weight



Walks naturally



Arms move dynamically



Fingers are delicate



Walk up & down the stairs



Flexible body parts



Make registered gestures



High
-
tech control processor

-

Developed on its own

-

3 times better than current PCs


processors



“Asimo” and friend

Another example of an Android being
built by a company


contd.


Latest version of “Asimo” can:



Turn its head to follow moves



Recognizes preprogrammed faces



Respond with vocal welcome



Respond to couple of gestures

Some In
-
Process Android Projects

“Johnie”
-

Institute for Applied

“Coco”, a baby gorilla project


Mechanics at the Technical

at MIT


University of Munich (TUM)



“Robonaut”
-

NASA’s

space android (2.5
years old)

Popular Androids & their Developers



Cog, built at MIT, can learn to recognize and grasp objects



Working as tour guides



Toy companies have started selling pet animals like robots



Dante, a spider
-
like robot serves geologists

Industries using Androids



Defense



Underwater and Geological Explorations



Space Projects of NASA



Nuclear and Chemical Laboratories



Hospitals



Tourism and Entertainment



Toys

Advantages of Androids

In general:



Perform automated tasks to save on labor



One of the factors contributing to higher levels of productivity


Personalization and Ease of Use:



Not only an appliance/machine



Better acceptance by humans



Provides personal touch



Can be used for domestic mundane tasks



Self explanatory repair mechanism


Future of Androids & Fears



Can build itself
-

cost effectiveness



Can rapidly become super intelligent



Can become a rival to automobile industry



Estimation:



-

10% US homes will have android within 12 years



-

50% will within 20 years



Will androids be dangerous as portrayed in Hollywood Movies?

Though nothing can be sure unless we work with them. But positive

assumptions state that:



-

Androids will have built in (software) protection (Asimov's first law)


-

Androids don't need money or food or possessions or clothes which can


drive them to hurt


-

They are designed to serve humans & not hurt them

References



www.androidworld.com



www.thetech.org



www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid
-
robotics
-
group/ kismet/kismet.html



Journals on “Artificial Intelligence: Androids” in Reinert Library Database