Today we will discuss:

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Oct 24, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Today we will discuss:


IP Addressing


Subnetting



This is probably the most important topic

for the exam. Try to memorize the tables

and numbers where indicated since they will

help immensely on the exam.

IP Addressing Fundamentals:


If a device wants to communicate using
TCP/IP, it needs an IP address.


Any device that can send and receive IP
packets is called an
IP host
.


IP addresses consist of a 32
-
bit number,
usually written in
dotted
-
decimal
notation
.

IP Address Fundamentals (cont.):


Each byte (8 bits) of the 32
-
bit IP address
is converted to its decimal equivalent
(hence, “decimal” of “dotted
-
decimal
notation”).


Each of the decimal numbers in an IP
address is called an
octet
.


The term
octet
is just a vendor
-
neutral

term
instead of
byte
.

IP Address Fundamentals (cont.):


For example: 168.1.4.25


The first octet is 168.


The second octet is 1.


The third octet is 4.


The fourth octet is 25.


The RANGE of decimal numbers in each
octet is between 0 and 255, inclusive. (256
numbers total)

Other IP Terminology


Bit


a bit is one digit; either a 1 or a 0.


Byte


a byte is 8 bits.


Network address


also called the
network
number
, uniquely identifies each network. Every
machine on the same network shares that
network address as part of its IP address.


Host address


also referred to as a
node
address,

is assigned to and uniquely identifies
each machine on a network.


Broadcast address
-

sent to all nodes on the network

Binary to Decimal

Conversion


Binary


The ability to convert from binary to
decimal and back again is very handy
when working with IP addresses.


The digits used are limited to either a 1
(one) or a 0 (zero).


Only convert up to 8 bits at a time (an
octet).


Binary (cont.)


The trick to binary is to learn the decimal
values of each bit for the first 8 bits.


Start from the left or right and add.


Just add the decimal values where there is
a 1 (one) present, and you will have the
decimal value of the octet.


The next slide shows the decimal value of
each bit value.


Binary to Decimal for 204

Binary = 1100 1100 Decimal = 204


128

64 32 16 8 4 2 1


1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0

-----------------------------------------------------------

128

+ 64 + 0 + 0 + 8 + 4 + 0 + 0




= 204

Memorize


Binary 1111 1111 = Decimal 255


Binary 0000 0000 = Decimal 0


Know the values 128
-
64
-
32
-
16
-
8
-
4
-
2
-
1.


The easiest way to remember it is to start
at 1 and multiply by 2.


1

* 2 =
2

* 2 =
4

* 2 =
8

* 2 =
16

* 2 =
32

*
2 =
64

* 2 =
128
.

Decimal to Binary


Convert 212 to binary.


Do the math.


Answer: 11010100

Another Binary to Decimal
**
Memorization**

Chart

(see why this is important in a few slides)

Binary Value

Decimal Value

10000000

128

11000000

192

11100000

224

11110000

240

11111000

248

11111100

252

11111110

254

11111111

255

Hierarchical IP Addressing Scheme


An IP address consists of 32 bits of
information.


The address is broken into four 8
-
bit
(1 byte) groups, converting each octet to
decimal values, and separating these
values by dots (dotted decimal notation).


Example: 172.16.30.56


Hierarchical IP Addressing (cont.)


Two other ways to represent dotted
-

decimal 172.16.30.56 are:


Binary


10101100.00010000.00011110.00111000


Hexadecimal


AC.10.1E.38


See end of presentation for hex conversion notes
and chart.

The Classes of Networks

8 bits

8 bits

8 bits

8 bits

Class A

Network

Host

Host

Host

Class B

Network

Network

Host

Host

Class C

Network

Network

Network

Host

Class D

Multicast

--

Not

On

Test

Class E

Research

--

Not

On

Test

Classes of Networks


All addresses in the same class A, B, or C
network have the same numeric value
NETWORK
portion of the address. The
rest of the address is called the
HOST
portion of the address.


When written down, network numbers
have all decimal 0s in the host part of the
number.

Classes of Networks (cont.)


Network number example:


Class A:
byte
. 0. 0. 0


Class B:
byte. byte
. 0. 0


Class C:
byte. byte. byte
. 0


However, network numbers are not
actually IP addresses because they
cannot be assigned to an interface as an
IP address.

List of All Possible Valid Network
Numbers (memorize)

Class A

Class B

Class C

First Octet Range

1 to 127*

128 to 191

192 to 223

Valid Network
Numbers

1.0.0.0
--
126.0.0.0

128.1.0.0


191.254.0.0

192.0.1.0


223.255.254.0

Number of
Networks

2
7

-

2

2
14

-

2

2
21

-

2

Number of
Hosts

2
24

-

2

2
16

-

2

2
8

-

2

Details of Classes A, B, & C


Before starting to design subnets, you should know what
it is that you've been given. Here are three ways of
finding out what class your allocation is in. Use
whichever you find easiest.



Class A

addresses begin with
0xxx
binary, or
1 to 126

decimal. (127 is loopback)


Class B

addresses begin with
10xx
binary, or
128 to
191

decimal.


Class C

addresses begin with
110x
binary, or
192 to
223

decimal.



If the first bit is 0 it is a Class A address


If the first two bits are 10 it is a Class B address


If the first three bits are 110 it is a Class C address

Reserved IP Addresses


Address of all 0s




Address of all 1s


Network 127.0.0.1


Means “network
address” or “this
network segment”


Means “broadcast”


Reserved for
loopback tests. Allows
local node to send a
test packet to itself
without generating
network traffic.

Private IP Addresses


These addresses can be used on a private
network, but are not routable on the Internet.


With these addresses, use Network Address
Translation (NAT) to access the Internet via a
legal IP address.


Reserved address space

Class A

10.0.0.0 thru 10.255.255.255

Class B

172.16.0.0 thru 172.31.255.255

Class C

192.168.0.0 thru 192.168.255.255

SUBNETTING

.

Memorize Powers of 2

2
1

= 2

2
2

= 4

2
3

= 8

2
4

= 16


2
5

= 32

2
6

= 64

2
7

= 128

2
8

= 256


Subnet Masks


A subnet mask is a 32
-
bit binary number
usually written in dotted
-
decimal format.


The 1s in the subnet mask represent the
network (or subnet) part of the IP address.


The 0s represent the host part.


Example:

Binary:
11111111.11111111.11111100.00000000

Dotted
-
decimal: 255.255.252.0 (same number)

Subnet Masks (cont.)


Slash notation (/) at the end of an IP
address means how many bits are turned
on (1s).


Ex: 192.168.10.32 /28

Where /28 is subnet mask 255.255.255.240


Default Subnet Mask


Not all networks need subnets, meaning they
use the default subnet mask.

Class

Format

Default Mask

A

Network.Node.Node.Node

255.0.0.0

B

Network.Network.Node.Node

255.255.0.0

C

Network.Network.Network.Node

255.255.255.0

Five questions to answer when
calculating:

1)
How many subnets does the chosen
subnet mask produce?

2)
How many valid hosts per subnet are
available?

3)
What are the valid subnets?

4)
What’s the broadcast address of each
subnet?

5)
What are the valid hosts in each subnet?

Easier than it looks:

1)
How many subnets?


2
x



2 = number of subnets.


x is the number of masked bits, or the 1s.
For example, in 11000000, the number
of ones gives us
2
2



2

subnets. In this
example, there are 2 subnets.

Easy (cont.)

2) How many hosts per subnet?


2
y



2 = number of hosts per subnet.


y is the number of unmasked bits, or the
0s. For example, in 11000000, the number
of zeros gives us
2
6



2

hosts. In this
example, there are 62 hosts per subnet.

Easy

3) What are the valid subnets?


256


subnet mask = block size, or base
number. For example, for subnet mask
255.255.192.0, 256


192 = 64. 64 is the
first subnet. The next subnet would be
the base number plus itself, or 64 + 64 =
128, (the second subnet). You keep
adding the base number to itself until
you reach the value of the subnet mask,
which is not a valid subnet because all
subnet bits would be turned on (1s).

Easy

4) What’s the broadcast address for each
subnet?


The broadcast address is all host bits
turned on, which is the number immediately
preceding the next subnet (example in a
minute).

5) What are the valid hosts?


Valid hosts are the numbers between the
subnets, minus the network (subnet)
numbers and broadcast numbers.

Calculating: Class C, Example 1

Network address = 192.168.10.0

Subnet mask = 255.255.255.192

Just answer the five questions:

1) How many subnets? Since 192 is 2 bits
on (11000000), the answer is
2
2



2 = 2

2) How many hosts per subnet? We have 6
host bits off (11000000), so the equation
would be
2
6



2 = 62

hosts.

Example 1 (cont.)

3) What are the valid subnets?


256
-
192 = 64, which is the first subnet and
also the block size. Keep adding the block
size to itself until you reach the subnet
mask. 64 + 64 = 128. 128 + 64 = 192,
which is invalid because it is the subnet
mask (all subnet bits turned on). Our two
valid subnets are, then, 64 and 128.

Example 1 (cont.)

4) What’s the broadcast address for each
subnet?


The number right before the value of the
next subnet is all host bits turned on and
equals the broadcast address.

5) What are the valid hosts?


These are the numbers between the
subnet and broadcast address.

Example 1 Final Result

Network = 192.168.10.0
Mask = 255.255.255.192

First
subnet

Last
subnet

Subnets (do first)

64

128

Hosts (do last)

65
-

126

129
-

190

Broadcast address (do
second)

127

191

Class C Example 2

Network address = 192.168.10.0

Subnet mask = 255.255.255.224

Follow preceding example. Answers:


First

Next

Next

Next

Next

Last

Subnets

32

64

96

128

160

192

Hosts

33
--
62

65
--

94

97
--

126

129
--

158

161
--

190

193
--

222

Broadcast

63

95

127

159

191

223

Subnetting in Your Head

Host address = 192.168.10.33

Subnet mask = 255.255.255.240

What subnet and broadcast address is the above
IP address a member of?

First, answer question 3 of the big 5:

3) What are the valid subnets?

256


240 = 16. 16 + 16 = 32. 32 + 16 = 48. The
host address is between the 32 and 48 subnets.
The subnet is 192.168.10.32, the broadcast
address is 192.168.10.47, and the valid host
range is 192.168.10.33


192.168.10.46

Calculating Class B Addresses

Network address = 172.16.0.0

Subnet mask = 255.255.192.0

Answer the five questions:

1)
Subnets?
2
2



2 = 2. (192 =
11
000000)

2)
Hosts?
2
14



2 = 16,382.

(6 bits in the third
octet, and 8 in the fourth.)

3)
Valid subnets? 256


192 = 64.


64 + 64 = 128. (these are the 2 subnets as
stated in question 1.)

Class B Example (cont.)

4) Broadcast address for each subnet?



See table.

5) Valid hosts? See table.


First

Next

(Last)

Subnets

172.16.
64.0

172.16.
128.0

Hosts

172.16.64.1


172.16.127.254

172.16.128.1


172.16.191.254

Broadcast

172.16.127.255

172.16.191.255

Class B, Example 2

Network address = 172.16.0.0

Subnet mask = 255.255.240.0

Follow prior questions. (240 =
1111
0000)

The table shows first three subnets, valid hosts, and
broadcast addresses in a Class B 255.255.240.0 mask:


First

Next

Next

Etc

Subnets

16.0

32.0

48.0



Hosts

16.1


31.254

32.1


47.254

48.1


63.254



Broadcast

31.255

47.255

63.255



Subnetting in Your Head, Class B

Q: What subnet and broadcast address is the
IP address 172.16.10.33 255.255.255.224 a
member of?

A: 256


224 = 32. 32 + 32 = 64.


33 is between 32 and 64. However,
remember that in Class B addresses the third
octet is considered part of the subnet, so the
answer would be the 10.32 subnet.


The broadcast is 10.63, since 10.64 is the
next subnet.

In Your Head, Class B Ex. 2

Q: What subnet and broadcast address is
the IP address 172.16.90.66
255.255.255.192 a member of?

A: 256


192 = 64. 64 + 64 = 128. The
subnet is 172.16.90.64. The broadcast
must be 172.16.90.127, since 90.128 is
the next subnet.

Subnetting Class A Addresses


Same procedure as with Class B and
Class C only you must take into account
the 8 additional bits from the second octet.

Class A Example

Network 10.0.0.0

Subnet mask 255.255.0.0 ( /16 = 16 bits on)

1)
Subnets?
2
8

-
2 = 254
.

2)
Hosts?
2
16



2 = 65,534
.

3)
Valid subnets? 256


255 = 1, 2, 3, etc.
(all in the second octet). The subnets
would be 10.0.0.0, 10.2.0.0, 10.3.0.0,
etc., up to 10.254.0.0.

Class A Example (cont.)

4) Broadcast address for each subnet?
10.1.255.255, 10.2.255.255, etc., up to
10.254.255.255.

5) Valid hosts? See table.

First

Next



Last

Subnet

10.1.0.0

10.2.0.0



10.254.0.0

Hosts

10.1.0.1


10.1.255.254

10.2.0.1


10.2.255.254



10.254.0.1
--
10.254.255.254

Broad
-
cast

10.1.255.255

10.2.255.255



10.254.255.255

Appendix

(will be added shortly)

Hex to Binary to Decimal Conversion

Slash Notation (/) Tables

Boolean/Binary Calculation Method