Networking and Communications

Oct 24, 2013 (4 years and 6 months ago)

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An IP address is a 32
-
bit sequence of 1s and 0s.

is usually written as four decimal numbers
separated by periods.

This way of writing the address is called the dotted
decimal format.

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Every IP address has two parts:

1.
Network

2.
Host

classes A,B and C to define
large, medium, and small
networks.

was created to enable
multicasting.

IETF (
The
Internet Engineering

reserves Class E
research
.

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are reserved and cannot
be assigned to devices on
a network.

binary 0s in all host bit
positions is reserved for
the
.

binary 1s in all host bit
positions is reserved for
the
.

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No two machines that connect to a public network can have
and standardized

are a solution to the problem of the
these
ranges

are not routed on the Internet backbone:

Connecting a network using private addresses to the Internet
requires the usage of NAT

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Determines which part of an IP address is the
network field and which part is the host field
.

Follow these steps to determine the subnet

1. Express the subnetwork IP address in
binary form.

2. Replace the network and subnet portion of

3. Replace the host portion of the address with
all 0s.

4. Convert the binary expression back to
dotted
-
decimal notation.

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To determine the number of bits to be used, the
network designer needs to calculate how many
hosts the largest subnetwork requires and the
number of subnetworks needed.

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Subnetting example

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Variable
-
-

VLSM

VLSM allows you to use more than one subnet
-

subnetting a subnet

S

0

207.21.24.0/27

1

207.21.24.32/27

2

207.21.24.64/27

3

207.21.24.96/27

4

207.21.24.128/27

5

207.21.24.160/27

6

207.21.24.192
/
27

7

207.21.24.224/27

Sub
-
sub

Sub
-

Sub 0

207.21.24.192/
30

Sub 1

207.21.24.196/
30

……..

Sub 5

207.21.24.212/
30

Sub 6

207.21.24.216/
30

Sub 7

207.21.24.220/
30

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Supernetting

Using a bitmask to group multiple classful
networks as a single network address.

Same process with route aggregation.

supernetting

is most often applied when the
aggregated networks are
under common

supernetting

can be used so that the addresses appear as
a single large network, or
supernet

Net #

Net IP

First IP

Last IP

1

2

3

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30

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