Software for Sustainable Development

pielibraryInternet and Web Development

Dec 4, 2013 (4 years and 27 days ago)

127 views

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

Dr. Sulayman K. Sowe


UNU
-
IAS, Yokohama, Japan

Science and Technology for Sustainable Societies

sowe@ias.unu.edu

Seminar: UNU
-
IIST, Macau, China, March 9
th
, 2011.

Research Perspectives on Free/Open Source
Software for Sustainable Development

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

In this presentation....

1.


About the presenter
-


Country, Education, Work and Travel Experience

2.
Research Interests

3.
FOSS Key Concepts

4.
Global trend in FOSS adoption and utilization

5.
Policy dilemmas in FOSS

6.
FOSS impact on ICT in developing countries

7.
JSPS
-
UNU Research Project [FOSSINA]
-


Objective, Organization, Timeline, Output to date

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

1. About the presenter


country

NRI

(2009

2010)


Sweden = Rank = 1; Score = 5.65



…………………………………………….


The Gambia = Rank = 77; Score = 3.61

Independence from GB = 18 Feb. 1965

Area ~ 11,000

km
2

(164
th
)


Population ~ 1.7m
(
-
1)

(
ρ
~164/km
2
)

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

Qualification

College/Univ.

Specialization

Postdoctoral

JSPS
-
UNU,
Japan

Open Source Software/ICT4Development

PhD

Aristotle University,
Greece

Software Engineering / Open Source Software

MSc


Sichuan University, PR
China

Computer Science/Databases & AI

BSc.


University of Bristol,
UK


Science Education/Physics


(HTC)


Gambia College,
Gambia


Pedagogy/Physics, Chemistry

1. About the presenter


country
-

Education

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

Projects Experience
:

(1)
FLOSSCom
; (2) SQO
-
OSS ; (3) OSOR; (4)
FLOSSMetrics
; (5)
ICT@Innovation
;

(6)
FLOSSInclude
; (7) EUX2010SEC;
(8)
EnvMon
; (9) Ruby SPA; (10)
Biotec

Africa;
PPAeL

Employer

Positions held


Now

JSPS

[
UNU
-
IAS /GRIPS]
-

JAPAN

Research fellow / Visiting scholar


UNU
-
MERIT
-

NETHERLANDS


Senior Researcher



Aristotle University
-

GREECE


Research Fellow



Medical research Council
-

GAMBIA


Database Manager



University of The Gambia
-

GAMBIA


IT lecturer
(Part
-
time)



The West African Examinations Council (WAEC)


GAMBIA, SIERRALEONE, LIBERIA, GHANA, NIGERIA


Operations Officer, System Admin. , Assistant
Registrar



Ministry of Education
-

GAMBIA


Teacher

Physics, Chemistry, Maths.
Head

science dept.



1. About the presenter


country
-

education
-

Work Experience

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

1. About the presenter


country
-

education
-

Travel Experience

Country No. 25

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

Understand

and
improve

software



development, distribution,



maintenance, support.


(
Model building, Benchmarking,

Methodologies, Metrics Formulation
)


JSPS
-
UNU Research


FOSS opportunities

and
lessons



promote

ICT & innovation,



advocate
sustainable ICT4D,



improve

teaching and learning.

Applied


SE

Research Interests

1.

Open Source Software Development

2.

Knowledge Management & Sharing

3.

Social Network Analysis

4.

Information Systems Evaluation

5.

Human Computer Interaction

6.

Engineering Education

7.

ICT for Development

2. Research Interests


FOSS


Development


Software
Engineering

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development



Free and Open Source Software
(
FOSS
)


Greece/UNU/Europe/Africa.



Open Source (
OS
)


Africa, Europe, USA, Canada, Japan



Libre Software (
LS
)


Spain, France, South American



Free/Libre/Open Source Software (
FLOSS
)


Europe, other parts of the world



Many terms are used by different people …



Free Software (
FS
)


Free Software
GNU

Foundation


USA, Africa


Open Source Software (
OSS
)


O
pen
S
ource
I
nitiative
-
USA, Asia, etc.

3. FOSS key concepts


Terminology

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development



Source code
is
free

and accessible.


You can
only

modified software through the source code!



You can download Source code + whole software for “free” from Internet.



You have the
freedom

(without restrictions) to


download

and use the software as you like,


Install

in as many computers as you like,


modify

or customize the software to suit your needs,


distribute

copies to family and friends,


sell

the software and make some money.


Copyright vs Copyleft

license


What is FOSS

3. FOSS key concepts


Terminology
,

Definition

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

FOSS
Then
: Microsoft vs Linux ?

3. FOSS key concepts


Changing Face of Open Source
-

1

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

FOSS
Now
: The IT industry, Ordinary Users, Gov., Univ. & Colleges are asking



Where

in my operation do I need FOSS?



How

best can I leverage FOSS development, projects, developers and user ?


Now

is software (
AIM
) co
-
existence; moving from FUD to collaborative ecosystems

i.
A
pplying

“best practices” (closed or open) to software process, product, and services

ii.
I
ntegrating

with existing IT infrastructure

iii.
M
aximizing

business value & Learning opportunities


3. FOSS key concepts


Changing Face of Open Source
-

2

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

Forges

(
Finding FOSS
)

3. FOSS Key concepts

Terms, definition,

Landscape


Plethora of FOSS applications

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

Bazaar model

of developing FOSS:
Volunteers, No contracts
,
Flexible

work
schedules,
Meritocracy
(position must be earned through
sustained

contribution).

3
.
FOSS key concepts


Terms, Definition, Landscape,
Development

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

Passive Users


very large


About 90% of community


People who ONLY download and use software, Lurk in
community forums, ask questions


Potential to be active future contributors, evangelists


Active Users


large


About 40%
-

50% of community


People who use & understand software, report bugs

Contributors


significant


15%
-

20% of community


Composed of co
-
developers, bug/patches fixers


Core team

usually very small


Less than 1% of community. About 15 people in Apache


Composed of project leaders, release managers, active
contributors or ‘Code Gods’

A typical FOSS community dynamics



“Onion”

(Crowston

et

al
.
,

2004
)

or

“Concentric”

model

(
Sowe
,

et

al
.

2007
)


3
. FOSS key concepts
-

Terms, Definition, Landscape, Development
,
Communities

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

Transition
Passive Users
Active Users
Transition
Developers
Transition
Core team
/
developers
Co
-
developers
Transition
Report bugs
Suggest new
features
Review code
Submit code
Modify code
Answer to posts
in Lists
/
Forums
Fix bugs
Implement
new features
Integrate
code
Manage
releases
Mundane
project
activities
Essential
project
activities
Core project
coordination

&
management

activities
Module
Owner
CEO/Director

Employee 1, 2, ….n

3
. FOSS key concepts
-

Terms, Definition, Landscape, Development
,
Communities,
Roles

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

Primary Operating System
for
Software
Development

Source: The Eclipse Community Survey. FOSS developer report. June, 2010 (N = 1,696)

Primary Operating System
for
Software
Deployment

4
. Global Trend
-


Development and Deployment

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

October 2010 (N=1948; Companies annual income > $500/yr, > 500 employees)

4
. Global Trend
-


Projected trend up until 2015

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

4
. Global Trend
-


FOSS drivers for Businesses/Enterprises

What was ??

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

Use

and
benefits of adopting
FOSS?

Organization’s current
position

and
barriers to adopting
FOSS?

ACTUATE FOSS Survey, 2009. ( N = 1500; Financial Services, Public Sector, Telecommunications, Manufacturing. North America, U
K,
France, Germany and China)

1

2

1/3

1/4

2/5

Telecoms

4
. Global Trend
-


Adoption & Utilization: Benefits and Barriers

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development


85% of enterprises in Asia, EU, North America are
using

FOSS.


Over 80% of all software will contain FOSS
components
by 2012.


FOSS will
grow

at a 22.4% rate to reach $8.1 billion by 2013.


Europe's
investment

in FOSS =

22 billion ($36 billion in the US).


70.3% (N= 387 IT profs.; LF, 2010) are using Linux
as

cloud platform.

4
. Global Trend
-


Impact Summary

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

FOSS

User
communities

FOSS

Developers

FOSS

Licenses

FOSS

components

Acquisition
& Mergers

Legal experts

Company
employees

Board of directors

Markets

Government
directives

Maintainer
s

Investors

Customers

Industry
standards

IPR

Tickers:


Know your industry / company


Know the FOSS community of developers and users


Vendors and sponsors of the software projects in you target policy


Be flexible

How to accommodate diverse stakeholders? Who is involved and at what stage?

5. Policy Dilemmas in FOSS


Multiplicity

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

Company Stress

FOSS Strain

Policy optimization

Policy Breakpoint or Necking.
Developer & User community
discontent, Company mismatch,
Forking

Repair, hire new developers from
community, work with fork

D

A

B

C


H0:

As FOSS strain is increased, many policies eventually deviate from their
intended target.



H1:

Policy’s inability to reconcile company and community demands will
eventually lead to necking. Case Example; Forking of OpenOffice

Resilience: gather data, be
informed, negotiate, etc.

5. Policy Dilemmas in FOSS

Policy Framework

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

6. FOSS Impact on ICT for Developing Countries

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development


Technology is seen as a key driver for
universal economic and social progress.


Delivery and utilization of technological
goods and services need functioning


Markets, nonmarket actors
(governments, NGOs, local and
international)


Infrastructure and Policies


Agents of change (people) and


Investment in R&D


What trend have we observed in
technology utilization?

6. FOSS Impact


Technology Perspective…

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development


Technology
innovation

and
invention

is almost exclusively a
high
-
income activity


Technology conundrums
for low
-
income countries

1.
How can you innovate on a technology wrapped in a led container?

2.
Who has the rights to study and improve on the (patented) technology?

Maybe it is not so much about “the technology” but the services around the technology?


6. FOSS Impact


Trend in technology innovation…

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

6. FOSS Impact


Africa’s Network readiness…

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

Capacity building in Africa


ICT@Innovation supports ICT
-
Based SMEs in creating a business model with FOSS


Encourage the growth of African ICT industries


Actions:

I.
spreading FOSS business models for enterprises


II.
develop FOSS syllabus for training and building of IT business capacities

6. FOSS Impact


African Initiatives & Experience (1)

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

Consortium of FOSS African collaborators
creating applications for the commons

6. FOSS Impact


African Initiatives & Experience (2)

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

The African Network for Localization (ANLoc)

Mission:
empower Africans to participate in the digital age by removing the last
inch limitations imposed on language usage by the limitation of technology.

6. FOSS Impact


African Initiatives & Experience (1)

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

"
One of the fundamental prerequisites for the achievement of sustainable development is broad public
participation in decision
-
making.

UN

Agenda 21, Chapter 23


FOSS as a key ICT for sustainable development enabler




1.
Empower

individuals & communities

2.
Give technology users
ownership

rights

3.
Accommodates

diverse talents and views

4.
Collaborate

with tech. partners of choice (“Zero”
vendor Lock
-
in
)

5.
Stimulate

indigenous software industries

6.
Create

local jobs

7.
lower

technology acquisition & deployment
costs
.


“…the parameters… which facilitates innovation and ensures access to technology by those who need it
most


are critical for addressing…sustainability challenges..


Govindan Parayil
, 2009

6. FOSS Impact on ICT4D


Sustainable Development

Sustainable development
: “development that
meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
”.
Brundtland
Commission, UN March 20, 1987

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

Title
:


The

Impact

of

F
ree

and

O
pen

S
ource

S
oftware

for

Sustainable

Development

in

Sub
-
Saharan

A
frica

Acronym
:
FOSSINA

Primary Objective:



To investigate the potential impact of FOSS for sustainable development in Sub
-
Saharan Africa.


Secondary Objectives:


SOBJ1:

develop

an in
-
depth understanding of the widespread use
of FOSS in Sub
-
Sahara Africa,


SOBJ2:

provide

guidelines and indicators for policymakers
,


SOBJ3:

outline

an FOSS research and innovation roadmap (RIR)

Project Logo:

7. JSPS Research Project
-

Objectives

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

Google search =
263

(01/03/2011)

Membership = 54

7. JSPS Research Project


Objectives
-
Organization

Budget = JPY 2.2 Million

Duration = 24 months

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

Mapping Secondary Objectives to Tasks

SOBJ1 (widespread use of FOSS) > T1,
T3
, T4, T5,
T6.2

SOBJ2 (Policymaking) >
T3
, T4,
T6.2

SOBJ3 (Roadmap


RIR) >
T3
, T5,
T6.2

7. JSPS Research Project


Objectives
-
Org.
-
Timeline

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development


T1: Literature review

(

a
) ICT & Sustainable development, (
b
) FOSS Innovation, (
c
)
FOSS adoption and diffusion (facts and figures) in SSA.


T2: Data Acquisition

(a) 30
-
8
Case Studies

(b) 10
Interviews

(C) Online
Survey

questionnaire


T3: Data analysis and results

Scenario building,
Roadmapping
, Descriptive stats., Corr.,
Reg., Trends, Forecasting, Modeling, Nonparametric
measures


T4: Policy guidelines formulation

Guidelines

and
indicators

for policy makers to create a
positive environment for creativity.


T5: Research & Innovation Roadmap

International, National, Regional FOSS research and
cooperation priorities
.


T6: Dissemination via PIE method

P
roactive,

I
nteractive and

E
ffective as method to
make target groups aware of, receive, accept and
use FOSSINA research results.


T6.1: Postdoctoral research Website

Built on LAMP stack using either
Drupal


CMS

Disseminate preliminary results (T3, T6.3, T6.4), build
networks of excellence.



T6.2: Workshop or Seminar


T6.3: Call for book chapters

Increase FOSSINA visibility + resource for researchers and
practitioners long after postdoc (Legacy).


T6.4: Publications

7. JSPS Research Project


Objectives
-
Org
.
-
Timeline,
Activities

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

7. JSPS Research Project


Obj.
-
Org.
-
Timeline, Activities,
-
Progress

The “Fossinanometer” measures progress made by the FOSSINA project on monthly basis

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

Output 1: [T6.1]
Project Website:

up and running at:
http://unu.edu/africa/activities/science.html#fossina


Output 2: [T2]
Case Studies Data:
12 Out of 30 completed. 6 have been encoded


Output 3: [T2]
Survey Data
:
3 surveys in progress

http://servnet.ias.unu.edu/limesurvey/index.php?sid=86668&lang=en


http://servnet.ias.unu.edu/limesurvey/index.php?sid=94283&lang=en

http://servnet.ias.unu.edu/limesurvey/index.php?sid=67749&lang=en

7. JSPS Research Project


Obj.
-
Org.
-
Timeline
-
Prog
.
-
,
Actv
.
-
Output 1

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

Output 4: [T6.3]
Book

1.
Sulayman K. Sowe
, Govindan Parayil and Atsushi Sunami (Eds.).
Free and Open Source Software for Sustainable
Development in Developing Countries
. UNU Press, Summer, 2011.


Output 5: [T6.4]
Publications

2.
Sulayman K. Sowe
, Rishab A. Ghosh, Kirsten Haaland (
2011
) A Multi
-
Repository Approach to Study the Topoloy of Open
Source Bugs Communities: Implications for Software and Code Quality
. 3
rd

IEEE International Conference on Information
management and engineering
-
IEEE ICIME 2011, , Zhengzhou, China, May 21
-
22, 2011.

3.
Brendan Barrett and
Sulayman K. Sowe

(
2011
). Could climate science become open source?
OurWorld 2.0
, Jan. 3, 2011

4.
Sulayman K. Sowe
(
2011
). Free and Open Source Software Sustainability and Innovation: Lessons learnt from Sub
-
Saharan African.
International Conference on ICT for Africa,

Nigeria, March 23
-
26, 2011.

5.
Sulayman K Sowe
and Antonio Cerone (
2011
). An Empirical Study of FOSS Developers Patterns of Contribution.
Challenges for Data Linkage and Analysis.
Journal of Science of Computer Programming
, Elsevier
(To appear
)

6.
Sulayman K. Sowe
(
2010
). Free and Open Source Software Business Sustainability and Innovation: Lessons learnt from
African Case Studies.
Technovation

(
To appear
)

7.
Sulayman K. Sowe
(
2010
). Global Trend in the Adoption and Utilization of Free and Open Source Software: Implications
for Policy Efficacy.
Open Source Research Workshop in East Asia
, Nov., 26, 2010, Shimane Univ., Japan.

8.
Sulayman K. Sowe
and Antonio Cerone (
2010
).
Integrating Data from Multiple Repositories to Analyze Patterns of
Contribution in FOSS Projects.
Electronic Communications of the EASST, Vol. 33, pp: 442
-
460, 2010.

9.
Antonio Cerone and
Sulayman K. Sowe

(
2010
). Using Free/Libre Open Source Software Projects as E
-
learning Tools
. 4
th

International Workshop on Foundations and Techniques for Open Source Software Certification
, Pisa, Italy, 17
-
18, Sept.,
pp: 154


170, 2010.




…..continue next page

7. JSPS Research Project


Obj.
-
Org.
-
Timeline
-
Prog
.
-
,
Actv
.
-
Output 2

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

Output 6: [T6]
Presentations


10.
Sulayman K. Sowe (
2010
). “Global Trend in the Adoption and Utilization of Free and Open Source Software: Implications
for Policy Efficacy”, Open Source Research Workshop in East Asia.
Open Source Policy and Promotion of IT
Industries in East Asia, Shimane University,

26th

Nov., 2010


11.
Sulayman K. Sowe (
2010
).”Technology for Sustainable Development: The Case of Free and Open Source Software in
Sub
-
Saharan Africa”,
Hitotsubashi University International Seminars Series
, December 9th, 2010.


12.
Sulayman K. Sowe (
2010
). “Technology Independence and Sustainability with Free and Open Source Software: What is
there for Developing Countries?”,
Opening Ceremony of UNU
-
IAS & JSPS
-
UNU Postdoctoral Fellowships
, UNU
-
IAS, Yokohama, 15


16, November, 2010


13.
Sulayman K. Sowe (
2011
).”Developing and Using Software for the Ne(x)t Millennium: What can we learn from Open
Source Software Projects and Communities? “
JSPS Science Dialogue Lecture, Yoshida High School
,
Yamanashi
Prefectural, JAPAN. January 19th, 2011.


14.
Sulayman K. Sowe (
2011
). “A Reflection on My JSPS Fellowship Research: What lessons can you learn?”.
JSPS
Orientation Lecture Series
, Tokyo, March 2, 2011.


15.
Sulayman K. Sowe (
2011
). “Free and Open Source Software: A Paradigm Shift in Software Development, Deployment,
Maintenance, and Support”.
Seminar, University of The Gambia
, Banjul, The Gambia, March 22
nd
, 2011.
(
Forthcoming
)


16.
Sulayman K. Sowe (
2011
). “Computers Without Microsoft Windows: What is Open Source Software?”
JSPS Science
Dialogue Lecture, TSURU High School
,
Yamanashi Prefectural, JAPAN. January 19th, 2011. (
Forthcoming
)




7. JSPS Research Project


Obj.
-
Org.
-
Timeline
-
Prog
.
-
,
Actv
.
-

Output 3

S. K. Sowe {sowe@ias.unu.edu}, UNU
-
IAS, Japan. March, 2011
|

Research Perspectives on FOSS for Sustainable Development

Thank You For Your Attention !!!

Science and Technology for Sustainable Societies (UNU
-
IAS)

The National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS)

Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)