Wireless to Come

photohomoeopathAI and Robotics

Nov 24, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Wireless to Come

(Wi2Come)

Electronics in Ambient Intelligence



J.M. López
-
Villegas

Dept. Electrònica, UB

Present & Future Wireless world


Technology Challenges

OUTLINE OF THE TALK


Conclusions

The Ambient Intelligence Paradigm

Present Wireless World


Range (m)

Data rate (bps)

ZigBee

Bluetooth

GSM/GPRS

UMTS

802.11.b

802.11.a/g/n

<0.1M

1M

10M

100M

>1G

1

10

100

1K

UWB

10K

WLAN

Wi
-
Fi

IEEE
802.11

WPAN

Bluetooth

ZigBee

IEEE
802.15

UWB

WWAN

GSM/GPRS

UMTS

Wimax

Present Wireless World


GPS/Galileo

TV
-
Radio
Broadcast


Coexistence of main powered and
battery powered devices.



Complex data transfer between devices
and systems, dependent on standards
and/or data rates.



Human operation required



Present Wireless World


WSN

RF/Mixed signal Interfaces

Signal Processing Systems

Future Wireless World


ZigBee+?

UWB?

Coexistence of main powered, battery powered and

Autonomous devices.


Seamless

data transfer between devices and
systems, regardless of standards and/or data rates.


Improved processing capabilities
.

Human operation

NOT

usually required



Future Wireless World


Autonomous devices:


Self powered by harvesting energy from the
environment.

EM Energy, vibrations, temperature gradients

Future Wireless World


Autonomous devices:


Combined with sensor of very different kinds to
configure the primary nodes of a global network.

Pressure, temperature, flux, light, humidity,
drugs, etc..

Future Wireless World


Autonomous devices:


Interconnected between them and with other
devices using short range low data rate RF links.

Future Wireless World


Seamless data transfer:


Continuous flux of information from the
sources to the processing units, through
RF/Mixed signal interfaces, and back

Future Wireless World


Improved processing capabilities:


Distributed and pervasive computing.

Future Wireless World


AUTONOMOUS
DEVICES

UBIQUITY


Technology could be located anywhere

Furniture, clothing, construction materials …

Technology could sense anything

Biometrics, weather, security tips …

Means

Because

The Ambient Intelligence Paradigm


SEAMLESS DATA
TRANSFER

TRANSPARENCY


Means

Because

Technology will vanish in the user’s background

Most data processing and transfer will be hidden
to humans

The Ambient Intelligence Paradigm


IMPROVED
PROCESSING
CAPABILITIES

INTELLIGENCE


Means

Because

It will learn from us and will respond accordingly

The environment will be aware of the human
presence and will be capable to recognize
individuals.

The Ambient Intelligence Paradigm


Ubiquity, transparency and Intelligence
, the main
characteristics of AMI, allow new applications in
different fields, among others:

Continuous health care

The Ambient Intelligence Paradigm


Tracking and surveillance

The Ambient Intelligence Paradigm


Domotics and Offimatics…

The Ambient Intelligence Paradigm


The main
technological Challenges

which must be
addressed to implement the diversity of devices
constituting an AMI environment are:

Packaging

Powering

System architecture

Technology Challenges


However, before AMI becomes a reality many
innovations have to be realized, both hardware
and software related.

Packaging:


Using available technologies it is not yet possible
the monolithic integration of a whole RF system
(RF SoC).
The bottle neck is the integration of
passive component.


Technology Challenges







ç


Actives: 20 %
-

30 %

Passives: 70 %
-

80 %

% Cost & Volume RF System

As long as RF SoC is not a real option, an alternative
is the
System in Package approach

(RF SiP)

RF Compact Module

Actives

Passives

Technology Challenges


Carrier Substrate

Keys of success of RF
-
SiP approach
:

Combines together the reliability and
reproducibility
of the RF SoC approach

with the
versatility of the
traditional hybrid implementation
.


Up to 80% of the passive

components in an RF
system
could be embedded or integrated
, keeping
unchanged the system performance with an
important reduction in size, power consumption and
noise
.


Performance and cost could be optimized using
the
best available technology for

implementing
each part of the system.



Technology Challenges


RF
-
SiP approach example
:
(PSK2ASK converter module)

Hybrid Implementation

433.92 MHz Input Frequency


RF
-
SiP Approach

2 GHz Input Frequency


Technology Challenges


RF
-
SiP approach example
:
(PSK2ASK converter module)

Embedded
Transformer

SMD
Resistor

VCO core
RFIC

BPSK Input

ASK Output

Technology Challenges


Powering:


Self

powering

of

autonomous

devices

is,

probably,

the

most

challenging

issue

in

the

development

of

AMI,

that’s

why

important

R&D

efforts

are

carried

out

in

fields

like
:



Technology Challenges


The development of New materials and Techniques
for efficient energy harvesting.

The improvement of low power IC design techniques.

(New Piezoelectric, thermoelectric materials ...
)

(RF, Analogue, Digital and Mixed Signal
)

Technology Challenges


Power Density (

W/cm
3
)
1Year lifetime
Power Density (

W/cm
3
)
10 Year lifetime
Source
of information
Solar (Outdoors)
15,000 - direct sun
150 - cloudy day
15,000 - direct sun
150 - cloudy day
Commonly Available
Solar (Indoors)
6 - office desk
6 - office desk
Experiment
Vibrations
100 - 200
100 - 200
Experiment and Theory
Acoustic Noise
0.003 @ 75 Db
0.96 @ 100 Db
0.003 @ 75 Db
0.96 @ 100 Db
Theory
Daily Temp. Variation
10
10
Theory
Temperature Gradient
15 @ 10 ºC gradient
15 @ 10 ºC gradient
Stordeur and Stark
1997
Shoe Inserts
330
330
Starner 1996
Shenck & Paradiso 2001
Batteries
(non-recharg. Lithium)
89
7
Commonly Available
Batteries
(rechargeable Lithium)
13.7
0
Commonly Available
Gasoline
(micro heat engine)
403
40.3
Mehra et. al. 2000
Fuel Cells (methanol)
560
56
Commonly Available
Comparison of Energy Scavenging Sources
Yellow area denotes sources with a constant
power

output.

Blue area denotes sources with a fixed amount of
energy
.

Efficient energy harvesting

Technology Challenges


Example of Energy harvesting from mechanical vibrations,

using piezoelectric materials.

Efficient energy harvesting

Power vs Rload
0,00E+00
2,00E-04
4,00E-04
6,00E-04
8,00E-04
1,00E-03
0
200000
400000
600000
800000
1000000
Rload (Ohms)
Power (W)
Power vs Rload
0
0,00005
0,0001
0,00015
0,0002
0,00025
0,0003
0,00035
0
200000
400000
600000
800000
1E+06
Rload (Ohms)
Power (W)
+

-

+

-

+

-

Technology Challenges


Low power IC design techniques

Reduce

voltage

swing

by

using

inductors

&

transformers
.


Vss

Vcc

Vc

Vbias

Vbias

Vc

Increase

as

much

as

possible

the

reference

impedance

to

reduce

current
.

(Q?)


System Architecture:


Small

size

and

low

power

requirements

of

autonomous

devices

requires

a

reduction

of

system

complexity
:




Both

RF

Front
-
Ends

and

Digital

Back
-
Ends

should

be

properly

designed,

avoiding

over

dimensions

or

extra

capabilities
.




RF Front
-
Ends:

Direct conversion architectures
instead of superheterodine.


Digital Back
-
Ends:

Sleep & weak Up modes management.
Medium Access Control to avoid
collisions


Technology Challenges


Conclusions


Future wireless world will be characterized by
the presence of self powered, autonomous
devices; distributed everywhere, able to sense
almost everything, connected one to each other
without human interaction and with improved
computing capabilities.


All of us will be surrounded by technology. It
will be hidden for us but it will be aware about
our presence and able to respond to our
needs.