CLOUD COMPUTING: PROSPECTS

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Dec 4, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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CLOUD COMPUTING: PROSPECTS
AND CHALLENGES


BY


PROF. (MRS.) S. C. CHIEMEKE

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, BENIN CITY


AGENDA


Introduction



Characteristics of Cloud Computing



Types of Cloud Computing



Deployment Types



Benefits of using Cloud Computing



Challenges of Cloud Computing in Nigeria



Solutions



Security Issues to consider before moving to the
cloud



Conclusion

What is Cloud Computing?


Cloud Computing
is a general term used to describe a new
class of network based computing that takes place over the
Internet,


basically a step on from Utility Computing


a collection/group of integrated and networked hardware,
software and Internet infrastructure (called a platform).


Using the Internet for communication and transport
provides hardware, software and networking services to
clients


These platforms hide the complexity and details of the
underlying infrastructure from users and applications by
providing very simple graphical interface or API (Applications
Programming Interface).



Cloud computing

is Internet
-
based computing, whereby
shared resources, software and information are provided to
computers and other devices on
-
demand, like the electricity
grid.


The cloud computing is a culmination of numerous attempts
at large scale computing with seamless access to virtually
limitless resources.



on
-
demand computing, utility computing, ubiquitous
computing, autonomic computing, platform computing,
edge computing, elastic computing,
grid computing
, …


A number of characteristics define cloud data,
applications services and infrastructure:


Remotely hosted
: Services or data are hosted on remote
infrastructure.


Ubiquitous
: Services or data are available from anywhere.


Commodified
: The result is a utility computing model
similar to traditional that of traditional utilities, like gas
and electricity
-

you pay for what you would want!

CHARACTERISTICS OF CLOUD
COMPUTING


National Institute of Standards and
Technology

(NIST) defines cloud computing
as:


...a model for enabling convenient, on
-
demand network
access to a shared pool of configurable computing
resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications,
and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and
released with minimal management effort or service
provider interaction (Metz, 2010).

Five characteristics of cloud computing is evident:


On


demand self service


With

cloud
-
based

services,

many

of

the

steps

you

follow

to

install

applications

can

be

eliminated

and

with

a

few

clicks

of

a

button,

an

application

can

be

up

and

running

in

a

matter

of

minutes
.


Resource pooling


With current systems and data
centers
, IT departments
often get stuck in a silo of their own creation. Institutions
rarely share computing resources, and if they do, it is
cumbersome to create and manage workflows that utilize
these shared resources. With the cloud, users can
provision computing resources based on their needs, and
then destroy those resources, giving them back to the
shared pool once their needs are met.



Rapid Elasticity


Systems

change

constantly
.

To

create

the

best

experience

for

users,

IT

departments

often

must

scale

or

update

systems

to

meet

user

demand
.

Scaling

or

upgrading

a

system

currently

in

production

can

be

cumbersome

and

resource

intensive

for

an

IT

department
.


Broad Network Access


Traditionally,

users

have

to

install

software

to

their

computers

and

upgrade

systems

to

handle

the

programs
.

If

you're

away

from

your

computer,

you

may

not

have

access

to

the

software,

which

can

cause

frustration
.

Today,

much

of

the

software

we

use

is

available

over

the

Internet


Measured Services


Cloud

providers

charge

IT

departments

based

on

their

use

of

computing

resources
.

On

the

other

hand,

IT

departments

can

use

these

metering

(or

measured)

services

to

scale

resources

up

and

down

based

on

information

gathered

from

these

particular

tools
.

TYPES OF CLOUD COMPUTING

Software as
service


-

SaaS

Information
as a service
-

IaaS

Platform as a
service

-

PaaS

TYPES OF CLOUD (Contd)


Software as a Service (SaaS
): Software delivery service that
provides access to different computing software on the web. SaaS
delivers a single application through the browser on thousands of
customers using a multitenant.


Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS):
Infrastructure comprises of
hardware, software, networking components, servers and storage
space. IaaS allows a company to pay for only as much capacity of
data as needed.


Platform

as

a

Service

(PaaS)

offers

developers

a

medium

through

which

they

can

create

and

develop

software

applications

virtually
.

For

example,

Joomla

and

wordpress

configured

systems

which

allows

remote

software

application

development
.

PaaS

providers

use

API’s

website

portals

or

gateway

software

installed

on

customers

computers
.

PaaS

providers

include

microsoft

Azure,

Google

Maps

etc
.

CLOUD “APPLICATIONS”


SaaS

resides here


Most common Cloud /
Many providers of
different services


Examples
: Sales Force,
Gmail, Yahoo! Mail,
Quicken Online


Advantages
: Free, Easy,
Consumer Adoption


Disadvantages
: Limited
functionality, no control
or access to underlying
technology

Cloud “Platforms”


“Closed” environments


Typically applications must be
developed with a particular
platform in mind


Multi tenant environments


Highly scalable multi tier
architecture


Examples
: Google App Engine,
Heroku
,
Mosso
, Engine Yard,
Joyent

or Force.com (
SalesForce

Dev Platform)


Advantages
: Good for developers,
more control than “Application”
Clouds, tightly configured


Disadvantages
: Restricted to what
is available, other dependencies


CLOUD “INFRASTRUCTURE”


IaaS

is the delivery of
technology infrastructure as
an on demand scalable service


Usually billed based on
usage


Usually multi tenant
virtualized environment


Can be coupled with
Managed Services for OS
and application support


Advantages
: Full control of
environments and
infrastructure


Disadvantages
: premium price
point, limited competition.

DEPLOYMENT TYPES
-

CLOUD
USAGE


Private Clouds


Usually owned by an Enterprise


Functionality not exposed to the Customer


Within the boundaries (firewall) of the organization


E.g. CBN, FBN and UBA and MultiLinks have clouds designed
by Onlak Computers (Cbusiness day)


Public Clouds


Enterprises use Cloud functionality from others


Offer services to users outside of the Enterprise


Exist beyond firewall, fully hosted and managed by
the vendor


e.g. Rivers Cloud in Rivers State with support from
MTN and Globacom, Amazon's Web Services and
Google appEngine .


Hybrid Clouds


Mix of Private and Public Clouds


Partial Resource Outsourcing for Cost Reduction


Control over Sensitive Data & Code
e.g. Junipper, IBN

BENEFITS


Ease of use


Deploy infrastructure with
a mouse or API


No cabling,
screwdrivers, racking,
unboxing, buying


Middle of the night


Do it yourself remotely
from anywhere anytime

Contd..


Flexibility and Storage

1.
Storage of files in the cloud
allows for development and
easy access of office files from
anywhere. This gives room for
workers to work together even
when far apart, provided
internet connection is
available (Arno, 2011)

2.
Control your infrastructure
with your application
demands.

3.
No need to purchase
expensive hardware's for
scalability.


Contd..


Reliability

1.
Based on High quality
hardware

2.
Design for failures:


Automatically spin up
replacements


Use multiple clouds

Contd..

Time Saving


Easy access to
information is guaranteed
as can be seen with Yahoo
mail, Gmail and mailbox
generally.


It is fast and easy in
contrast to time required
to download and install a
software (Arno, 2011)


Reduced Cost


Prevents illegal
reproduction and
distribution of software


Payment is made for only
software used (
Hinchcliffe
,
2009)


No need to buy in advance,
Pay
-
as
-
you
-
go e.g. Sales
force company charges
from $5 to $25 per month
for its services.



CHALLENGES OF CLOUD
COMPUTING IN NIGERIA


PRIVACY


C
ompany’s data are entrusted to system managed by
companies on remote servers. The company managing
customers information can accidentally or intentionally reveal
it or utilize it for unauthorized purpose (Miller, 2011).


Privacy statements written by cloud providers are written in
very complicated ways and are not understood by customers
(Pardeep, 2011). Cloud will also be a very attractive targets
for hackers
.


DATA AVAILABILITY


Data

availability

is

limited

to

internet

access

or

connection
.

The

epileptic

power

supply

in

Nigeria

makes

this

a

serious

challenge
.

Customers

want

to

move

around

with

their

information

by

storing

their

data

on

larger

memory

chips

and

carry

it

around
.

(Ume,

2012
)


TRADITIONAL SECURITY


Cloud

application

integrating

platforms

are

not

securely

created
.

Infrastructures

used

to

integrate

with

cloud

are

not

also

fully

secured
.

This

is

because

the

knowledge

of

authentication

and

authorization

of

cloud

program

have

not

been

fully

explored

(Pardeep,

2011
)
.

SOLUTIONS


Privacy and Control
: This can be assured by keeping
cloud private or having a tight service level
agreement (SLAs).


Accessibility
:

Filtering

a

packet
-
sniffer

output

to

specific

services

as

an

effective

way

to

address

security

issues

shown

by

anomalous

packets

directed

to

specific

ports

or

services
.

Shutting

down

of

unused

services,

keep

patches

updated

and

reduce

permission

and

access

rights

of

application

and

users


Authentication
: Use of encrypted protocol wherever
possible (Basta, 2007).

SOLUTIONS (CONTD..)


Web

Applications
:

X
10

language

is

looked

at

as

one

way

to

achieve

better

use

of

the

cloud

capabilities

of

massive

parallel

processing

and

concurrency


Data

Verification
:

Talks

are

around

the

possibility

of

employing

resource

isolation

to

ensure

security

of

data

during

processing,

by

isolating

the

processor

caches

in

virtual

machines

and

isolating

those

virtual

caches

from

the

Hypervisor
.

Security Issues to consider before moving
to the cloud


There are significant security concerns that need to be reviewed when considering
moving critical applications and sensitive data :


Where’s the data?
Your cloud provider should agree in writing to provide the level
of security required for your customers.


Who has access?
Anyone considering using the cloud needs to look at who is
managing their data and what types of controls are applied to these individuals.


What are your regulatory requirements?
You must ensure that your cloud
provider is able to meet the regulatory requirements and is willing to undergo
certification, accreditation, and review.


Do you have the right to audit?
The cloud provider should agree in writing to the
terms of audit.


What type of training does the provider offer their employees?
Knowing how
your provider trains their employees is an important item to review.


What type of data classification system does the provider use?

Is the data
classified? How is your data separated from other users? You will also want to
know what type of encryption is being used.




What are the service level agreement (SLA) terms?
The SLA serves as a
contracted level of guaranteed service between the cloud provider and
the customer that specifies what level of services will be provided.


What is the long
-
term viability of the provider?
How long has the cloud
provider been in business and what is their track record. If they go out of
business, what happens to your data? Will your data be returned, and if
so, in what format?


What happens if there is a security breach?
If a security incident occurs,
what support will you receive from the cloud provider?


What is the disaster recovery/business continuity plan (DR/BCP)?
While
you may not know the physical location of your services, it is physically
located somewhere. All physical locations face threats such as fire, storms,
natural disasters, and loss of power. In case of any of these events, how
will the cloud provider respond, and what guarantee of continued services
are they promising?


CONCLUSION


While many people have concerns about its current
uses, there is no doubt that it is changing the way we
provide systems and services. The more informed IT
departments are about the cloud, the better the
position they will be in when making decisions about
deploying, developing, and maintaining systems in
the cloud. The decision to move to cloud
-
based
services should fit into the organization’s overall
corporate objectives. Before any services are moved
to the cloud, the organization’s senior management
should ensure such actions are consistent with their
strategic plans.

References



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Thank You