Zero-Emissions Smart Home: Design Proposal

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Dec 4, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Zero
-
Emissions Smart Home:

Design Proposal


Team members
:

Arinze Anozie

Nicolas Di Noia

Amir Ali

Dharampreet Multani

Eric Owusu
-
Seykere

Justin Ng


ENG 1000
-

Assignment 1

Prof. Brendan M. Quine


Selected Project:

Smart Homes (zero
-
emissions)



2


Nohdam9 Engineering Corp.

Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home


Table of

Contents

ABSTRACT

4

NEEDS ASSESSMENT

5

TECHNICAL BA
CKGROUNDS

6

Integrated Control Systems

7

Building Materials

7

Renewable Energy

8

Rainwater Ca
tchment System

8

Waste Management

8

Composting

9

Septic Systems

9

PROBLEM DEFINITIONS
AND INITIAL CONCEPTS

9

Integrated Control Systems

10

Concept review

10

Building Materials

10

Exterior W
alls & Flooring

10

Covering Material

11

Window Types

11

Renewable Energy

12

Concept revi
ew

12

Energy Solution

12

Safety Hazards

13

Rainwater Catchment System

13

Materials

13

3


Nohdam9 Engineering Corp.

Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home

Waste Management

14

Concept review

14

Differential solutions

14

Prefer
red solution

15

Dimensions of the proposed tank

16

COST & MAINTENANCE

16

Integrated Control Systems

16

Bu
ilding Materials

17

SIP Costs

17

Renewable Energy

17

Initial inst
allation cost analysis

17

Initial cost of maintenance

17

Rainwater Catchment System

17

Waste Management

17

Initial installation cost analysis

17

Initial cost of maintenance

18

TIMESCALES

18

SUMMARY

19

APPENDIX

20

WORKS CITED

23




4


Nohdam9 Engineering Corp.

Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home

Abstract


People
’s
striv
ing

for increased comfort and

financial independence, the densification

of
congested urban areas, a strong

increase in traffic levels
,

and the growing

smog problem
all cause

ever rising stress levels
to the
individual. Quality of

life is being hampere
d and
there are negative

health effects. All this, coupled

with frequent news about the global

climate change, gradually leads to a

change of thought throughout society.

The concepts of climate change and global warming have gone viral as a result of
numerous awareness campaigns regarding the protection of the earth

and all its remaining
goodness
.
I
t is not hard to see that a vast amount of effort has been

made
by scientists and
engineers to combat the problems that

arise when trying to go green
. Numer
ous
innovations such as the electric car are beginning to come into the picture. That cannot be
said for a
mainstream Zero
-
Emissions (ZE),
Susta
inable Smart House
.

ZE
Sustainable
Smart Houses
may
play a great role in helping to combat global warming and ul
timately
save the Earth.

Problems arise when a self
-
sustained house is to be built. The main problem is combining
multiple innovations into one uniform piece of technology that works in flawless
harmony with each component. The scope of the preliminary des
ign is to find out how to
achieve this technological breakthrough using a wealth of technology from the fields of
hydrology, waste management, and renewable energy through inexpensive, safe and
modern methods. In addition to that, our sustainable house sho
uld not only be able to
efficiently manage water, waste and energy but also produce its own water, process its
own waste and possess its own source of sustainable energy.

In order to tackle these problems effectively, the engineering department
1

of Nohdam9

began by carrying out substantial background research. The major purpose of the
research was to find out
the best practices, benchmarks and current state of sustainable
housing technology
. Additionally, a simple but powerful decision matrix
was developed
to analyse how each component fit into the main project. For each subsection of the
project, various concepts were strictly
an
alyzed
. These concepts were passed through a
set of
criteria and double weighting system to determine their feasibility in the pr
oject. A
great deal of effort was put in place to ensure no important variable was ignored so as to
prevent unforeseen circumstances
, and generate functional and efficient design
recommendations
.





1

See
Table
1
-

Team member information

5


Nohdam9 Engineering Corp.

Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home

Needs Assessment


In Canada:


Total

Green House Gas

emissions in 2008 were 734

megatonnes (Mt) of carbon
dioxide equivalent

(CO
2

eq), approximately 81% of which was generated from
energy sources, (includes all energy production and consumption). The remaining
19% was largely generated by agricultural source
s and industrial processes, with
smaller contributions from waste and solvent and other product uses.”

(Environment Canada)

According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):

“In the United States, approximately 4
metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO
2
) per
person per year (about 17% of total U.S. emissions) are emitted from people's
homes. The three main sources of greenhouse gas emissions from homes are
electricity use, heating and waste.”
(Uni
ted States Environmental Protection
Agency)

Our client requests that we design a Smart, Zero
-
Emissions house. This house should fit
five residents, have two bathrooms, generate its own resources for human survival,
and
produce zero
-
emissions as well a
s be able to process its own waste
. Our client requires
that this house design be viable for any prepared location and that it cost $500,000 or
less.

If we
retain zero
-
emissions
as
an immutable goal for our project,
we can then reason how
it follows that f
or a house to produce zero
-
emissions and still serve its functionality as a
house it will have to incorporate alternative solutions to some of the common
requirements of a human residence. In fact, a zero
-
emissions house will need to have
access to emissio
ns
-
free electricity, heating, and waste management. For a true zero
-
emissions solution we might even take into account the food that is consumed by the
house’s residents, since in Canada alone agriculture is a top source of greenhouse gas
emissions.

Arguments for reducing carbon emissions
due to environmental concerns
are
multitud
inous and hotly contested
. Aside from the environmental debate, important

reasons why this project is worthwhile are those that relate to improving human quality of
life.
The
re are
important
economic incentives for being off
-
grid, government grants for
reduci
ng emissions
, and the potential of generating surplus resources that may be used to
generate

revenue.

6


Nohdam9 Engineering Corp.

Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home

I
t
could
be argued that mainstream house design and technology pract
ices are outdated
and lacking in the functionality necessary to achieve the goal of zero
-
emissions.
This
project aims to contribute design recommendations for
home technology to

become more
sustainable and reduce emissions in a way to
enable customers to
e
xploit
the
full potential
of their residential products.

Technical Background
s


According to the
EPA
, green or sustainable building is the system of designing structures
and utilizing processes that are environmentally responsible and resource
-
efficient
throughout a structure’s life
-
cycle from
s
iting to design, construction, operation,
maintenance, renov
ation and deconstruction (U.S.EPA, 2010). The American Institute of
Architects’ Committee on the Environment (AIA/COTE) defines sustainability as the
enduring prosperity of all living things. Sustainable design seeks to create communities,
buildings and pr
oducts that contribute to this vision
(Sarte)
.

The perceived use of a structure usually defines the design concept of a building
(Micheal Bauer)
. Ignoring climatic considerations, this
actually plays a very important
role in the design of energy
-
efficient buildings. For instance, there could be time
-
related
stipulations for adhering to desired indoor conditions. An office would
n’t

need to be
warmed
-
up to room temperature at night simply
due to the fact that typically no energy
consumers
are
present at night in an office. In the case of a residential building, a
bedroom would have to be warm enough to rest in. In respect to this, our residential
smart home design concepts have to be tailo
red to
their

perceived use
s
.

There a
re

a
number of factors that
have

to be considered during the design of a residential
structure. These factors play a huge role in the relationship between the level of well
-
being and a healthy indoor climate. Buildings are an important factor for our health and
quality of life
(Micheal Bauer)
. Naturally, man’s well
-
being and biorhythm can be
influenced in many ways. These range from air temperature to indoor noise levels,
thermal comfort to the type of clothing worn during activities and so much more. It is
v
ery easy to notice that a substantial number of these factors depend on the building. As a
result the building plays a huge role in affecting the comfort level of a person.

Preliminary design of our sustainable home is tailored by ten measures of sustaina
ble
design which were developed by the American Institute of Architects’ Committee on the
Environment (AIA/COTE)
2
.





2

See

Table
2

-

Source: AIA COTE Mission. http://www.aia.org/practicing/

7


Nohdam9 Engineering Corp.

Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home

Integrated Control Systems

The goal of

S
mart
H
ome


technology is integrating various services into a single,
simple, accessible system tha
t allows for the monitoring and control of a house and its
features. While traditional smart home systems may focus on a wide range of controls,
such as lighting, home entertainment, or security
(Robert C. Elsenpeter)
,

a
sustai
nable

smart home

will primarily be required to control and balance critical systems such as
energy generation, energy usage,
water &
waste management, and climate controls.

We may look toward smart home technologies that enable home automation for the best
practices in designing a sustainable, zero
-
emissions, smart home that users can inhabit
and operate without additional training or lifestyle changes. Smart home technologie
s can
enable increased collaboration between the sustainable features of a house in order to
finely tune and control the aspects of zero
-
emissions living. Sustainable Smart home
technology will increase the appeal to the mass market by taking a lot of the
required
maintenance off the residents’ hands.

Building Materials

The following thought process illustrates the
choices and
variety
found when searching
for
technologies available for material design:



What type of construction materials
will

be used to bu
ild the
ZE Sustainable

House
?

W
ill
these materials be efficient for
all season
weather conditions?

Can
they fulfill the requirement
s

for the
zero
-
emissions
and
sustainable
living criteria?



The specific requirement
s

for construction materials are:

o

House
walls

and
flooring
:
There are several available “green” building
options available, such as SIP (Structural Insulated Panels), ICF (I
nsulated
Concrete Forms), and DIRTT
wall systems
.

o

C
overing

and
insulating

material
s:



Choices for covering materials come in

glass, polyethylene film,
fiberglass reinforced panels, and doub
le
-
layer structured panels
.



Covering material must be chosen so that maximum visible light is
allowed in the house
.



In order to create
a
modernized green house design

which links the
interior

and exterior, glass would play an important role.

o

What house
windows

would be best for criteria such as heating, cooling,
lighting, and climate conditions?



Window selection can consist of double pane or triple pane
window
s
. This selection must be made acc
ording to the climat
e
conditions

in accordance with the house design
.

8


Nohdam9 Engineering Corp.

Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home



Several factors must be considered for the window selection
,

t
hese
include: U
-
value, Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), and
Visible Light Transmittance (VT).

Renewable Energy

For a stan
dard five member household
the

kind of energy
needed
on a daily basis

will
exceed that available from a single source of
alternative energy
. In other words,
a single
home
-
energy device
will not be enough to ensure that the house will
not

be without
power

at times of peak usage
. Through the combination of multiple renewable energy
sources such as wind generators, solar panels, and battery banks,
the energy demands of a
five person
household can be met.

Inside the house, a smart computer system will monitor

all processes and functions that
occur throughout the process of acquiring the energy and using it to charge the batteries.
It should be able to remotely make any changes necessary to ensure the flow of electricity
is stable.

Using this SMART computer sys
tem, residents can monitor more than just the house’s
electrical system. It can also be used to control the temperature in the house (thermostat).
It can measure the outside temperature and adjust the temperature within the home to a
certain level without
the need for human interaction.

Rainwater Catchment System

Rainwater catchment systems make use of the house gutters and roof shape to collect
rainwater as it falls on the house and trickles down due to gravity. The water is led by the
house gutters throug
h a series of filters and then to a treatment tank that disinfects the
water and stores it until it is required for household use.

The most important thing for building the rainwater catchm
ent system is that the material
that is used for this system must n
ot leach toxins into the water; material should be
nontoxic and non
-
leaching.

The main problem and disadvantage involved in this system is the risk of disease from
bacteria and viruses which may be in the water, which is a major problem in this system
beca
use the life and health of people are
at

risk. The solution is that chlorine must be
added to the water for killing bacteria and diseases. Furthermore, filters must be used for
getting rid of the smell and taste of chlorine to purify the water. Another pro
blem is the
location of the tank because it must be close enough to the house and its gutters to run
down the water into the tank.

W
aste
M
anagement

Facts about waste production in a house:

9


Nohdam9 Engineering Corp.

Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home

On average each person in a house produces 0.5 kilogram
s

of garbage

per
day

(Environment Canada)
;

therefore a
household
of five people will be producing 2.5

kilograms of garbage each day.

W
aste management structures and procedures
can
be put
into place
to enable resident
s

to
be self
-
dependent in times of
waste disposal
.

This helps
the resident save money and be
comfortable
when having to dispose
of garbage.

1.

Human waste as a means of generating bio
-
fuels:

Bio
-
fuels are created when
bio
-
mass is
burnt under high pressure

to produce
energy.
Common c
ombustible waste
s in a house are fe
ces and
leftover
food.

Clothing and waste food cannot be handled by simple means of incineration due
to the emissions of harmful gasses into the atmosphere causing harm to the
house’s inhabitant
s

and the environment
.

S
olid

wastes like plastic containers
, metallic cans
,

and rubber materials can be
sent to a compressing machine
that is part of
the incinerator in

order to
accumulate

large
amounts of waste

in very small spaces
.

2.

The waste
processing
m
achine is a turbine that has a combustion chamber that
burns the food and waste material to produ
ce methane gas at high pressure,
turning the turbines in water to produce high currents thereby inducing
electricity.
T
he turbines work
using
the principle
s

of

electricity

generation.

C
omposting

Plant

soils can be fertilized with biodegradable wastes like
f
eces and waste food. This
idea can be infused into the bio
-
fuel machine that
will decompose the biodegradable
waste.

Septic

S
ystems

S
eptic

tanks can be used
in this system
via the process of storing
waste in an anaerobic
bacteria environme
nt which gradually decomposes the waste.

This decomposed waste
can
then
be disposed of by
creating an underground
septic

drain
age

field
.

The use of the
septic

tank wil
l be go
od since it will provide

waste management option
s

for the independent house.

Its efficiency and effectiveness is reduced
however,
when the
solid sediments have to be removed from the tank
.

O
ccasionally this can produce
unwanted scents and

it

can be

very co
stly getting the

solid waste out

of the tank and
maintaining it in

healthy conditions.

T
he size of the tank a
nd the amount of waste that
wi
ll be produced each day will require the tank to be removed and checked over short
periods.

Problem Definitions and
Initial Concepts

10


Nohdam9 Engineering Corp.

Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home

Integrated Control Systems

A main facet of the problem of designing zero
-
emissions, sustainable houses is
coordinating the various technologies and design features that are in place to provide the
inhabitants all they require. These featur
es need to work in tandem to ensure they are all
configured toward congruent goals and that they are the goals set by the inhabitants.

To integrate various technologies, smart home systems make use of standards. Some
existing standards in home automation a
re the X10 electrical communications system, IP
or internet protocol, and a variety of wireless RF standards (e.g. 802.11x) (Robert C.
Elsenpeter, 2003). These standards are used to communicate between household devices
and computer systems that use softwa
re to control automated processes.

Home automation may be especially useful in controlling solar shading systems
(Kanargelidis)
, climate control

systems, electrical grid usage

(e.g. shutting off devices in
standby mode), manag
ing and monitoring water
and waste
cycles, aiming solar panels
and wind
-
mills for electrical energy generation, and even in waste collection and cleanup
(e.g. vacuum
ing or

lawn mowing).

Concept review

As Stasinopolous et al state, “control [software] engin
eering has a critical role to play
throughout all of society to help reduce energy, water and materials waste and help
achieve sustainability.”
(Peter Stasinopoulos)

Integrated control software systems exist f
or both Windows and Linux
(Goodwin)
.
Although standards vary, it would be wise for a sustainable smart home design to take
these standards into account from the initial phases. This would ensure that each critical
system be lin
ked and accessible to the control system.

Some mathematical and software concepts that such a system will encounter are:



Thermal Mass equations and building heat capacity
.



Battery & electrica
l energy production and storage

(Work and voltage, amperage,
sto
rage formulas)
.



Solar

and

wind energy generation formulas (
e.g. t
urbine and generator maths
)
.



Weather
s
cience & forecasting


info acquisition and interpretation
.



Misc. energy generation systems sensors and data (e.g.
piezoelectric

sensors)
.



Human activity

monitoring and feedback (e.g. turning lights off after users, or
reminding them to sort wastes accordingly)
.

Building Materials

Exterior
W
alls & Flooring

The exterior walls of the
ZE
Sustainable Smart

House
design
will use
a
SIP

(
Structural Insulated Panels)
wall
Figure
1

-

SIPs (SIPA)

11


Nohdam9 Engineering Corp.

Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home

system, which are sheets of foam insulation sandwiched between two layers of
Oriented
Strand Board (OSB)
(
see

Figure
1
)
.
SIPs use no studs during the construction process as
compared to traditional wood construction. They have several advantage
s

over the
standard framing:

First, these are shipped pre
-
assembled from the manufacturer. In
comparison with stand
ard

stud walls, these are three times stronger and can be cut to any
shape which maximizes design flexibility. The insulating material is protected by the
wood panels, which can reduce the chance of moisture damage (PowerHouse). Above all
,

these SIPs have
earned ENERGY STAR, indicating
that they are energy efficient.

Covering Material

The most popular greenhouse covering materials are glass and polyethylene (PE). Glass
is the most common judged above these and all other coverings. Even though glass is
very
attractive and formal, on the other hand
it
is also very expensive, due to the fact that
its weight requires quality framing support
versus

the other coverings. Best framing is
aluminum framing with glass covering. It provides maintenance free and weather
-
tight
structure which can minimize the heating costs and preserve humidity.

Glass comes in
different forms; the
most commonly used is tempered glass because it is two or three
times stronger than regular glass. PE is inexpensive as it requires less structu
ral support
.
This
is
the
main reason for
its
high popularity.
In

Canadian climate condition
s
, heating
costs are between 20 to 30 percent lower for the double layer PE houses than
for the glass
covered

ones ("Greenhouse Horticulture."). The benefit of using

PE film is that it blocks
ultraviolet

light
. While it also has shortcomings, it does not block infrared radiation and it
only last
s

approximately 2 years (ACES). The PE coverings come in width
s

from 10 to
50 feet, and thicknesses from 1 to 8 mm (ACES).

Wi
ndow Types

In order to improve Greenhouse window efficiency, the help of window energy
properties determined by the ratings certified by NFRC (
National Fenestration Rating
C
ouncil)
will be used. As for the window choice and glazing systems, several factors

will
be necessary. These characteristics include window U
-
value, window Solar Heat Gain
Coefficient (SHGC), and Visible Light Transmittance (VT).


The U
-
factor indicates the rate of heat loss due to temperature differences. In

order to
have better insula
tion
, it is recommended
to have
lower U
-
factor so less heat is
transfe
rred

through the window

during the winter

(EWC).

SHGC indicates the amount of solar radiation that is transmitted through a window as
heat. This number is expressed between 0 and 11 (An
der, and FAIA). The lowest the
value of this coefficient, the less the sun’s energy is transmitted. Having a higher
coefficient mean
s

that there can be free heat

generated

in winter, but small value
s

can
lead to overheating in the summer. Thus, SHGC depend
s

on the climate, window
orientation, and shading conditions.

VT indicates the amount of visible light or sunlight that is transmitted through the
window.
The v
alue
s

of VT among the double and triple pane window
s

are between 0.30
and 0.70 (EWC)
.

Hence, when selecting a window a higher VT will maximize daylight.

12


Nohdam9 Engineering Corp.

Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home

As for the window choice, triple pane windows are more energy efficient
than

double
pane window
s. They have several advantages:

One advantage is that triple pane window
s

will not yield con
densation o
n interior

surfaces
, which is usually the case during the
winter

for double pane windows
. Another benefit is that
triple pane windows

will provide
better insulation against the sound and noise from outside (NEA).

Renewable Energy

Our goal is to
include

a renewable energy source that remains independent of the
government’s power grid for
our

zero
-
emissions, sel
f
-
sustainable house
.

Concept
review

In today’s society, the average household containing approximately 4 or 5 people will
co
nsume about 25 kiloWatt hours per day

(
TLC "Guides"

Web
)
. Thus
,

the average
household will consume approximately 750 kiloWatt hours per month and
around
9,000
kiloWatt hours per year.


The energy component of this self
-
sustainable house should be able to a
cquire at least 25
kiloWatt hours per day and have a backup power source in case one or more fail to
produce enough energy for the entirety of the day. Maintenance will have to be
conducted multiple times a year to ensure that all of the sources of energy
are in working
condition. In the event of a power outage within the area of operation, the house should
still be able to function properly without fail.

To make use of the property allotted, instead of placing solar cells/panels on the roof, the
roof inste
ad can be made of a large solar panel. This maximizes the area of exposure that
the solar cell receives therefore increasing the overall energy output by the cells.
Unfortunately, solar cells do not produce much energy (even with the introduction of a
sola
r cell roof, an average household would only be able to produce approx. 1
-

5
kiloWatt hours).

Energy Solution

By introducing wind generators, this problem
becomes much simpler. Using a 2.0 kW wind
generator, it is possible to produce up to 2,000
kiloWatt hours per year, over a fifth of the
annual average consumption. By placing five
of these on the property, it sh
ould be able to
produce enough electricity to ensure the
household is powered all year round.

These
solar and eolic energy
sources will be
hooked up in a parallel circuit, allowing the
Figure
2

-

Overview diagram of energy system.

13


Nohdam9 Engineering Corp.

Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home

two sources to function independently from one another. This circuit w
ill join at a point
where the current will flow through an inverter, changing the A/C (A
lternating

Current)
into D/C (Dir
ect Current). The current

then
will flow into another parallel circuit where it
will break off into two or more circuits, each leading
to a battery bank (each battery bank
will contain 50 batteries). The circuits will then join again and travel through another
inverter, converting the D/C back to A/C, and then flow into the house.

(See
Figure
2
)


Safety Hazards

The area where the battery banks are located should be well ventilated to ensure that the
area does not overheat or malfunction due to the excess amount of heat. As well, the
wires connecting to and from the battery banks need to be grounded to ensure
safe
ty.

Rainwater Catchment System


How this system works:
during rainfall, the water is captured off the roof (
using

rain

gutters) and is
sent
into a
gallon tank
.

B
y placing screens over the gutters
,

large
debris can be collected
.

B
efore
entering the ta
nk
, water
must pass

through the

First
-
flush
diverters

which remove most of
the
dust and debris from the water. The pipes which have
downward slope will

then

carry the water to the storage tank
, where it is kept chlorinated
.
If water is needed

by the reside
nts
, the stored
rain
water is
then
pumped from the
catchment
-
tank to the house for
usage.

F
ilters
must

be use
d

to purify
the stored
water for
drinking

(
Macomber
)
.


The most common type of material for catchment of water is galvanized metal
which is p
ainted with a nontoxic paint
;

materials that have lead s
hould not be use
d

in the
system
.

T
ank maintenance is important in this system
;

e
very 3 years
the
tank must be
cleaned to remove any sludge that has built up on the bottom

(
Macomber
)
.

Materials



Galvanized metal



Gutters



Screens



First
-
flush diverters



Pipes



Tank



Filters



Electric Pum
p

14


Nohdam9 Engineering Corp.

Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home


Relatively
cheap system

Flexible, easy to expand and reconfigure

F
ew expensive components

Simple
process and
easy to install


W
ater chemistry is easy to
manag
e

Figure
3

-

Diagram and advantages of rain catchment system

Waste Management

Our goal is t
o
include in our ZE Smart House
a waste management system that

is

independent of industrial sources

and
that
does not interfere with
comfort of living.

Concept review

The waste management compartment of the house should be able to
hold large amounts
of energy for
long periods of time
without causing any
disruptions

in the environment or
illness

to the house

s

inhabitants. The main
tenance of the tank should be at

an interval of
5 years for a house of 5 people. The process should not require any
electricity use

but
should output energy.

Differential solutions

15


Nohdam9 Engineering Corp.

Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home

There are two
main types

of
household waste: biodegradable waste and

solid
non
biodegradable waste.

The most common
waste management system

use
d by
water
-
grid
-
independent homes is the s
eptic system.

On the other hand,
incineration method
s

reduce

the volume of waste
s

and
prevent

the diffusion of
odours
into the atmosphere.

Since t
here will be a green
house as a part of the house
,

various forms of nutrient
production will be needed to revitalize the plants. Composting
is an efficient way to do
this, b
ut
it requires
the management of non
-
biodegradable waste
s

and
would therefore
require special training of users or an additional sorting mechanism
.

Preferred solution

A preferable solution
would then be
the
design

of a

system
that combines the
management of compo
st and non
-
biodegradable waste.

This could be accomplished with
a syste
m of simple domestic turbines.
The turbine system will be a combination of the
septic

and the incineration system plus a separate compressor.

The
septic

system will be responsible for the collection of the biodegradable waste which
will be filtered and sto
red in a collection tank for compost in the green house. The second
chamber which will be the incinerator chamber will store the residue left from the filter at
a very high heat which will then burn down the residue. The pressure produced will be
channeled

through a high pressured chamber that will power a fan connected

to

a
generator (like the windmill process) to create energy.

The compressor will be the third chamber t
hat will reduce the mass of non
-
biodegradable
wastes like cans and glasses by compressi
on.

The gaseous emissions of this turbine

will
be collected and filtered through an exhaust system to
minimize emissions and allow the
house

to comply
with the ZE requirement.


Figure
4

-

I
nitial design picture of the tank by
Waste Tech Environmental ltd.

16


Nohdam9 Engineering Corp.

Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home

Dimensions of the proposed tan
k


Figure
5

-

Waste tech environmental ltd, Google.

Cost

& Maintenance

Integrated Control Systems

Smart home costs wil
l decrease in the coming years as
Smart home technology is
constantly being developed. Computer components and accessories get exponentially
faster and more efficient while getting cheaper.
(Goodwin)

See
Table
3

for a preliminary cost analysis for an integrated control system taken from
Elsenpeter. Installation of such a system may require expert technicians, and maintenance
might also require traine
d specialists, so time should be allotted for installation, and
testing. A maintenance schedule and budget will also be needed as troubleshooting such
complex systems will require help from the origin
al installers or manufacturers.


17


Nohdam9 Engineering Corp.

Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home

Building Materials

SIP
Costs

See
Table
4

for
SIP prices for structural and non
-
structural insulated panels
.

Renewable Energy

Initial installation cost analysis

The typical cost for a 5
person household:



Solar roof:
approx.

$20,000 (Eagle Solar Roof System)



Home Wind Turbine (x5):
approx.

$10,000 (Windmax)



Battery Banks (x2, 50 batteries in each):
approx.

$5,000 (Sam’s Club)

Initial cost of maintenance

All components of the energy system
will have to b
e checked multiple times a year.

Every couple

of

years the wind turbine blades, battery banks, and solar cells from the
solar roof will need to be replaced.



Maintenance per year:
approx.
$750 and up

Rainwater Catchment System



Pump to pressuri
ze water: $250 to $350



Filters: $30



Corrugated tank: $3500



Diaphragm pressure storage tank: $150 to $180



Ultraviolet light sterilizer for
sterilizing water: $800



Water meter to measure rainwater

: $45 (optional)

The total cost is about 4800 to 5000
dollars.

Waste Management

Initial installation cost analysis

The typical cost for a 3 person household:



Tank Cost = $6000


(65,000

litres
)



Installation Cost = $9,000




Total Cost

= $15,000 (waste tech environmental ltd)

Therefore the cost of installing
a
tank
big enough for 5 people will be:



Tank cost will be approximately $10,000



Installation cost will be approximately $15,000



The overall cost is estimated to be $25,000



18


Nohdam9 Engineering Corp.

Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home

Initial cost of maintenance

Since the waste turbine system will be built to run on a

5 year maintenance scheme the
cost of maintaining it will be:



Maintenance per 5 years will be approximately $3400



In

30 years the maintenance cost will be approximately $21,000. (
Waste tech
environmental ltd).

Timescales

The following Gantt chart depict
s

a timescale
with
milestones
for the proposed engineering development and for the
development of the final report and design concept. The
implementation of the zero
-
emissions smart house project
depends on the successful project design submission, which in

turn depends on the approval of the project proposal by the
clients. The charts below list some of the major subtasks and
timelines in each of the major tasks involved in the projects.

Following engineering design practices,
a project proposal
contains th
e appropriate sub
-
steps. Once this is approved, a
project design process must follow, with more specific
problem solutions and analyses to be determined.

Finally, once the project design has reached an optimal state,
the design can be submitted to governme
nt bodies to receive
the final go
-
ahead and required permits.

The implementation phase involves standard construction
design steps, while including sustainable

and smart house
technology in its sub
-
steps.


Figure
6

-

Gantt Timescale created using software at smartsheet.com

19


Nohdam9 Engineering Corp.

Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home

Summary


Table
5

shows some of the concerns that come to mind when
analyzing the request for a
design of
a Sustainable
Zero
-
Emissions House. Our team has strived to cover all aspects
and concerns of such a task, while looking for the optimal solutions for our specific client
statement.

Environmental concerns, economic, health, and societal benefits are driving forces
behin
d projects such as this.
Integrating the latest technologies into a balanced and
harmonious residential product poses a great and interesting challenge for the fields of
Engineering, Architecture, and Environmental Science.

The Nohdam9 Engineering team ha
s benefited from this task by acquiring knowledge in
a variety of fields,
most

of which are developing at a fast pace. We hope to recommend
some cost
-
effective and functionally
-
sensible solutions available in the market today,
while remaining open to the p
ossibility for enhancing any and all of these technologies to
further our purpose.

We also hope to inspire creativity and focus attention in a field that although often found
in the spotlight, is sometimes not taken very seriously. Sustainable, zero
-
emissi
ons
housing technology should be the main challenge faced by the leaders and policy makers
in the home
-
owner’s industry. Continuing to ignore the potential benefits
of these
solutions will
only lead
us to
regret the missed opportunities for bettering our l
ives and
decreasing our dependence on inefficient, expensive infrastructure.


The available benefits and current advances are at a point where we must take advantage
of them.

The potential and growth are there; with an industry that is at the cusp of takin
g
over the market and revolutionizing our lives.


20


Nohdam9 Engineering Corp.

Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home

Appendi
x

Table
1
-

Team member information

Team member

Contact Info

Subgroup

Primary
Responsibility

Arinze Anozie

arinzea1@yorku.ca

Executive

Project Manager

Nicolas Di Noia

ndinoia@yorku.ca


Systems
Integration

Deputy Proj.
Manager

Amir Ali

amirali_h12@yahoo.ca


Hydrology and
Water Processing

Design Lead

Dharampreet
Multani

dmultani@yorku.ca

Materials

Design Lead

Eric Owusu
-
Seykere

rydangenius@gmail.com

Waste
Management

Design Lead

Justin Ng

jrng@yorku.ca

Renewable
Energy

Design Lead


Table
2

-

Source: AIA COTE Mission. http://www.aia.org/practicing/

Measure 1: Design & Innovation

Sustainable design is an inherent aspect of design excellence.

Projects should express sustainable design concepts

and intentions and take advantage of innovative programming

opportunities.

Measure 2: Regional/Community

Design

Sustainable design values the unique cultural and natural

character of a given region.

Measure 3: Land Use & Site Ecology

Sustainable design protects and benefits ecosystems,

watersheds, and wildlife habitat in the presence of human

development.

Measure 4: Bioclimatic Design

Sustainable design conserves resources and maximizes

comfort throug
h design adaptations to site
-
specific and

regional climate conditions.

Measure 5: Light & Air

Sustainable design creates comfortable interior environments

that provide daylight, views, and fresh air.

Measure 6: Water Cycle

Sustainable design conserves wate
r and protects and

improves water quality.

Measure 7: Energy Flows & Energy

Future

Sustainable design conserves energy and resources and

reduces the carbon footprint while improving building

performance and comfort. Sustainable design anticipates

future en
ergy sources and needs.

Measure 8: Materials & Construction

Sustainable design includes the informed selection of

materials and products to reduce product
-
cycle
e
nvironmental

impacts, improve performance, and optimize

occupant health and comfort.

Measure
9: Long Life, Loose Fit

Sustainable design seeks to enhance and increase ecological,

social, and economic values over time.

Measure 10: Collective Wisdom and

Feedback Loops

Sustainable design strategies and best practices evolve

over time through documente
d performance and shared

knowledge of lessons learned.

21


Nohdam9 Engineering Corp.

Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home


Table
3
-

Product Costs for a Whole
-
Home Automation Project

(Robert C. Elsenpeter)

Item






Cost

Powerlinc USB X10 controller



US$34.99

Decora Dimmer Switch



US$19.99

220 Heavy Duty X10 Appliance Module

US$20.95

Leviton DHC X10 Motion Detector


US$64.95

Wireless X10 Motion Sensor



US$18.95

RF Base Receiver




US$24.99

Computer





US$500.00

Dog Mate Electromagnetic Door


US$79.99

OmniPro II Controller




US$1,249.99

HAI Web
-
Link II Software



US$279.99

OmniStat Single Stage Thermostat


US$139.99

Twin PIR Motion Sensors 5 @ US$41.99 =

US$209.95

Magnetic Contact Switch 2 @ US$3.99 =

US$7.98

RG
-
6/U Quad Shield Coaxial Cable (1000

feet)

US$179.99

Powermid Remote Extender



US$52.99

Motorized Drape Controller



US$89.95

Total






US$ 2975.64


Table
4
-

SIP costs (“SIP Pricing”)

Single Sided Non
-
Structural Panels

4'x8'
-
16' with 7/16" OSB / EPS Foam

Foam
Core Thickness

SIP Thickness

Price

3
-
5/8"

4
-
1/16"

$2.85/sf

5
-
5/8"

6
-
1/16"

$3.15/sf

Structural Panels

4'x8'
-
16' with 7/16" OSB / EPS Foam

Foam Core Thickness

SIP Thickness

Price

3
-
5/8"

4
-
1/2"

$3.20/sf

5
-
5/8"

6
-
1/2"

$3.50/sf

7
-
3/8"

8
-
1/4"

$3.80/sf

9
-
1/4"

10
-
1/8"

$4.20/sf

11
-
3/8"

12
-
1/4"

$4.60/sf




22


Nohdam9 Engineering Corp.

Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home


Table
5

-

Kepner
-
Tregoe Situation Analysis of Designing a Smart Zero
-
Emissions House

Concerns

Sub
-
concerns

Timing

Trend

Impact

Location
characteristics

1.

Climate

2.

Water
availability

3.

Size of land

4.

Materials
availability

H

H

L

M

L

M

L

M


H

M

L

M


House design

1.

Infrastructure
Engineering

2.

Energy

3.

Life Support

4.

Waste
management

5.

Architectural
design

H

H

H

H

M

M

H

M


H

M

M

M


Building and
Construction

1.

Labour

2.

Materials
acquisition

3.

Duration

4.

Feasibility

L

M

L

H

M

M

L

L


L

M

L

H


Maintenance
and Safety

1.

Durability

2.

Reliability

3.

Hazards

4.

Sources of pot.
Failure

5.

Emergency
handling

M

H

H

H

H


H

H

L

M

L


M

M

H

M

H


H = High level of concern/urgency; M = Moderate level; L = Low level.



23


Nohdam9 Engineering Corp.

Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home


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24


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Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home

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25


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Zero
-
Emissions Smart
-
Home

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