A Survey of Home Energy Management Systems in Future Smart Grid Communications

peanutplausibleElectronics - Devices

Nov 21, 2013 (4 years and 1 month ago)

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A Survey of

Home Energy Management Systems

in Future Smart Grid Communications


By

Muhammad
Ishfaq

Khan

Summary


Abstract


Introduction


Home energy management and monetary cost
minimization


HEM system architecture in smart grid


Challenges for smart grid


Conclusion

Abstract


A systematic review of home energy
management schemes in smart grid.


Home energy management improves the
electricity consumption efficiency at home.


Beneficial both for consumers and utilities.


Different pricing schemes combined with
distribution generation are part of home energy
management.


HEM system architecture and challenges for
smart grid to implement it.


Introduction


A system with all or some of the following four
capabilities i.e. power generation, transmission,
distribution and control is called as electricity grid
or power grid.


Smart grid is nothing but the integration of
information and communication technologies
(ICT) in traditional grid.


Result is more automation, safe operation of
appliances, safety of grid infrastructure,

reliable
provision of electricity.

Introduction


With the increasing demand of electricity, the
traditional grid has shown signs of inefficiency.


Hence idea of smart grid evolved.


S
mart
grid
has applications in consumption
,
distribution, transmission
, and generation
of
electrical energy.


Home energy management (consumption
application).


Power
quality monitoring strategy has
been
enabled
by using sensor networks in smart grid
(
transmission &
distribution application
).


Introduction


Distributed power generation option is
always there
in
Smart grid technology, where in
-
home electricity
can
be generated (generation efficiency).


A consumer can use the generated power
(photovoltaic, wind) locally and sell the extra power
back to utility.


The load demand in traditional grid (flat pricing rates)
is comparatively high during peak periods when
compared to off
-
peak.


With
a normal demand
the
utilities
are able
to provide
power from base
plants (Hydro).


Introduction


A HEM system in smart grid enables Demand Response
(DR) and Demand Side Management (DSM) programs.


Base plants contributes less towards emission of
greenhouse gases.


With high peak demands utilities switch on
peaker

plants (coal and oil fired).


Efficient consumption of electricity proves beneficial to
us both socially and economically.


The originally
inelastic load demand curve needs to be
altered
to reduce
peak load demand, energy cost and
emission of
GHGs.


introduction


Demand response (DR) and demand side
management (DSM) programs are employed for
the purpose of energy management.


Different optimization methods,
protocols and
standards have been proposed for efficient
coordination
of domestic
appliances and DER to
reduce peak load and
energy usage
charges.



A continuous work in this regard is
underway
across
the glob, at academic, industrial and at
government level
.

Home Energy Management and
Monetary
C
ost
M
inimization


The process of
observing, controlling
and
conserving electricity usage in
an organization/
building
is termed as
home energy management.


40% of the global power consumption
is reported
to be inside
buildings.


Local power generation and different pricing
schemes in smart grid enhances the performance
of a home energy management system.

Home Energy Management and
Monetary Cost Minimization


Figure below shows the savings of a consumer
with local power generation (with feed
-
in) as
compared to without feed
-
in case.

Home Energy Management and
Monetary Cost Minimization


Real time pricing, time of use pricing, day
ahead pricing, critical peak pricing and
inclining block rates are different pricing
schemes employed in smart grid.




Home Energy
M
anagement
S
chemes


Optimization
-
Based Residential Energy
Management
(OREM)


Linear programming model to minimize electricity bill.





Time of Use pricing.


The proposed objective function makes sure to reduce
the home energy expenses by scheduling the home
appliances in appropriate time slots.



Home Energy Management Schemes


This kind of scheduling brings delay in the
operation of appliance cycle.



Max delay is bounded to two operation cycles
of appliance.


Mathematically






D
max



2D
i




Home Energy Management Schemes


iHEM


This scheme uses appliances with communication
capability, a WSHAN, and a central EMU.


Accommodates consumer demands at times when
electricity usage is less expensive according to the local
ToU

tariff.


Consumer turns on an appliance, the appliance
generates a START
-
REQ packet and sends it to EMU.


EMU communicates with storage unit and smart meter.


Home appliances are controlled by EMU.

Home Energy Management Schemes


Message floe in
iHEM


Without energy management 30% of load
operates in Peak hours


Reduced from 30% to 5% with
iHEM
.


Home Energy Management Schemes


ACORD


ACORD
scheme has been proposed to
benefit from
ToU

pricing and decrease energy cost
.


Shift
the consumer load to off
-
peak
periods.


In
-
home WSNs are used for delivery of consumer
requests to EMU.


Consumers participation
in the energy management
program
enhances the
efficiency of the scheme
.


considers
only the scheduling
of home appliances.

Home Energy Management Schemes


Optimal and Automatic Residential Energy
Consumption Scheduler.


Based
on simple
linear programming LP
computations
.


The scheme is proposed for real time pricing.


The combination of price predictor and
energy
consumption
scheduling (ECS)
device.

Home Energy Management Schemes


Optimization problem


Home Energy Management Schemes


The simulation
results
show the
reduction in
daily cost
by solving the optimization problem
by LP techniques.

Home Energy Management Schemes


ACORD
-
FI


Both
the
home appliances
and distributed energy
resources are
scheduled.


Purpose is
reducing the energy bill and
GHG.


ACORD
-
FI schedules consumer requests
considering
peak hours
, local energy generated
and other conflicting requests.



Uses
WSNs for communication between
EMU,
appliances
and smart meters.


Home Energy Management Schemes


Optimum Load Management (OLM)
Strategy


An
optimization based residential load
management strategy.


The optimization problem
needs several
interests forecasting and activity scheduling by
users
to form
an objective
function.


Various interests are local
power production
i.e. from solar, wind etc, load, and electricity
prices for
next day.

Home Energy Management Schemes


Maximizing the objective function.


OLM can
reduce energy
bill by 8
-
22%



Decision support Tool (
DsT
)


Primary
aim to
help users
in making intelligent
decisions during their
appliances operation.