Analysis of virtual reality exposure therapy as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder

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Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Analysis of v
irtual reality exposure therapy as a treatment for post
-
traumatic stress disorder

Argument: Exposure therapy is an effective treatment for post
-
traumatic stress disorder

1.

Intro

a.

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

i.

Definition

ii.

Symptoms

iii.

Treatments

iv.

Effectiveness

1.

“Researchers have found that a new approach called Virtual
Reality Exposure Therapy resulted in significant reductions in
PTSD symptoms for military service members after an average of
just seven treatment sessions” (Nauert, 2011).

2.


These st
udies found that, following VRET, soldiers experienced a
reduction in their PTSD symptoms,” (Tull, 2012).

2.

Treatments in depth

a.

Psychotherapy

b.

Cognitive behavioral therapy

c.

Medication

d.

Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy

3.

VRET in depth

a.

Benefits

i.

Decrease depression
, anxiety and PTSD symptoms

ii.

Increase functioning and socialization

iii.

Open to more people

iv.

“More appealing treatment option to a young, technologically savvy
generation…” (Nauert, 2011).

v.

“By using multi
-
sensory virtual reality that can be customized in real
t
ime…” (Nauert, 2011).

vi.

“it is possible…virtual reality exposure would be viewed by some service
members as less stigmatizing than traditional treatment approaches”
(Nauert, 2011).

vii.

“if accurate, virtual reality exposure therapy might provide us with the
opportunity to treat service members and veterans who may not otherwise
seek help” (Nauert, 2011).

b.

Costs

i.



VRET is a new technology, as well as an expensive technology.
Therefore, not many clinicians currently use this procedure,” (Tull, 2012).

c.

How it
works

i.


“The goal of exposure therapy then is to help reduce a person’s fear and
anxiety, with the ultimate goal of eliminating avoidance behavior and
increasing quality of life,” (Tull,2012).

ii.

VRET is designed to promote a multi
-
sensory emotional connectio
n to the
memory, thus helping the patient be able to gradually face the traumatic
experiences that underlie his or her distressing memories after a number of
treatment sessions.
This connection is facilitated by having the patient put
on a head
-
mounted dis
play (over
-
the
-
eyes video glasses) and either ride or
drive in a simulated convoy, and Reger matches the scenario to the event.
Or a Soldier will be given a dummy M
-
4 with a mounted game controller
and conduct a dismounted patrol, and Reger could simulate
gunfire.


Reger can customize the simulation experience ensuring ample control of
the exposure to the programmed situations
-

changing weather conditions,
terrain, helicopter flyovers, types of attack; even add in Muslim prayer
call
” (Smith, 2010).

d.

Result
s

i.

Decrease of symptoms

ii.

Increase in functioning

iii.

Recommendations/comfort with technology

e.

Conclusion

i.

Go over benefits again

ii.

Argue for overall effectiveness



References

Gamito, P., Oliveira, J., Rosa, P., Morais, D., Duarte, N., Oliveira, S., &

Saraiva, T. (2010).
PTSD elderly war veterans: A clinical controlled pilot study.
Cyberpsychology, Behavior,
and Social Networking, 13
(1), 43
-
48. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2009.0237


Gerardi, M., Rothbaum, B.O., Ressler, K., Heekin, M., & Rizzo, A. (2008). Virtu
al reality
exposure therapy using a virtual Iraq: Case report.
Journal of Traumatic Stress
,
21
(2),
209
-
213. doi: 10.1002/jts


Mayo Clinic Staff. (2011, April 08).

Post
-
traumatic stress disorder (ptsd)

. Retrieved from
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/post
-
traumatic
-
stress
-
disorder/DS00246


Nauert PhD, R. (2011). Virtual Reality Therapy Aids Soldiers with PTSD.
Psych Central
.
Retrieved on March 15, 2012, from
http://psychcentral.com/news/2011/02/17/virtual
-
reality
-
therapy
-
aids
-
soldiers
-
with
-
ptsd/23609.html


Ready, D.J., Gerardi, R.J., Backscheider, A.G., Mascaro, N., & Rothbaum, B.O. (2010).
Comparing virtual reality exposure therapy to present
-
centered therapy

with 11 U.S.
Vietnam Veterans with PTSD.
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking,
13
(1), 49
-
54. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2009.0239


Reger, G.M.,
&
Gahm, G.A. (2008). Virtual reality exposure therapy for active duty soldiers.
Journal of Clinical Psychol
ogy, 64
(8), 940
-
946. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20512


Reger, G.M., Holloway, K.M., Candy, C., Rothbaum, B.O., Difede, J., Rizzo, A.A., & Gahm,
G.A. (2011). Effectiveness of virtual reality exposure therapy for active duty soldiers in a
military mental health clini
c.
Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24
(1), 93
-
96. doi

: 10.1002/jts


Smith, L. (2010, January 19).

Virtual reality exposure therapy to combat ptsd
. Retrieved from
http://www.army.mil/article/33128/


Tull, M.
(2012, January 29).

Using virtual reality exposure therapy for ptsd
. Retrieved from
http://ptsd.about.com/od/treatment/a/VRexposure.htm


Tworus, R., Szymanska, S., & Ilnicki, S. (2010). A
soldier suffering from PTSD, treated by
controlled stress exposition using virtual reality and behavioral training.
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13
(1), 103
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107. doi:
10.1089/cyber.2009.0329


Wood, D. P., Murphy, J., Center, K., McLay,
R., Reeves, D., Pyne, J., Russell, S., &
Wiederhold, B. K. (2007). Combat
-
related post
-
traumatic stress disorder: A case report
using virtual reality exposure therapy with physiological monitoring.

Cyber Psychology
& Behavior
,

10
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315. doi: 10.1089/
cpb.2006.9951