Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

parsimoniouswoowooBiotechnology

Dec 11, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

183 views

Topic 4.4

Review Bo
ok

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

Name ___________
___
_____


4.4 Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology


Key Facts

1.

PCR or polymerase chain reaction is utilized to copy and amplify minute quantities of DNA.

2.

To analyze DNA, a process of gel electrophoresis is often employed. It allows fragments of DNA to
move in an ele
ctric field and to be separated due to their size and electrical charge.

3.

Gel electrophoresis is used in DNA profiling which is important in paternity cases and forensic
investigations.

4.

DNA profiling produces DNA bands which allow comparison.

5.

The Human Gen
ome Project sequenced the entire human genome and found there to be 25000 to
30000 genes. Not only did the project strive to find the total genes but it attempted to find each
gene’s location and each gene’s base sequence.

6.

Benefits of the Human Genome Proj
ect include the ability to study how genes influence human
development, the easier identification of genetic diseases, and eventually, the production of
medicines specifically engineered to an individuals needs. It may also give new insights into the
origi
ns, evolution and migrations of humans.

7.

Because genetic code is universal, when genes are transferred between species, these genes will
produce the same polypeptides. This occurs when the gene that codes for the production of human
insulin is placed within

the genome of a bacterial cell; the bacterium will actually produce human
insulin.

8.

There are ethical and moral questions involved in gene transfer amongst different species.

9.

Gene transfer between species often involves the following: host cell, plasmid, r
estriction enzymes,
and DNA ligase.

10.

Restriction enzymes are quite specific in that they only will cleave DNA at exact sequences of bases.

11.

DNA ligase is used to allow the combination of the cleaved DNA from one cell into the DNA of
another type of cell. Li
gases ligate or tie together.

12.

The receiving cell of the cleaved DNA may then be cloned to produce multiple copies. The receiving
cell is often a bacterium, and the new bacterium is now referred to as a genetically modified
organism.

13.

The new DNA formed is
often referred to as recombinant DNA.

14.

Genetic modification of organisms has produced the following: salt tolerant tomato plants, rice with
a high level of vitamin A precursor, herbicide resistance in corn plants, and the production of a
factor necessary fo
r human blood clotting in sheep milk.

15.

A clone is a group of genetically identical organisms or a group of cells derived from a single parent
cell.

16.

Cloning of an organism is useful when an organism has a desirable combination of characteristics
and more org
anisms with the combinations are wanted. This type of cloning is called reproductive
cloning.

17.

Therapeutic cloning is used in the production of skin or other tissues needed to treat a patient.

18.

Plants may be cloned quite easily by using pieces of the plant.
Animal cloning, however, involves
embryos. This creates moral and ethical questions.

Topic 4.4

Review Bo
ok

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

Name ___________
___
_____



Complete the following.

55. When would PCR be called for when a lab is asked to carry out DNA profiling?





56. What two characteristics of DNA fragments allow successf
ul DNA profiling?





57. Explain some applications of DNA profiling.





58. When DNA profiles are compared, what specifically is analyzed?





59. What are the benefits of the Human Genome Project?







60. Explain how Bt corn was produced.






61. Why

must the same restriction enzyme be used on both samples of DNA of the organisms involved?





62. Explain two ways cloning may occur.




Topic 4.4

Review Bo
ok

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

Name ___________
___
_____


63. Explain an example of gene transfer utilizing a plasmid from a bacterium.







64. What is a genetically modifi
ed organism?




65. Give two examples of transgenic or genetically modified plants.




66. Give two examples of transgenic or genetically modified animals.




67. What are some potential benefits of genetic engineering for the future?







68. What are so
me potential dangers of genetic engineering for the future?





69. Briefly explain how Dolly the clone was produced.







70. How is karyotyping different from DNA profiling?

Topic 4.4

Review Bo
ok

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

Name ___________
___
_____


Across


1

represented by letters/symbols (8)


4

uses symbols to represent heredity of a trait (8)


6

condition with similar alleles for a trait (10)


9

uses amniotic fluid to obtain fetal cells (13)


10

fragments of DNA produced in profiling (5)


11

group of genetically identical organisms (6)


15

an
example of sex linkage (10)


17

chromosomes similar in size and appearance (10)


18

used in DNA profiling (15)


19

connects sister chromatids (10)


20

normal chromosome number in somatic cells (7)


Down


2

Down's syndrome is an example of this (7)


3

used
to copy and amplify small quantities of DNA (3)


4

bacterial DNA used in gene transfer (7)


5

reduction division (7)


7

controls a particular trait (4)


8

condition with different alleles for a trait (12)


10

allele that only shows when homozygous (9)


11

uses placental cells to obtain fetal cells (3)


12

alleles that cause blood type in humans (8)


13

component of eukaryotic chromosome (7)


14

form of a gene (6)


16

change in DNA (8)


17

chromosome condition in gametes (7)


Cl ue
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20