Introduction to the Technologies

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Feb 16, 2014 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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2D or not 2D, what is the question?

Introduction to the Technologies


Wednesday 5
th

May 2010

Aston Science Park, Birmingham

Prof Anthony Furness

Technical Director, AIM UK

A message in the parody…



View different technologies in relation to


their complementary attributes



Technology in relation to needs


Consider too…



Positioning with respect to other technologies


Object
-


connected ICT (aka Item
-
attendant ICT)



Integration of technologies



Standards



Practicalities



Change

AIDC Technologies


Data Carrier identification

Secondary Identification and Data Capture

Linear

Full Matrix

Dot Codes

Electronic

Magnetic

Optical

RF
Transponder

(RFID)

Contact
Memory

Magnetic
Stripe

MICR
*

Stacked (or
multi
-
row)

Optical Character
Recognition
(OCR)

Optical Mark
Reading
(OMR)

Matrix
Codes

Bar Code

Smart Card

Memory
Card

Optical
Memory
(magneto
-
optic)

Programmable
Magnetic
Resonance

Charge
injection

Non
-
Contact
Memory

Contactless
Smart Card

Contactless
Memory Card

Examples of Bar and 2D Optical Data
Carriers

Linear

Full Matrix

Dot Codes

Stacked (or
multi
-
row
)

Matrix
Codes

Bar Code

5

0
1
2
3
4
5

1
2
3
4
5
5


Each have their variants

Each have advantages
and disadvantages

Each have their attributes

Each have their standards

Each have their uses

And new 2D Data Carriers
-

Dotcode



Newly announced through AIM Global


Dotcode symbology specification



Unlike other dotcodes (and there are many) Dotcode has been place in the


public domain and supported by an AIM International Symbology


Specification as ISS Dotcode



Small to medium capacity



Designed with GS1 and EPCglobal applications in mind



Tackling issues of production speed and marking



Tackling issues of high speed Ink
-
jet printing and laser etch with variable data



modern symbology features



RFID backup



Source: AIM Global


Linear bar codes occupy 2D space
, but information
contained within the bar /space structure is the same
irrespective of where, in the height of the symbol, the scan
is performed
-

hence redundancy in space terms



2D codes occupy 2D space
, but information is contained in
rows or other suitable arrangement within the 2D space



Symbologies
,
Structure determinants for the symbols and
the rules by which the data is encoded, attributes,
functional features and the data sets that can be
accommodated

2
-
D Symbologies


Multi
-
row bar code symbologies

-

data encoded as bars and
spaces, in rows, “1s” and “0s” distinguished by bar and space
structures


Matrix codes

-

data encoded in cells, filled or unfilled to distinguish
“1s” and “0s”


Data capacities
often in excess of 2000 alpha
-
numeric (but not
always)


Density benefit

often > 100 characters per square inch


Error control

(error detection and correction) usually selectable, but
requires understanding to apply effectively


Code word concept

to accommodate different character sets


Fast and accurate transfer of data

Some 2D Code Generalities

Maxicode


135 ASCII
characters

Forming 2D Code Symbols

2D Symbols may be
printed

or

direct marked

onto objects

Quality forming
(printing or
direct marking)
and verification
are important to
assure effective
usage and
standards

…on all manner of
objects

1D and 2D Barcodes


Licence Plate and
Portable Data Carriers

Scan Barcode

Database Look
-
up

Application
Transaction

Data from Database

“134768”

Code “134768”

Key to Database record

“Data, Data, Data, Data,


Data, Data, Data, Data,


Data, Data, Data, Data,


Data, Data, Data,
Data...”

1D Barcode
contains item
identifier code

“Data, Data, Data, Data,


Data, Data, Data, Data,


Data, Data, Data, Data,


Data, Data, Data,
Data...”

Application
Transaction

Data From 2D
Barcode

2D Barcode contains
Item Attendant Data

Biometric templates

Photograph

(
or any graphic
)

Signature

Text

Name: A N Other

Order No. 374656

Ship Date: 12/1/2001

Binary data


011011010111
1011

110101101001
0101…

Data Types in Portable Data Files

BG*VOCAM*CFWY*VOCAM*
CFWY*921014*1107*001
10

GS*SM*VOCAM*CFWY*92101
4*1107*000000110*T*M2
/8

ST*204*000000001

B2**CFWY****110008*L*PP**
C*S****3

B2A*00*BL

N9*CN*4440200752

N9*CR*11
-
99463

N1*SH*PITNEY BOWES

N3*EDMOND ROAD

N4*NEWTOWN*CT*06470

N1*CN*MIDAS
INTERNATIONAL

N3*4101 W 42ND PLACE

N4*CHICAGO*IL*60632

LX*1

L5*1*G/CTN MACH NOI SU
MAILING DIV*G/CTN*N

L0*1***1060*N***10*PCS**L

L1*1*0.0000**0.00

L7*1******100

L1*2*0.0000**582.92****FFC**
**ALG. U, STOP CHG:
0.00



L5*1*G/CTN MACH NOI SU
MAILING DIV*G/CTN*N

L0*1***1060*N***10*PCS**L

L1*1*0.0000**0.00

L7*1******100

LX*2

L5*2***N

L0*2***0*N***0*PCS**L

L1*2*0.0000**582.92****FFC****ALG
. U, STOP CHG: 0.00

L7*2

L3*1060*G***582.92******10*L*555D*
0

SE*23*000000001

GE*1*000000110

EG*00110*1*1*23

BG*VOCAM*CFWY*VOCAM*CFWY*
921014*1107*00110

GS*SM*VOCAM*CFWY*921014*110
7*000000110*T*M2/8

ST*204*000000001

B2**CFWY****110008*L*PP**C*S****
3

B2A*00*BL

N9*CN*4440200752

N9*CR*11
-
99463


L7*2

L3*1060*G***582.92******10*L*555
D*0

SE*23*000000001

GE*1*000000110

EG*00110*1*1*23

BG*VOCAM*CFWY*VOCAM*CFW
Y*921014*1107*00110

GS*SM*VOCAM*CFWY*921014*11
07*000000110*T*M2/8

ST*204*000000001

B2**CFWY****110008*L*PP**C*S**
**3

B2A*00*BL

N9*CN*4440200752

N9*CR*11
-
99463

N1*SH*PITNEY BOWES

N3*EDMOND ROAD

N4*NEWTOWN*CT*06470

N1*CN*MIDAS INTERNATIONAL

N3*4101 W 42ND PLACE

N4*CHICAGO*IL*60632

LX*1


“Bill of Lading”

(BOL
-
204)


1320 Characters

Optical Data Carrier Readers


Optical
Reader



Optical
Communication
Channel



Firmware/
Middleware

Symbol

Host Information
Management
System


Applications
software

Application Commands

Application Responses

Labels may use linear bar codes or two
-
dimensional codes of the type illustrated

Laser scanning or image capture
techniques are used to capture data from
bar codes or two
-
dimensional codes


5

0
1
2
3
4
5

1
2
3
4
5
5


Readers can often
accommodate a
range of popular
symbologies



Advertising


Dispatch and Receiving


Paper EDI


Maintenance histories


Calibration data


Product histories


Hazard labels


Identification cards



Identification badges


Manufacturing set
-
up
instructions


Software up
-
date
communications


Security & Anti
-
counterfeiting


Small item tracking


Ticketing, forms




2D code


Some areas of Application

Portable data files and small item
marking adding to the versatility of 2D :

2D, Colour and Integration


Integrated 2D codes and phone
-
camera
technology


Exploiting the potential of integrating 2D optical code
technologies with reader capability introduced into
camera
-
supported mobile phone technology


Current Applications:



Leisure and entertainment


Advertising


Location and Information services


Transaction support


Information gathering & Communications


Counter
-
hazard instructions


Enter the era of Internet applications


Source: Colorcode

Enter more colour codes


Microsoft Tag

High Capacity Color Barcode

(HCCB) is the name coined by
Microsoft

for
its proprietary technology of encoding data in a
2D "barcode"

using clusters
of colored triangles instead of the square pixels traditionally associated with
2D barcodes.
[1]


[1] Microsoft Research


“High Capacity Color Barcode Technology”

Source: www. microsoft.com

Custom codes


eg for visiting cards, use in blogs, hyperlinks to websites …


Coding and decoding Time
-
multiplexed 2D Colorcodes [1]


Colour matrix code in which the matrix cells change in accordance with data
to be transmitted over the mobile phone communication channel


Integrated 2D codes and phone
-
camera technology


‘4D’ Matrix


[1] Source: Langlotz, T & Bimber, O (2007) Unsynchronised 4D Barcodes (Coding and decoding
Time
-
multiplexed 2D Colorcodes) Advances in visual computing


third international symposium,
Lake Tahoe NV, USA

2D, RFID and Integration

Re
-
writable paper and variants

Physical (PR) and chemical (CR) rewrite
mechanisms

Integral RFID


Current Applications:



Process management


Kanban (in
-
out parts and procurement)


Parts management


Operating instructions


Distribution instructions


Stock movement in frozen storage


Service parts management


Medical check navigation


Pharmaceutical data management


In
-
house medical logistics


Up
-
datable ticketing (card
-
based)

2D, RFID Integration

and Near Field Communication


Using RFID, high frequency (13.56MHz)
technology and associated standards


Using mobile phone is an automatic identification
data capture is not new


Introduced by DoCoMo in Japan in 2002, using
barcode data capture


Camera acts as data capture device


Phone is bar code emulator, tag reader and also
a tag writer



Phone has no capability to change data on
external data carriers


Enter Natural Feature Identification


Surface Laser Authentication (LSA)


Based upon low power laser scan of material surfaces and
digital signature generation from back
-
scattered signal
(speckle features)



Image Comparison Methods


Based upon image processing techniques to distinguish region
of interest and effect authentication by image comparison
techniques



Fluorescent Fibre Methods (Fibreloc)


Based upon UV or IR Fluorescent fibres introduced into object
surface and digital signatures derived from image field

Natural
-
Feature Labels

Feature Label
-

exempla construction


magnified and not to scale

Label release layer


removed on application

Label substrate

Window

Transparent
protective layer
(optional)

Adhesive layer

Two
-
dimensional code


providing
encrypted location of reference
‘natural
-
feature’ signature

Feature window
through which the
‘natural
-
feature’
signature is derived

Window
components


to assist
positioning

Labels may be printed directly onto item
where appropriate

©Anthony Furness

Further integration
-

Enter
Smart Feature Labels

Smart Feature Label
-

exempla construction


magnified and not to scale

Label release layer


removed on application

Label substrate

Window

Transparent
protective layer
(optional)

RFID tag inlet


sandwiched in
label substrate

Adhesive layer

Variants of label can exploit other, lower cost data carrier components
such as linear bar codes, matrix and multi
-
row bar codes

All part of the richness of technologies available and emerging

©Anthony Furness


Looking to the future:



SAP Research International Research Forum 2006



27 academics,
technologists, policymakers, entrepreneurs and associated intellectuals


to
question, discuss, debate and frame the future of information and
communication technologies (ICT)


Outcome:


Megatrend 1: Web 2.0 and the semantic web


Megatrend 2: IT Security


Megatrend 3: Real World Awareness (RWA)



“great promise of RWA agreed
to be automation


systems will be able to collect data without human intervention
or errors and use it to react to events more quickly and effectively”


Megatrend 4:IT as a Tool for Growth and Development


Relevant to the “Internet of Things”


principles, tools and
methodology required to exploit the potential

Mega Trends in Information &
Communications Technology (ICT)

CASAGRAS has recognised the need for a fully inclusive model for
the Internet of Things:

CASAGRAS

(
Coordination And Support
Action for Global RFID
-
related Activities and
Standardisation

)

Smart Cards

Bar Code

NFC

2D Codes

RFID


GPS

Sensors

Interrogator /
Gate way
device

…on to
CASAGRAS2
and the Future


So, if the question is, does 2D have a future? the
answer is clear


It does


where need, opportunity
and enterprise indicate

-

more so through integration


Learn more about 2D and other AIDC technologies (and Object
-
connected ICT) through AIM UK

Education, Training, Information, Standards and Assist


Look out for the AIM UK 2D Compendium


a wealth of
information on 2D technologies and standards


Thank you for your attention


http://www.aimuk.org/

AIM UK


The UK Association of
Automatic Identification and Mobility