[MAKIING OF THE SILICON CHIP]

parkagendaElectronics - Devices

Nov 2, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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2013



CLARK, EMILY


[
MAKIING OF THE SILIC
ON
CHIP
]

This essay will give a short history of the silicon tube. It also is in detail of all the steps it takes to create
the
silicon chip we all use today.

Emily Clark

Making of silicon chips

02
-
Nov
-
13

Computer tech 1B





Throughout history we have seen the transistor and the vacuum tubes as the use for electronic
amplifiers in television, radios and on/off computer switches. The vacuum tubes were bulky and they
wanted something sma
ller than a transistor. A British radar scientist named Geoffrey Dummer was the
first person to come up with the idea of a silicon chip; a whole electronic circuit on a piece of silicon. He
failed; but a few years later Jack Kilby who worked at Texas Instr
uments created the first silicon chip,
also known as the integrated circuit and was successful. One of the biggest producers has been Intel
and they are still going today. Silicon is the second most common element in the earth’s crust. Sand and
quartz hav
e high amounts of silicon in the form of silicon dioxide and is the base of (Darling, 2013)or a
semiconductor.



Silicon

can come from sand or quartz and

has to be
purified in multiple steps to reach semi
conductor
manufacturing quality. This
is called
Electronic Grade Silicon.

It is first melted and forms a crystal called
Ingot. The weight of one Ingot is 100 Kilograms and the silicon purity is 99.99%. The Ingot is then cut
into individual silicon disc sections that are called wafers. The wafers are po
lished until they have a
mirror smooth surface. Afterwards, they have to spin the wafer while putting a blue liquid onto it, which
is photo resist finish. They then have to expose the film finish to ultraviolet light, which triggers a
chemical reaction. Th
is chemical reaction
will make this film finish soluble and create a circuit pattern.


After, this film finish should be etched off and then there's photo resist
applied, exposed and
exposed
. The
p
hoto resist is being washed off.
The photo resist protect
s

material that should not get
ions implanted.

Then particles called Ions get implanted into the silicon wafer and alter the way the
silicon conducts electricity.
The finish is removed and there are now alien atoms on the material that
Emily Clark

Making of silicon chips

02
-
Nov
-
13

Computer tech 1B


didn’t have ions imp
lanted. An insulation layer with three holes is then added after. The holes are filled
with copper; which will make up the connection to other transistors.


The wafers are put into a copper sulphate solution
. C
opper ions ar
e deposited onto the transistor,
this
process

is

called electroplating. The copper ions

will

travel from the positive terminal
to the negative
terminal. After this process, a thin layer of copper will appear on the wafer surface and any excess
material is washed off.


Many
metal layers ar
e created to interconnect in between the

transistors; they
act as highways.


A

ready wafer is put to a functionality test.
T
est patterns are fed into every single chip and the response
from the chip

are

monitored and compared to "the right answer".
1

The w
afer is again cut into small
pieces, called dies.
The dies that responded with the right answer to the test pattern will be put forward
for the next step
.
The substrate, the die and the heat

spreader are put together to form a completed
processor. The gre
en substrate

is responsible for building

the electrical and mechanical interface for the
processor to interact with the rest of the PC system.

A microprocessor is one the most complex product created. There are hundreds of small steps

in order
to create on

but it is important to make sure it is done in order to have to best products out there.

Technology keeps on advancing, and the microprocessor is becoming smaller but much more powerful.










1

Intel

Emily Clark

Making of silicon chips

02
-
Nov
-
13

Computer tech 1B





BIBLIOGRAPHY


ehow.com/about_5510405_history
-
silicon
-
chip
. (1999
-
2013). Retrieved April 22, 2013, from ehow.com:
http://www.ehow.com/about_5510405_history
-
silicon
-
chip.html

Darling, P. (2013, February 9).
Intel From Sand to Silicon
-

the Making of a Chip
. Retrieved Apri
l 22, 2013,
from Intel: http://newsroom.intel.com/docs/DOC
-
2476

Media, N. (2013).
Noble Prize
. Retrieved April 22, 2013, from Noble Prize.org:
http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/physics/integrated_circuit/history/?downloadURL=true
&loId=F16078C4
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