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II Year B.Tech. 1st Semester


CONTENT
S














Page No.

1.

ACADEMIC CALENDAR





3

2.

ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND CIRCUITS



5

3.

PROBABILITY AND STOCHASTIC PROCESS


57

4.

SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS





101

5.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS





139

6.

MATHEMATICS


III






201

7.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES





234




II Year B.Tech. 1st Semester



Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


Page
3



ELECTRONIC DEVICES
& CIRCUITS







COURSEFILE






Department of

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

VIGNAN
’S

INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND
AERONAUTICAL
ENGINEERING

VIGNAN HILLS, DESHMUKHI VILLAGE, POCHAMPALLY (MANDAL)

NALGONDA (DISTRICT)
-

508284

Sponsored by

Lavu Educational Society

(Approved by AICTE and Affiliated to JNT University, Hyderabad)


















COURSE
OBJECTIVE



Electronic Devices & Circuits




Course Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


COURSE OBJECTIVE


The course provides a comprehensive understanding of the basic theory of semiconductors and
devices made out of it like ‘p
-
n’ junction diodes, FET and BJT in main, besides covering opto
-
electronic devices and power devices tow
ard the end. Starting by explaining the fundamentals of
semiconductors like energy band formation, electron and hole concepts, effect of electric and magnetic
fields on charge carriers, the course helps in developing the understanding about excess carriers

in
semiconductors. In
-
depth study on ‘junctions’ prepares the students for even a detailed study on devices
to be studied later like FET and BJT viz. commonly employed in Integrated Circuit (IC) technology for
implementation of virtually any requirement.
BJT and FET amplifier concept and its biasing are also
included.



To understand the basic physical structure, principles of operation, electrical characteristics and
circuit models of the most important semiconductor devices, and to be able to use this kn
owledge to
analyze and design basic electronic application circuits. To extend the understanding of how electronic
circuits and their functions fit into larger electronic systems.

A review of diodes, introduced in this course. An introduction to some new
circuits based on
these elements. An introduction to the analysis of circuits containing nonlinear elements.

An introduction to semiconductor physics and p
-
n junctions (semiconductor diodes are essentially p
-
n
junctions).

An introduction to transistors,
three

terminal devices in which a voltage at one terminal controls
the flow of current between the other two terminals. This relatively humble device (i.e. the transistor)
can be employed as an amplifier and as a switch, and is the principle building bloc
k for all of modern
electronics. There are two main classes of transistors, and we will introduce both in this course. The
bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is based on a pair of back
-
to
-
back p
-
n junctions. In the field effect
transistor (FET), the volt
age at one terminal controls the resistance (conductance) between the other two
terminals.





















Syllabus


Electronic Devices & Circuits



Syllabus

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


SYLLABUS

UNIT I:

p
-
n Junction Diode
:

Qualitative theory of p
-
n junction, p
-
n junction as a diode, diode equation, v
-
i characteristics,
temperature dependence of VI characteristics, Ideal versus practical
-
resistance levels (static and
dynamic), transition and diffusion capacitances, diode equ
ivalent circuits, load line analysis,
breakdown
mechanisms in semiconductor diodes, zener diode characteristics
.



UNIT II: Rectifiers and Filters
:

p
-
n junction as a rectifier , Half wave rectifier, ripple factor, full wave rectifier, Bridge
rectifier,
Har
monic components in a rectifier circuit, Inductor filter, Capacitor filter, L
-
section filter,


section
filters, comparison of various filters in terms of ripple factor, simple circuit of
regulator using zener diode


UNIT III: Bipolar Junction Transistor
:

Junction transistor, Transistor current components, transistor as an amplifier, Transistor Construction,
BJT operation, BJT symbol, Common Base, Common Emitter and
Common Collector Configurations,
Limits of operation, BJT specifications


UNIT IV: Transist
or Biasing & Stabilization
:


Operating point, The DC and AC load lines, Need for biasing, Fixed bias, collector
feedback bias,
Emitter feedback bias, Collector
-
Emitter feedback bias, Voltage divider bias, Bias
stability, Stabilization
factors(S,S',S"),
bias stabilization against variations in V
BE

and

, Bias
compensation using diodes and
transistors, Thermal runaway, thermal stability.


UNIT V: Small Signal Low Frequency BJT Models
:

BJT hybrid model
,

determination of h
-
parameters from transistor characteristics, Analysis of a
transistor amplifier circuit using h
-
parameters, Exact analysis of CE amplifier, Exact analysis of CB
and CC amplifier,

Approximate analysis of CE, CB and CC Amplifier,

Compariso
n of CB, CE, and CC
amplifiers, configurations, Design of CE amplifier, Problems on CE, CB and CC Amplifier


UNIT VI:
Field Effect Transistor:

The junction FET, Construction and principal of operation, symbol, Pinch off voltage, VA characteristics,
The J
FET small signal model, MOSFET principal of operation, symbol, MOSFET Characteristics in
Enhancement and Depletion Mode


UNIT
-

VII: FET AMPLIFIERS
:

FET common source amplifiers, Common Drain Amplifies, Generalized FET amplifiers, Biasing FET,
FET as volta
ge variable resistor, Comparison of BJT and FET, The UJT


UNIT
-
VIII: Special Purpose Electronic Devices
:

Special Purpose Electronic Devices: Principle of Operation and Characteristics of Tunnel Diode (with
the help of Energy Band Diagram) and Varactor Dio
de. Principle of Operation of Schottky Barrier
Diode, SCR and Semiconductor Photo Diode.


Electronic Devices & Circuits



Syllabus

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


TEXT BOOKS

1.

Electronic Devices and Circuits


J.Millman and C.C.Halkias, Tata McGraw Hill.

2.

Electronic Devices and Circuits


R.L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky,
Pearson/Prentice Hall,
9
th

Edition, 2006.


REFERENCE BOOKS

1.

Electronic Devices and Circuits


T.F. Bogart Jr., J.S.Beasley and G.Rico, Pearson Education,
6
th

edition, 2004.

2.

Principles of Electronic Circuits


S.G.Burns and P.R.Bond, Galgotia Publications, 2
nd

edn..,
1998.

3.

Microelectronics


Millman and Grabel, Tata McGraw Hill, 1988.

4.

Electronic Devices and Circuits


Dr. K. Lal Kishore, B.S. Publications, 2
nd

Edition, 2005.

5.

Electronic Devices and Circuits
-

Prof GS N Raju I K International Publishing House Pv
t .Ltd
2006


WEBSITES

1.

http://www.onsemi.com/

2.

http://www.kpsec.freeuk.com/symbol.htm

3.

http://build
inggadgets.com/index_circuitlinks.htm

4.

http://www.guidecircuit.com/



JOURNALS

1.

IEEE Transaction on Electronic Devices (ISSN
:

0018
-
9383)

2.

Journal of Active and Passive Electronic Devices (ISSN: 1555
-
0281)

3.

Internati
onal Journal of Micro and Nano Electronics, Circuits and Systems (
ISSN: 0975
-
4768)

4.

Active and Passive Electronic Components (ISSN: 0882
-
7516)

5.

Journal of Electronic Testing (ISSN: 0923
-
8174)














STUDENT'S
SEMINAR
TOPICS

Electronic Devices & Circuits



Seminar Topics

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


STUDENTS SEMINAR TOPICS


1.

Formation of depletion layer in PN junction diode

2.

Zener diode as voltage regulator

3.

Common Collector Configuration

4.

Need for biasing

5.

Thermal runaway, thermal stability

6.

Design of CE amplifier

7.

MOSFET Characteristics in Enhancement and Depletion Mode

8.

Working principle and VI characteristics of UJT

9.

Principle
of operation of Schottky barrier diode

10.

Bias
compensation using diodes and transistors

11.

Construction and principal of operation of FET




















LECTURE PLAN


Electronic Devices & Circuits




Lecture Plan

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


LECTURE PLAN



S.No


NAME OF THE TOPIC

No of
Periods

Method of Teaching

Text books referred

1.


Introduction

1


---

2.


Introduction to EDC

1

Black board
and Chalk

---

3.


Intrinsic, extrinsic semiconductors, p type and n type
semiconductors

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by
Millman and Halkias


chapter 2

4.


Drift current diffusion current, mobility, conductivity
of extrinsic
semiconductors

1

Black board, Chalk and
LCD Projector

Electronic Devices and Circuits by
Millman and Halkias


chapter 5

5.


Problems on semiconductors

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by
Millman and Halkias, Old Question
Papers

6.


Hall
-
effect and problems

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by
Millman and Halkias


chapter 5

7.


pn
-
junction diode FB, RB Characteristics & junction
Potential

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by
Millman and
Halkias


chapter 6

8.


Current components and diode current equation

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by
Millman and Halkias


chapter 6

9.


Continuity equation

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by
Millman and
Halkias


chapter 6

10.


Temperature dependency of VI characteristics

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by
Millman and Halkias


chapter 6

11.


Diode parameters, specifications, equivalent circuits

1

Black board, Chalk and
LCD Projector

Electronic Devices and Circuits by
Millman and Halkias


chapter 6

12.


Problems on pn
-
junction diode

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by
Millman and Halkias, Old Question
Papers

13.


Break down mechanism in diodes

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by
Millman and Halkias


chapter 6

14.


Zener diode characteristics

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by
Electronic Devices & Circuits




Le
cture Plan

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


Millman and Halkias

=
cha灴er=S
=
ㄵN


Introduction to Rectifiers, Half wave rectifier circuits,
operation

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by
Millman and Halkias

=
cha灴er=㈰
=
ㄶN


Full wave rectifier, circuits, operation

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by
Millman and Halkias

=
cha灴er=㈰
=
ㄷN


Performance
Parameters (Regulation, Ripple
factor, efficiency etc.) Derivations of HWR

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by
Millman and Halkias

=
cha灴er=㈰
=
18.


Performance Parameters (Regulation, Ripple factor,
efficiency etc.) Derivations of
HWR

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 20

19.


Problems on Performance Parameters

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias, Old Question Papers

20.


Introduction to filters

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 20

21.


Capacitor filters explanation, Derivations

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 20

22.


L filter, explanation, der
ivations

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 20

23.


LC and


filters, Comparison

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 20

24.


Problems on Filters

1

Black
board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias, Old Question Papers

25.


Shunt Voltage Regulators

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 20

26.


Regulator using Zener diode

1

Black board,
Chalk and
LCD Projector

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 20

27.


Unit Test on I and II Units

1


University Old Question Papers

28.


Series Voltage Regulators

1

Black board, Chalk and
LCD projector

Electronic Devices and Circuits
by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 20

29.


Introduction to Bipolar junction transistor, Transistor operation
(NPN & PNP) Configurations

1

Black board, Chalk and
LCD Projector

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 9

30.


Common base
configuration characteristics, early effect

1

Black board, Chalk and
LCD Projector

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 9

31.


Common emitter configuration characteristics

1

Black board, Chalk and
LCD Projector

Electronic Devices
and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 9

32.


Common collector configuration characteristics

1

Black board, Chalk and
LCD Projector

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 9

33.


Comparison of CB, CE, CC characteristics, current amplification
1

Black board, Chalk and
Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Electronic Devices & Circuits




Le
cture Plan

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


Factor,
Specifications, problems

LCD Projector

Halkias


chapter 9

34.


Transistor

biasing,

operating

point

,dc

load

line

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 10

35.


Methods of transistor biasing

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 10

36.


Stability factors s', s", s'"

1

Black
board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 10

37.


Fixed bias circuit analysis, and example

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 10

38.


Collector base bias circuits,
analysis

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 10

39.


Self bias circuit, analysis

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 10

40.


Problems on self bias

1

Black
board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias, Old Question Papers

41.


Stabilization Factor, Stabilization against variation, in V
BE

and I
C0

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 10

42.


Bias compensation using diodes and transistor

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 10

43.


Thermal runaway, Thermal Stability

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 10

44.


BJT hybrid model

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 11

45.


determination of h
-
parameters from transistor characteristics

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman
and
Halkias


chapter 11

46.


Analysis of a transistor amplifier circuit using h
-
parameters

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 11

47.


Exact analysis of CE amplifier

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices

and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 12

48.


Exact analysis of CB and CC amplifier

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 12

49.


Approximate analysis of CE, CB and CC Amplifier

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 12

50.


Comparison of CB, CE, and CC amplifiers, configurations

1

Black board, Chalk and
LCD Projector

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 12

51.


Design of CE
amplifier

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 12

52.


Problems on CE, CB and CC Amplifier

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias, Old Question Papers

Electronic Devices & Circuits




Le
cture Plan

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


53.


The junction
FET, Construction, Principal of operation, and its
symbol

1

Black board, Chalk and
LCD Projector

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 14

54.


Pinch off voltage, VI characteristics

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and
Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 14

55.


The JFET small signal model

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 14

56.


MOSFET principal of operation, symbol

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and
Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 14

57.


MOSFET characteristics in enhancement and
depletion

mode

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 14

58.


FET common source and
Common Drain
amplifiers

1

Black
board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 14

59.


Generalized FET amplifiers

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 14

60.


Biasing of FET

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 14

61.


FET as voltage variable resistor

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 14

62.


Comparison of BJT and FET

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 11, 12 & 14

63.


Unit Test on V and VI Units

1


University Old Question Papers

64.


The UJT construction and characteristics

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
H
alkias


chapter 14

65.


Principle of operation of Tunnel Diode

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 6

66.


Characteristics of Tunnel Diode using Energy Band Diagram

1

Black board and Chalk

Electronic Devices
and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 6

67.


Principle of operation and characteristics of Varactor Diode

1

Black board, Chalk and
LCD Projector

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 6

68.


Principle of operation of schottky
Barrier Diode

1

Black board, Chalk and
LCD Projector

Integrated Electronic by Millman and Halkias


chapter 7

69.


SCR characteristics

1

Black board and Chalk


70.


Construction and Characteristics of Semiconductor Photo diode

1

Black board, Chalk and
LCD
Projector

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and
Halkias


chapter 19

71.


Revision on I and II Units

1

Black board and Chalk

Notes

72.


Revision on III and IV Units

1

Black board and Chalk

Notes

73.


Revision on V and VI Units

1

Black board and Chalk

Notes

74.


Revision on VII and VIII Units

1

Black board and Chalk

Notes

Electronic Devices & Circuits




Le
cture Plan

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester









Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year
B.Tech. 1
st

Semester




LEARNING
OBJECTIVES



Electronic Devices & Circuits


Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


LEARNING

OBJECTIVES


UNIT I:

p
-
n Junction Diode

At the conclusion of this unit student
will

1.

Explain the energy band theory

2.

Classify materials based on energy band theory

3.

Describe intrinsic semiconductor

4.

Explain thermal generation

5.

Explain how electrons and holes constitute current in an intrinsic semiconductor.

6.

Draw and explain the energy band diagram of intrinsic semiconduc
tor.

7.

Define drift current and diffusion current

8.

Define mobility of charged particle

9.

Derive an expression for the current density in terms charge concentration, electron
charge and
electric field intensity.

10.

Derive an expression for the conductivity of a semiconductor.

11.

Describe extrinsic semiconductor

12.

Why is doping required

13.

Explain the formation of n type semiconductor

14.

Explain conductivity of n type semiconductor

15.

Explain the formation of p type
semiconductor

16.

Explain conductivity of p type semiconductor

17.

Draw and explain the energy band diagram of extrinsic semiconductor

18.

Derive an expression for the conductivity of p type and n type semiconductor

19.

State and explain Law of mass action

20.

Explain car
rier concentrations in extrinsic semiconductor

21.

Explain Hall effect and its applications.

22.

Explain pn junction diode

23.

Derive expression for junction potential.

24.

Explain forward bias and reverse bias

25.

Explain the V
-
I characteristics of forward biased pn junc
tion diode

26.

Explain the V
-
I characteristics of reverse biased pn junction diode

27.

Explain the effect of temperature on V
-
I characteristics of pn junction diode.

28.

Explain the energy band diagram of open circuited diode.

29.

Define static resistance, dynamic resis
tance and bulk resistance of a diode.

30.

Define reverse saturation current and reverse breakdown voltage of a diode.

31.

Derive current equation of diode.

32.

Explain the current components of a diode

33.

Derive continuity equation

34.

Define transition capacitance and di
ffusion capacitance of a diode.

35.

Distinguish the features of Si and Ge diodes

36.

Explain avalanche and zener breakdown mechanisms.

37.

Explain the V
-
I characteristics of zener diode

38.

Define different zener diode parameters.




Electronic Devices & Circuits


Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


UNIT II
: Rectifiers and Filters


At the conclusion of this unit student
will

1.

Explain the function of rectifier

2.

Explain half wave rectifier and full wave rectifier

3.

Explain the advantages of full wave rectifier over half wave rectifier

4.

Explain the advantage of bridge rectifier

5.

Define
and derive Ripple factor, % regulation, efficiency of HWR.

6.

Define and derive Ripple factor, % regulation, and efficiency of FWR

7.

Explain how harmonic components are rectified with L filter, Derive ripple factor.

8.

Explain how harmonic components are rectifie
d with C filter, Derive ripple factor.

9.

Explain how harmonic components are rectified with LC or L section filter, Derive ripple
factor.

10.

Explain how harmonic components are rectified with


section filter, Derive ripple factor.

11.

Explain multiple L section and


section filters

12.

Compare the ripple factors of a rectifier with different filters.

13.

Explain Zener diode Rectifier.

14.

Explain series voltage regulator.


UNIT III: Bipolar Junction Transistor

At the conclusion of this unit stu
dent will

1.

Explain the principle of operation of transistor (pnp and npn)

2.

Explain the basic techniques used for the construction of transistor (grown type, micro alloy type,
electrochemically etched type, diffusion type, epitaxial growth type)

3.

Explain the

effect of temperature on transistor characteristics

4.

Draw the symbols and different configurations of transistor

5.

Draw and explain the input and out put characteristics of common emitter
configuration.

6.

Draw and explain the input and out put characteristi
cs of common base
configuration

7.

Draw and explain the input and out put characteristics of common collector
configuration

8.

Identify active, cutoff and saturation regions on out put characteristics

9.

Derive expression for collector current in CE configuration.

10.

Explain why CE provides large current amplification while CB can not.

11.

Explain why CE configuration is most widely used.

12.

Define current gain, voltage gain, input impedance and output impedance.

13.

Define

dc

and

dc

.
Derive relationship between

dc

and

dc

14.

Calculate

dc

and

dc,

if

base current and collector current are given.

15.

Explain early effect.

16.

Explain punch through eff
ect

17.

List out the applications of BJT




UNIT IV: Transistor Biasing & Stabilization

At the conclusion of this unit student
will

1.

What are the factors that affect the stability of amplifier?

2.

Define the three stability factors and explain their significance in BJT

3.

List out different techniques used for biasing transistor amplifiers

4.

Define and derive the expressions for stability factors S,S',S"

5.

Explain the fixed bias circuit and derive expre
ssion for stability factor S

Electronic Devices & Circuits


Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


6.

Explain Collector to base bias circuit and derive expression for stability factor S

7.

Explain voltage divider bias or emitter bias and derive expression for stability
factor S

8.

Explain why emitter bias circuit provides more stab
ility amongst the three types of
biasing methods

6.

Explain how to obtain Q point graphically for given CE transistor amplifier

7.

Explain the compensation techniques used for V
BE

and



8.

Explain what is Thermal runaway

9.

State the condition for thermal
stability



Unit V:
Small Signal Low Frequency BJT Models

At the conclusion of this unit student
will

1.

Define small signal operation of BJT

2.

Define low frequency operation of BJT

3.

Draw the small signal low frequency models of BJT

4.

Derive equations for
voltage gain, current gain, input and output impedance for small signal low frequency
BJT amplifiers

5.

Exact analysis of CE amplifier
z

6.

Exact analysis of CB and CC amplifier

7.

Approximate analysis of CE, CB and CC Amplifier


UNIT VI:
Field Effect Transistor

At the conclusion of this unit student
will

1.

Explain why FET is called unipolar device

2.

Explain why FET is called voltage
-
operated device Classify FETs and give their application areas.

3.

Explain construction of n channel JFET with neat diagram. Explain const
ruction of p channel JFET with
neat diagram.

4.

Explain the operation of n channel JFET Explain the operation of p channel JFET

5.

Draw the Static Characteristics of JFET and explain different portions of the
Characteristics.

6.

Define Pinch Off Voltage.

7.

Draw t
he Transfer Characteristics of JFET and explain different portions of
the Characteristics.

8.

Define R
d
, g
m

and


of JFET.

9.

Explain how R
d
, g
m

can be calculated from Characteristic curves.

10.

Explain how JFET can be used as Switch.

11.

Explain how JFET can be used as Voltage Variable Resistor.
Explain how MOSFET differs from JFET.


UNIT
-

VII: FET Amplifiers

At the conclusion of this unit student
will

1.

Define FET amplifiers

2.

Identify the need of FET amplifiers

3.

The useful characteristics that's make FET to be used as amplifiers

4.

Biasing of FET

5.

How to make FET work like a VVR Compare the effect of BJT and FET

6.

Explain the constructional details of UJT

7.

What is intrinsic stand of ratio



8.

Draw and explain UJT VI characteristics

9.

Draw the symbol and equivalent circuit of UJT

10.

Explain how UJT can be used as negative resistance device with the aid of static characteristics
List out
Electronic Devices & Circuits


Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


the applications of UJT.


UNIT
-
VIII: Special Purpose Electroni
c Devices

At the conclusion of this unit student
will

1.

Explain the principle of operation of Varactor diode

2.

Explain the V
-
I characteristics of Varactor diode

3.

Explain the applications of Varactor diode

4.

Explain the principle of operation of Tunnel diode

5.

Explain the V
-
I characteristics of Tunnel diode

6.

Explain the applications of Tunnel diode

7.

Explain the operation of schottky Barrier Diode

8.

Explain the operation of SCR

9.

Explain the operation of Semiconductor Photo Diode

10.

Explain is photo emissive effect

11.

Define radiant flux , irradiation , illumination, luminosity curve and light intensity

12.

Explain the VI characteristics of photo diode

13.

State any two applications of photo diode





II Year B.Tech. 1st Semester



















OBJECTIVE
TYPE
QUESTIONS



Electronic Devices & Circuits

Objectives
Questions


Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS



Unit I:

p
-
n Junction Diode


1.

The conventional current in a PN junction diode flows:





[

]

(a) From positive to negative



(b) From
negative to positive

(c) In the direction opposite to the electron flow.

(d) Both (a) and (c) above


2.


The cut in voltage (or knee voltage) of a silicon diode is





[

]

(a) 0.2V

(b) 0.6V

(c) 0.8 V

(d) 1.0V


3.

When a diode is reverse biased, it is equivale
nt to





[

]

(a) An OFF switch


(b) an ON switch

(c) A high resistance


(d) none of the above


4.

The resistance of a diode is equal to







[

]

(a) Ohmic resistance of the P
-

and N
-

semiconductors

(b) Junction resistance

(c) Reverse resistance





(d) Al
gebraic sum of (a) and (b) above


5.

For a silicon diode, the value of the forward
-

bias voltage typically



[

]

(a) Must be grater than 0.3V



(b) Must be greater than 0.7V

(c) Depends on the width of the depletion region

(d) Depends on the concentration of

majority carriers


6.

When forward biased, a diode








[

]

(a) Blocks current


(b) conducts current

(c) Has a high resistance

(d) drops a large voltage.


7.

A PN junction diode’s dynamic conductance is directly proportional to



[

]

(a) The applied voltage



(b) the temperature

(c) The current




(d) the thermal voltage

Electronic Devices & Circuits

Objectives
Questions


Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester



8.


The forward region of a semiconductor diode characteristic curve is where diode appears as [

]

(a) Constant current source

(b) a capacitor







(c) An OFF switch


(d) an ON switch



9.


At room temperature of25 °C, the barrier potential for silicon is 0.7 V. lts value at 125° C is[

]


(a) 0.5V

(b) 0.3V

(c) 0.9V

(d) 0.7V





10.


Junction breakdown of a PN junction occurs






[

]

(a) With forward bias



(b) with reverse bias

(c) Because
of manufacturing defect

(d) None of these


11.

Reverse saturation current in a silicon PN junction diode nearly doubles for every

[

]

(a) 2° C rise in temperature


(b) 5° C rise in temperature



(c) 6° C rise in temperature


(d) 10° C rise in temperature


12.

The approximate value of v
0

across the diode shown in Fig below is



[

]





(a) Zero

(b) 10V


(c) 5V


(d) dependent on the value of R


13.

The diode D is an ideal in the circuit shown in Fig below. The current, I will be


[

]







(a)
-

2nA

(b) zero

(c) 2 mA

(d) 4mA




Electronic Devices & Circuits

Objectives
Questions


Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester



14.

The voltage at V
1

and V
2

of the arrangement shown in Fig below will be respectively

[

]








(a) 6V and 5.4V

(b) 5∙4Vand 6V

(c) 3V and 5∙4V

(d) 6V and 5V


15.

The transition capacitance of a diode is 1nF and it can withst
and a reverse potential of 400V. A
capacitance of 2nF which can withstand a reverse potential of 1 kV is obtained by connecting


(a)

two 1nF diodes in series








[

]

(b)

six parallel branches with each branches comprising there 1nF diodes in series

(c)

two 1nF
diodes in series

(d)

three parallel branches with each branch comprising 1nF diodes in series


16.


A zener diode










[

]

(a)

has a high forward
-
voltage rating

(b)

has a sharp breakdown at low reverse voltage

(c)

is useful as an amplifier

(d)

has a negative resistance


17.


A 5 V reference is drawn from the circuit shown in Fig below if the zener diode current is of 5mA, then
R will be










[

]





(a) 50Ω


(b) 500 Ω

(c) 5000 Ω

(d) 50,000 Ω


ANSWERS


1 (d)

2 (b)


3 (a)

4 (d)

5 (b)

6 (b)


7 (c)


8 (d)

9 (a)

10 (b)

11
(d)

12 (a)




Electronic Devices & Circuits

Objectives
Questions


Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


13 (c)


14 (d)

15 (b)

16 (b)

17 (c)




UNIT II: Rectifiers and Filters


1.

In a half
-

wave rectifier, the load current flows for





[

]

(a)

Complete cycle of the input signal

(b)

Less than half
-
cycle of the input signal,

(c)

More than half
-
cycle but less
than complete cycle of the input signal.

(d)

Only for the positive half
-
cycle of the input signal.


2.

In a full
-
wave rectifier, the current in each of the diodes flows for



[

]

(a)

Complete cycle of the input signal.

(b) Half cycle of the input signal.

(d)

Less than ha
lf of the input signal.

(d) None of the above.


3.

The ripple factor of a bridge rectifier is







[

]

(a) 0.482

(b) 0.812


(c) 1.11

(d) 1.21


4.

A bridge rectifier is preferable to an ordinary two
-
diode full
-
wave rectifier because

[

]

(a)

It needs much smaller tr
ansformer for the same output.



(b)

It uses four diodes.

(c)

Its transformer does not require center
-
tap.

(d)

None of the above.


5.

The basic purpose of a filter is to







[

]

(a)

Minimize variations in a.c. input signal.

(b)

Suppress harmonics in rectified output.

(c)

Remove
ripples from the rectified output.

(d)

Stabilize d.c. output voltage.


6.

The use of a capacitor filter in a rectifier circuit gives satisfactory performance only when the load

(a) Current is high


(b) current is low





[

]

(c) Voltage is high


(d) voltage is

low


7.

A half
-
wave rectifier is equivalent to a







[

]

(a) a clamper circuit



(b) a clipper circuit

(c) a clamper circuit with negative bias

(d) a clamper circuit with positive bias


8.

Bridge rectifiers are preferred because







[

]

(a)

they require smal
l transformer

(b)

they have less peak
-
inverse voltage

(c)

they need small transformer and also have less peak
-
inverse voltage

(d)

They have low ripple factor.

Electronic Devices & Circuits

Objectives
Questions


Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester




9.

If V
m

is the peak value of an applied voltage in a half
-
wave rectifier with a large capacitor across the
load, then the peak
-
inverse voltage will be






[

]

(a)





(b)




(c)





(d) 2




10.

A voltage of





is applied to a half
-
wave rectifi
er with a load resistance of 5K. The rectifier is
represent by an ideal diode in series with a resistance of 1 K. The maximum value of current, d.c.
component of current and r.m.s. value of current will be respectively



[

]

(a) 33.33 mA, 10.61 mA and 16.6
7mA


(b) 22.22 mA, 8.61 mA and 12.38 mA

(c) 28.33 mA, 14.61 mA and 13.33 mA


(d) 40 mA, 20 mA and 25 mA


11.

The basic reason why a full
-
wave rectifier has a twice the efficiency of a half
-
wave rectifier is that

(a)

it makes use of transformer







[

]

(b)

its rippl
e factor is much less

(c)

it utilizes both half
-
cycle of the input

(d)

its output frequency is double the line frequency.


12.

The output of a half
-
wave rectifier is suitable only for





[

]

(a) running car radios


(b) running a.c. motors

(c) charging batteries


(d
) running tape recorders.



13.

The ripple factor of a bridge rectifier is







[

]

(a) 0.406

(b) 0.812

(c) 1.21

(d) 1.11


14.

The ripple factor of a power supply is given by (symbols have the usual meaning).

[

]

(a)






(b)

(




)




(c)

(




)




(d)








15.

The PIV of a half
-
wave rectifier circuit with a shunt capacitor filter is



[

]

(a)




(b)




(c)





(d) 3




16.

The primary function of a rectifier filter is to






[

]

(a)

minimise a.c. input variations

(b)

suppress
odd harmonics in the rectifier output

(c)

stabilise d.c, level of the output voltage

(d)

remove ripples from the rectified output

Electronic Devices & Circuits

Objectives
Questions


Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester




17.

In a rectifier, larger the value of shunt capacitor filter





[

]

a.

larger the peak
-
to
-
peak value of ripple voltage

b.

larger the peak c
urrent in the rectifying diode

c.

longer the time that current pulse flows through the diode

d.

Smaller the d.c. voltage across the load.


18.


In a LC filter, the ripple factor








[

]

(a) Increases with the load current


(b) increases with the load resistance

(c) Remains constant with the load current

(d) has the lowest value.


19.

The main reason why a bleeder resistor is used in a d.c. power supply is that it


[

]

(a) Keeps the supply ON


(b) improves voltage regulation

(c) Improves filtering action


(d) both
(b) and (c).


20.

Which rectifier requires four diodes?







[

]

(a) half
-
wave voltage doubler

(b) full
-
wave voltage doubler

(c) full
-
wave bridge circuit

(d) voltage quadrupler.


21.

If, by mistake, a.c source in a bridge rectifier, is connected across the d.c.

terminals, it will burn out and
hence short _____________ diodes.







[

]

(a) one


(b) two


(c) three

(d) four


22.

The d.c. output polarity from a half
-
wave rectifier can be reversed by reversing


[

]

(a) The diode



(b) transformer primary




(c) Transfor
mer secondary

(d) both (b) and (c).


23.

In a half
-
wave rectifier if a resistance equal to load resistance is connected in parallel with the diode, then

(a) Output voltage would be halved

(b) output voltage would be doubled


[

]

(c) Circuit will stop rectifyin
g


(d) output voltage will remain unchanged,


24.

If the input supply frequency is 50 Hz, the output ripple frequency of a bridge rectifier is ________ Hz.

(a) 100


(b) 75


(c) 50


(d) 25.





[

]


ANSWERS

1 (d)

2 (b)

3 (a)

4 (a)

5 (c)

6 (b)

7 (b)

8 (c)

9 (b)

10 (a)

11 (c)

12 (b)

Electronic Devices & Circuits

Objectives
Questions


Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


13 (c)

14 (b)

15 (a)

16 (d)

17 (b)

18 (c)

19 (d)

20 (b)

21 (d)

22 (a)

23 (c)

24 (a)







UNIT III: Bipolar Junction Transistor


1.

The "cut
-
in" voltage of a silicon small
-
signal transistor is





[

]

(a) 0V

(b) 0.2V

(c) 0.5V

(d) 0.8V


2.

When the collector junction in transistors is biased in the reverse direction and the emitter junction in the
forward direction, the transistor is said to be in the






[

]

(a) Active region



(b) cut
-
off region

(c) Saturation region


(d) none of them.


3.

The transistor is said to be in saturation region when





[

]

(a)

both collector and emitter junctions are forward biased

(b)

both collector and emitter junctions are reversed biased ∙

(c)

emitter junction is forward biased, but the collector junction is reverse
biased

(d)

emitter junction is reverse biased, but the collector junction is forward biased


4.

For a silicon transistor in the common emitter configuration the cut
-
off condition is achieved by applying a
minimum reverse voltage across the emitter junction of the

order of




[

]

(a) 0V

(b) 0.7 V

(c) 1.5V

(d) 5V







5.

A transistor connected in common base configuration has





[

]

(a)

a high input resistance and a low output resistance

(b)

a low input resistance and high output resistance

(c)

a low input resistance and a l
ow output resistance

(d)

a high input resistance and a high output resistance


6.

Which of the following is not a time varying quantity?





[

]

(a) v
ce



(b) V
CE


(c) v
CE



(d) V
ce


7.

In the Ebbers
-
Model of a bipolar transistor, the parameter is the




[

]

a.

Forward transmission from emitter to collector

b.

Reverse transmission from collector to emitter

c.

Common base current gain

Electronic Devices & Circuits

Objectives
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Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


d.

Both (a) and (c) above


8.

The value of trans
-
conductance of a bipolar transistor for a collector current of 1.5 mA is

[

]


(a) 0.05Ω



(b)

0.05 x 10
3




(c) 37.5 Ω

(d) None of the above



9.

The resistance r
bb’

in the low frequency hybrid
-
π model of a bipolar transistor represents

[

]

a.

Base spreading resistance








b.

A.C. resistance for forward biased emitter
-
base junction

c.

The effect of feedb
ack between the emitter
-
base junction and collector
-
base junction due to Early effect

d.

None of the above


10.

The capacitance C
e

in the high frequency hybrid
-
π model of a bipolar transistor represents the [


]

(a) Depletion region capacitance


(b) Emitter
diffusion capacitance

(c) Emitter
-
base junction capacitance

(d) Sum of the (b) and (c) above


ANSWERS

1 (c)

2 (a)

3 (a)

4 (a)

5 (b)

6 (b)

7 (d)

8 (a)

9 (a)

10 (d)





UNIT IV: Transistor Biasing & Stabilization


1.

The d.c. load line of a transistor circui
t







[

]

(a) is a graph between I
C

and V
CE



(b) is a graph between I
C

and I
B

(c) does not contain the locating point

(d) is a curved line


2.

The positive part of the output signal in a transistor circuit starts clipping, if Q
-
point of the circuit moves

(a) towards the saturation point



(b) towards the cut
-
off point


[

]

(c) towards the center of the load line


(d) none of the above


3.

The negative part of the output signal in a transistor circuit starts clipping, if Q
-
point of the circuit moves

(a) towa
rds the saturation point


(b) towards the cut
-
off point



[

]

(c) towards the center of the load line

(d) none of the above


4.

The voltage divider biasing circuit is used in amplifiers quite often because it


[

]

e.

limits the a.c. signal going to the base

f.

ma
kes the operating point almost independent of β

g.

reduces the d.c. base current

h.

reduces the cost of the circuit

Electronic Devices & Circuits

Objectives
Questions


Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester



5.

Which of the following components are used for bias compensation in transistor circuits?

[

]

(a) resistors



(b) rectifier diodes





(c) therm
istors



(d) both (b) and (c) above


6.

To avoid thermal run away in the design of analog circuit, the operating point of the BJT should be such that
it satisfies the condition









[

]

(a)









(b)








(c)









(d)










7.

In the case of a BJT amplifier, bias stability is achieved by





[

]

(a)

keeping the base current constant

(b)

changing the base current in order to keep the I
C

and V
CB

constant

(c)

keeping the temperature constant

(d)

keeping the temperature and the bas
e current constant.


8.

For a transistor amplifier with self
-
biasing network, the following components are used: R
1
= 4 k, R
2

= 4 k
and R
E

= 1k, the approximate value of the stability factor ‘S’ will be




[

]

(a) 4

(b) 3


(c) 2


(d) 1.5






9.

A transistor c
ircuit employing base bias with collector feedback has greater stability than the one without
feedback because










[

]

(a) I
C

decrease in magnitude


(b) V
BE

is decreased

(c) of negative feedback effect


(d) I
C

becomes independent of β


10.

Improper bias
ing of a transistor circuit leads to






[

]

(a)

excessive heat production at collector terminal


(b)

distortion in output signal

(c)

faulty location of load line

(d)

heavy loading of emitter terminal


11.

The negative output swing in a transistor circuit starts clipping
first when Q
-
point


[

]

(a) has optimum value


(b) is near saturation point





(c) is near cut
-
off point


(d) is in the active region of the load line.


12.

When a BJT is employed as an amplifier, it operates





[

]

(a) in cut
-
off



(b) in saturation

(c) w
ell into saturation



(d) over the active region.

Electronic Devices & Circuits

Objectives
Questions


Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester



13.

Which of the following method used for biasing a BJT in integrated circuits is considered independent of
transistor beta?










[

]

(a) fixed biasing



(b) voltage divider bias

(c) collector feedback b
ias


(d) base bias with collector feedback.


14.

The voltage V
0

of the circuit shown in Fig. below is






[

]







(a) 5.1 V

(b) 3.1 V

(c) 2.5 V

(d) zero


15.

The collector voltage V
C

of the circuit shown in figure below is




[

]







(a) 2V


(b)
4.6V

(c) 8V


(d) 8.6V


16.

In the circuit shown in Fig. below. The transistor is biased at




[

]







(a) 0 mA

(b) 5 mA

(c) 3.9mA

(d) ∞


17.

Assume V
BE

= 0.7 V and β = 50 for the transistor shown in Fig. below. For V
CE

= 2 V, the value of R
B

is












[

]







Electronic Devices & Circuits

Objectives
Questions


Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester




(a) 200 KΩ

(b) 242 KΩ

(c) 283 KΩ

(d) 300 KΩ





18.

The collector voltage V
C

of the circuit shown in Fig. below is approximately



[

]







(a) 2V


(b) 4.6V

(c) 8V


(d) 8.6V


19.

In the circuit shown in Fig. below, the approximate voltages

at the transistor



[

]






(a)

base and emitter are
-
8 V and
-
7.3 V

(b)

base and collector respectively are
-
8 V and
-
7.3 V

(c)

collector and emitter respectively are
-
5 V and
-
7.3 V

(d)

base, emitter and collector respectively are
-
8 V,
-
7.3 V and
-
5 V.


20.

A
circuit using BJT is shown in Fig. below. The value of β is




[

]







(a) 120

(b) 150

(c) 165

(d) 186


21.

Thermal runway will be avoided if the quiescent point is such that




[

]




Electronic Devices & Circuits

Objectives
Questions


Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


(a)








(b)







(c)






(d)










ANSWERS

1 (a)

2 (b)

3 (a)

4 (b)

5 (d)

6 (c)

7 (a)

8 (b)

9 (b)

10 (b)

11 (b)

12 (d)

13 (b) 14 (d)

15 (a)

16 (b)

17 (c)

18 (c)

19 (a)

20 (d)

21 (d)






Unit V:
Small Signal Low Frequency BJT Models


1.

For a common emitter amplifier having a small
un bypassed emitter resistance (R
E
) the input resistance is
approximately equal to









[

]

(a) R
E



(b) h
fe



(c) h
fe

R
E


(d) R
E

/h
fe


2.

The voltage gain of a common base amplifier is






[

]

(a) zero


(b) less than unity

(c) unity

(d) greater than un
ity



3.

For a common base transistor amplifier having input resistance (R
i
) and output resistance (R
0
), which of the
following statements holds good








[

]

(a) R
i

is low, R
0

is high


(b) R
i

is high, R
0

is low

(c) R
i

and R
0

are both medium

(d) None of
these



4.

The current gain of an emitter follower is







[

]

(a) zero

(b) greater than unity


(c) less than unity

(d) all of them


5.

Which of the following transistor amplifiers has the highest voltage gain?



[

]

(a) common
-
base



(b) common
-
collector

(c
) common
-
emitter



(d) none of them


6.

In an ac amplifier, larger the internal resistance of the ac signal source



[

]

(a) Greater the overall voltage gain


(b) greater the input impedance

(c) Smaller the current gain



(d) smaller the circuit voltage ga
in.


7.

The main use of an emitter follower is as







[

]

(a) power amplifier



(b) impedance matching device

(c) low
-
input impedance circuit



(d) follower of base signal.


Electronic Devices & Circuits

Objectives
Questions


Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


8.

An ideal amplifier is one which








[

]

(a) has infinite voltage gain

(b) respo
nds only to signal at its input terminals

(c) has positive feedback


(d) gives uniform frequency response.


9.

The voltage gain of a single
-
stage amplifier is increased when




[

]

(a) its ac load is decreased


(b) resistance of signal source is increased

(c) emitter resistance R
E

is increased.

(d) as load resistance is increased.

10.

When emitter bypass capacitor in a common
-
emitter amplifier is removed, its _______ is considerably
reduced.











[

]

(a) input resistance


(b) output load resistance

(c) emitter current


(d) voltage gain


11.

Unique features of a CC amplifier circuit is that it






[

]

(a) steps up the impedance level


(b) does not increases signal voltage

(c) acts as an impedance matching device

(d) all of the above.



12.

An amplifier

circuit is shown in Fig below. The voltage gain (V
0
/V
S
) is



[

]








(a) 4/3.33

(b) 100


(c) 150


(d) 160


13.

The h
-
parameters are called hybrid parameters because they




[

]

(a)

are different from y
-

and z
-

parameters.

(b)

are mixed with other parameters

(c)

apply to circuits contained in a box

(d)

are defined by using both open
-
circuit and short
-
circuit terminations


14.

Which of the following statement is not correct regarding the h
-
parameters of a transistor?

[

]

(b)

The values of h
-
parameters can be obtained from tran
sistor characteristics.


(c)

their values depends upon the transistor configuration

(d)

their values depend on operating point

(e)

they are four in number


Electronic Devices & Circuits

Objectives
Questions


Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester



15.

Which of the following four h
-
parameters of a transistor has a greatest value?


[

]

(a) h
i


(b) h
r

(c) h
0

(d) h
f


16.

Which of the following four h
-
parameters of a transistor has a smallest value?


[

]

(a) h
i


(b) h
r

(c) h
0


(d) h
f










17.

The typical value h
ic

is









[

]

(a) l KΩ


(b) 40 KΩ

(c) 100KΩ


(d) 2MΩ

18.

The input impedance h
11

of a network with output shorted is given by the ratio


[

]

(a)







(b)






(c)







(d)









19.

The h
-
parameters of a transistor depend on its






[

]

(a) Configuration



(b) operating point

(c) Temperature


(d) all of the above




20.

The
output admittance h
0

of an ideal transistor connected is common
-
base configuration is ____________
Siemens











[

]

(a) 0


(b)




(c)







(d)
-
1


21.

A transistor has h
fe

= 100, h
ie

= 5.2 KΩ, and r
bb

= 0. At room temperature, V
T
= 26 mV. The collec
tor
current, I
C

will be










[

]

(a) 10 mA

(b) 5 mA

(c) l mA

(d) 0.5 mA


ANSWERS

l (c)

2 (d)

3 (a)

4 (b)

5 (c)

6 (d)

7 (b)

8 (b)

9 (d)

10 (d)

11 (d)

12 (d)

13 (d)

14 (c)

15 (a)

16 (c)

17 (a)

18 (a)

19 (a)

20 (a)

21 (a)




UNIT VI:
Field Effect
Transistor


1.

A field effect transistor (FET) operates on







[

]

(a) Majority carriers only


(b) Minority carriers only

(c) Positively charged ions only

Electronic Devices & Circuits

Objectives
Questions


Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester



2.

In JFET operating above pinch
-
off voltage, the






[

]

(a)

Drain current remains practically constant

(b)

Dr
ain current starts decreasing

(c)

Drain current increases rapidly

(d)

Depletion region becomes smaller




3.

The JFET is oftenly called square law device because its





[

]

(a)

Trans
-
conductance curve is parabolic

(b)

A.C. resistance from drain
-
to
-
source varies inversely as

square of the drain current

(c)

Drain current varies as square of drain voltage for a fixed gate
-

to
-
source voltage

(d)

Reverse gate leakage current varies as a square of the reverse gate voltage


4.

For the operation of depletion
-
type MOSFET, the gate voltage has t
o be



[

]

(a) Low positive



(b) High positive

(c) High negative



(d) Zero


5.

The N
-
channel MOSFET devices are preferred more than P
-
channel’s because


[

]

(a)

N
-
channel devices are faster than P
-
channel devices




(b)

N
-
channel devices consumes less power than
P
-
channel devices

(c)

N
-
channel devices have higher packing density than P
-
channe1 devices

(d)

Both (a) and (c) above


6.

As compared to N
-
channel MOS switch, the P
-
channel MOS switch has



[

]

(a) Same ON resistance



(b) Less ON resistance

(a) More ON resistance


(d) either (a) or (b)


7.

Thermal runway is not possible in FET because as the temperature of the FET increases

[

]

(a) the mobility decreases


(b) the trans
-
conductance increases



(c) the drain current increases

(d) the mobility increases


8.

The trans
-
condu
ctance g
m

of a JFET is equal to






[

]

(a)







(b)


|


|






(c)






{






}


(d)




{






}


9.

An FET is a better chopper than a BJT because it has





[

]

Electronic Devices & Circuits

Objectives
Questions


Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engg.

ECE

II Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


(a) lower offset voltage

(b) higher series ON resi
stance

(c) lower input current

(d) higher input impedance.

(e) both (c) and (d)








10.

In a biased JFET, the shape of the channel is as shown in Fig below is due to


[

]






a.

it is the property of the material used.

b.

the drain end is more reverse
biased than source end.

c.

the drain end is more forward biased than source end.

d.

the impurity profile varies with the distance from the source.


11.

Which of the following statement is not true in case of FET.





[

]

(a) It has high input impedance



(b) It is
less noisy than bipolar transistor.

(c) It has a large gain band width product

(d) all of the above.


12.

The JFET is a










[

]

a.

current controlled device with high input resistance

b.

voltage controlled device with high input resistance

c.

voltage controlled
device with low input resistance

d.

current controlled device with low input resistance


13.

The input impedance of a JFET is in the range of






[

]

(a) above 2 MΩ

(b) 200 to 400 KΩ

(c) 20 to 40 KΩ


(d) below 2 KΩ


14.

FET is











[

]

(a) current controlled de
vice


(b) voltage controlled device