Multimedia Systems Design

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Nov 17, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Multimedia Systems Design

Introduction

Introduction


“A

Picture

is

worth

a

thousand

words”


There

have

been

ongoing

attempts

to

improve

productivity

of

knowledge

workers
.



Reducing

paper

flow

(reports,

memos)

has

been

one

important

area

where

electronic

mail

and

groupware

technologies

are

beginning

to

have

impact
.


As

the

demands

of

business

increased,

the

1980
s

were

distinguished

by

overnight

mail

and

fax

as

the

means

of

communicating

important

information

that

did

not

require

face

to

face

meeting
.


Introduction


Electronic Mail


Electronic Meetings


Video Conferencing


ISDN


HDTV



Introduction


The

technologies

at

the

core

of

the

computing

revolution

have

reached

a

point

where

one

can

envision

a

computing

system

composed

of

a

number

of

elements

together

by

various

communication

methods,

all

striving

to

serve

user
.

Introduction


The

machine

user

interaction

will

be

at

conversational

level

rather

that

through

the

typed

cryptic

commands

of

yesterday

or

the

mouse

movements

still

in

use
.


As

screens

become

larger

and

feature

increasingly

higher

resolutions,

the

demand

to

see

higher
-
resolution

images

is

increasing
.


New

technologies

especially

developed

for

GUI

allows

multiple

applications

to

operate

simultaneously

using

multiple

windows,

thereby

placing

increasing

demands

on

screen

estates
.


Introduction


The

main

challenge

for

the

designers

of

multimedia

systems

will

be

to

pack

large

volumes

of

information

in

compact

packets
.


Local

area

network

provides

bandwidth

ranging

from

10
mbits/sec

to

several

gigabits

per

second
.


WAN

depends

on

land,

sea

or

satellite

based

communication

channels

that

carry

a

large

number

of

conversations
.


With

such

bandwidths

compression

and

decompression

of

data

is

important
.


The

size

of

compressed

data

is

important

because

it

determines

the

bandwidth

necessary

to

meet

acceptable

performance

requirements
.


What constitutes Multimedia?


Multimedia

meant

a

combination

of

text

with

images
.


Document

image

management

was

an

outgrowth

of

facsimile

technology
.


Facsimile

provided

a

means

of

scanning

and

converting

a

document

into

coded

information

that

described

each

pixel

as

white

or

black
.


When

the

number

of

pixel

per

inch

was

low,

the

information

was

easily

manageable
.


When

the

pixel

densities

increased

as

better

fax

machines

were

developed,

the

information

became

very

large
.


What Constitutes Multimedia?


Wide

variety

of

multimedia

applications

are

in

use

or

under

development

like
:


1
.

Video

Conferencing


2
.

Medical

applications,

such

as

analysis

of

surgical

procedures

and

high

resolution
.


3
.

Real

estates

on
-
line

video

clips

with

property

descriptors


4
.

Multimedia

help

and

training

material


5
.

Security

systems

for

employee

identification

Multimedia Elements


Multimedia

applications

require

dynamic

handling

of

data

consisting

of

a

mix

of

text,

voice,

audio

components,

video

components,

and

image

animation
.



Integrated

multimedia

application

allows

user

to

cut

sections

of

all

or

any

of

these

components

and

paste

them

in

a

new

document

or

in

another

application
.


There

are

several

components

of

Multimedia
:

Facsimile



Fax
.

A

process

by

which

fixed

graphic

material

including

pictures,

text,

or

images

is

scanned

and

the

information

converted

into

electrical

signals

which

are

transmitted

via

telephone

to

produce

a

paper

copy

of

the

graphics

on

the

receiving

fax

machine
.



Facsimile

transmissions

were

the

first

practical

means

of

transmitting

document

images

over

a

telephone

line
.



It

uses

group
3

compression

standards
.


Typical

pixel

densities

used

for

facsimile

are

in

the

100

to

200

dpi

range
.


The

higher

resolution

are

used

to

enhance

the

clarity

of

documents
.

Document Images



Document images are used for storing business
documents that must be retained for long periods
of time or may need to be accessed by a large
number of people.


Providing multimedia access to such documents
removes the need for making several copies of the
original for storage or distribution.


For storage of such documents minimum dpi
required is 300 dpi.


An uncompressed A
-
size(8
-
½ inch x 11
-
½ inch
image) is over 1 Mbyte.


Even with group 3 compression this size reduces
to approximately 75kbytes.

Document Images



For images that are gray scaled or color, the sizes
are much larger to accommodate the pixel color
information.


Scanning of document images at that a high
resolution requires very efficient compression and
decompression technologies.

Photographic Image



Photographic

images

are

used

for

wide

range

of

applications

such

as

employee

records

for

instant

identification

at

a

security

desk,

real

estate

systems

with

photographs

of

house

in

the

database

containing

the

descriptions

of

house
.


For

bank

signature

cards,

patient

medical

history,

fingerprint

cards
.


To

create

photographic

image

with

laser

printer

resolution

of

600

dpi

is

considered

essential

.

Geographic information system
maps


Maps

created

in

GIS

are

widely

used

for

natural

resource

and

wild

life

management

as

well

as

urban

planning
.


These

systems

store

the

graphical

information

of

the

map

along

with

a

database

containing

information

relating

high

lighted

map

elements
.


Two

kinds

of

technologies

are

used

for

storage

and

display

of

geographic

maps
.


Raster

technology

to

display

natural

resources
.


Another

application

combines

raster

image

and

vector

overlay

showing

railroads

or

highways

and

other

human

made

structure
.

Voice Commands



Voice

commands

allow

the

user

to

direct

computer

operation

by

spoken

commands
.


Voice

commands

allow

hands

free

usage

of

computer

applications

by

allowing

command

via

short

voice

commands

rather

than

a

keyboard

or

pointing

device
.


Recognition

of

commands

requires

specialized

techniques

and

powerful

processing

capabilities

to

compensate

for

differences

in

pitch,

accents,

and

voice

modulation

techniques

of

users
.

Voice Synthesis




Transforming

computer

output

to

voice

or

audio

output
.


It

is

easier

to

achieve

in

compare

to

voice

recognition
.


The

cadence(the

consistency

with

which

the

spoken

words

are

stung

together)

of

the

output

should

be

good

for

message

to

be

clear
.


Digital

signal

processors

designed

for

such

an

application

have

the

processing

power

to

perform

the

computations

and

maintain

correct

cadence
.

Audio Messages





Audio

messages

are

substitute

of

text

messages
.


Computers

having

microphone

can

record

audio

message

and

can

embed

it

into

electronic

mail
.


Audio

messages

also

require

large

volumes

of

storage
.


Compression

techniques

are

required

to

manage

the

storage

efficiently
.


With

image

speed

of

decompression

and

display

is

important,

speed

of

decompression

and

playback

of

audio

message

with

proper

cadence

is

important

for

audio

message
.


Video Messages





Similar

to

audio

messages,

video

messages

can

be

embedded

into

electronic

mail

messages
.


The

storage

and

playback

requirements

are

even

more

complex

with

video

messages

because

of

storage

of

each

video

shots
.


Full motion stored and live
video





Full

motion

video

act

as

very

useful

idea

for

online

training

manuals
.


Full

motion

video

can

be

used

for

video

conferencing,

live

video

presentations
.


Full

motion

video

requires

high

bandwidth

for

communication,

massive

storage

requirements

and

high

compression

techniques
.


High
-
definition

television

(or

HDTV)

is

a

digital

television

broadcasting

system

with

higher

resolution

than

traditional

television

systems



Again

digital

HDTV(High

definition

TV)

places

another

major

demand

on

the

design
-

that

of

special

effects

such

as

zoom,

freeze

frame,

image

merging

and

image

reconstruction
.

Holographic Images




Holographic

images

extend

the

concept

of

virtual

reality

by

allowing

the

user

to

get

inside

a

part,

such

as,

an

engine

and

view

its

operation

from

the

inside
.


Multimedia Applications



Document Imaging


Image Processing and Image
Recognition


Full Motion Digital Video Applications


Electronic Messaging



Document Imaging



Organizations

such

as

insurance

agencies,

law

offices,

state

governments,

and

the

federal

government,

including

the

department

of

defense,

manage

large

volumes

of

documents
.


Document

imaging

makes

it

possible

to

store,

retrieve,

and

manipulate

very

large

volumes

of

drawings,

documents,

and

other

graphical

representations
.


Ex
:

Sending

large

volumes

of

engineering

data

about

complex

systems

in

electronic

form

rather

than

on

paper
.

Document Imaging



Almost

all

document

image

systems

use

below

work

flow
:


1
.

Scanning

images


2
.

Performing

Quality

checks


3
.

Performing

data

entry

based

on

the

contents

of

the

images
.


4
.

Indexing

them


5
.

Storing

them

on

optical

media

Image Processing and Image Recognition


Image processing involves:


Image Recognition


Image Enhancement


Image Synthesis


Image Reconstruction

Image Processing and Image Recognition


The

original

image

is

not

altered

in

document

image

workflow
.


Image

processing

system

actually

alter

the

contents

of

the

image

itself
.


Ex
:

Recognition

of

images
:

in

factory

floor

quality

assurance

systems,


Image

Enhancement
:

Satellite

reconnaissance

systems


Image

Synthesis
:

Law

enforcement

suspect

identification


Image

Reconstruction
:

In

Plastic

surgery

design

systems


Image Enhancement


Image

enhancement

improves

the

quality

of

images

for

human

viewing
.


Removing

blurring

and

Noise,

increasing

contrast

.


For

example

an

image

might

be

taken

of

any

cell

of

body

which

might

be

of

low

contrast

range

could

enhance

the

image
.


Increasing

sensitivity

and

contrast

makes

picture

darker

by

making

borderline

pixels

black

or

increasing

the

gray

scale

level

of

pixels
.

Image Animation



Computer

created

or

scanned

images

can

be

displayed

sequentially

at

controlled

display

speeds

to

provide

image

animation
.


Image

animation

is

a

technology

developed

by

Walt

Disney

and

brought

into

every

home

in

the

form

of

cartoons
.



Optical Character recognition




OCR

technology

is

used

for

data

entry

by

scanning

typed

or

printed

words

in

a

form
.


OCR

technology

used

as

a

means

for

data

entry

may

be

used

for

as

simple

a

task

as

reading

the

number

of

an

invoice,

or

for

capturing

entire

paragraphs

of

text
.

Handwriting Recognition


Handwriting

Recognition

has

been

subject

of

intensive

research

now

a

days
.


Pen

based

systems

are

designed

to

allow

user

to

write

commands

on

an

electronic

tablet
.


Key

Design

Constraint
:

Ability

to

recognize

writer

independent

continuous

cursive

handwriting

accurately

in

real

time
.


Two

factors

are

important
:

Strokes

or

shapes

being

inputted

and

velocity

of

input
.


Parse

recognizer

will

identify

topology

of

strokes
.


Handwriting Recognition


The

stroke

is

compared

with

the

prototype

character

set

until

a

match

is

found

or

all

predefined

prototypes

are

checked
.



Full Motion Digital Video
Applications


Full Motion video is the most complex and the most
demanding component of multimedia applications.


Full Motion Video Applications:


1.

Training and Manuals:




On
-
Line Reference




CD
-
Rom




Training


2.

Business Applications;




E
-
Mail




Video Conferencing




Presentations




Demos




Full Motion Digital Video
Applications

3.
Games and Entertainment



Interactive TV



CD
-
ROM Interactive Games




Full Motion Digital Video
Requirements


It

should

be

possible

to

attach

full

motion

video

clips

to

other

documents

such

as

memos,

presentations
.


Users

should

be

able

to

take

sections

of

a

video

clip

and

combine

the

sections

with

sections

from

other

video

clips

to

form

their

own

new

video

clip
.


Features

such

as

rewind,

fast
-
forward,

play,

and

search

should

be

available
.


It

should

be

possible

to

view

the

same

clip

on

a

variety

of

display

terminal

types

with

varying

resolution

capabilities

without

storing

multiple

copies

in

different

formats
.


It

should

be

possible

for

users

to

move

and

resize

the

window

displaying

the

video

clip
.

Full Motion Digital Video
Requirements


The

users

should

be

able

to

adjust

the

contrast

and

brightness

of

the

video

clip

and

also

adjust

the

volume

of

the

associated

sound
.



Evolving Technologies for multimedia
systems


Hypermedia documents



Hypertext



Hyper speech



HDTV and UDTV


3
-
D Technologies and Holography


Fuzzy Logic


Digital Signal Processing

Hypermedia documents


Technical and business documents in
electronic form.


It contains text, embedded or linked
multimedia objects such as image, audio or
full motion video.


Hypermedia has its roots in hypertext.



Hypertext


Hypertext allows authors to


Link information together,


Create information paths through a large
volume of related text in documents


Explicit connections or links allow readers
to move from one location to another in a
document or to other documents.


Hypermedia is an extension of hypertext in
that these electronic documents, in addition
to containing text will also include any kind of
information that can be stored electronically.


Hypertext


An

important

issue

arise

with

Hypermedia

document

is

storage
.



It

does

not

make

sense

to

embed

full

copies

of

each

component

of

a

hypermedia

document

within

document

file
.


Rather,

since

the

embedded

components

may

also

be

included

in

other

documents
.


Hypermedia

document

only

store

references

to

the

documents
.


The

user

sees

a

single

document,

but

the

locations

of

the

various

components

that

are

in

document

are

transparent
.

HDTV and UDTV



The

electronics

industry

is

attempting

to

raise

the

resolution

levels

of

commercial

television

broadcasting
.



Among

the

better
-
known

television

broadcasting

standards

are

NTSC,

PAL,

SECAM,

NHK,

and

others
.



These

standards

range

in

resolution

from

525

lines

for

NTSC

to

819

lines

for

the

French

standard
.



A

hot

debate

has

been

in

progress

for

bringing

the

world

together

on

a

single

high
-
definition

television

(HDTV)

broadcasting

standard
.



A

1125
-
line

digital

HDTV

has

been

developed

and

is

being

commercialized
.



NHK

of

Japan

is

trying

to

leapfrog

the

digital

technology

to

develop

ultra

definition

television

(digital

UDTV)

featuring

approximately

3000

lines
.

Figure

1
-
5

shows

the

progression

in

the

resolution

of

television

pictures
..

HDTV and UDTV



There are some key technologies necessary to make
the jump to a 3000
-
line UDTV standard.



It requires the development of ultra
-

resolution
displays at a commercially viable price, high
-
speed
video
-
processing ICs, and ultra broadband
communications bandwidths for WAN services such
as ISDN.

Fuzzy Logic


It

includes

graphics

rendering,

data

compression

for

images,

voice

and

video,

voice

recognition

and

synthesis,

as

well

as

signal

processing

for

video,

high

resolution

facsimile
.


Graphics

rendering

involves

the

painting

of

three

dimensional

objects

onto

a

two
-
dimensional

display


Any

application

that

is

computationally

intensive

can

benefit

from

the

mathematical

principles

behind

fuzzy

logic
.

Types of images

Visible Images


Visible Images include



Drawings such as



Blueprints, Engineering Drawings, Space maps for Offices,


n Town Layouts, Paintings, Photographs, Documents,



Still Frames


Non
-
visible Images:


Non
-
visible Images are not stored as images but it is displayed

as images. The examples include


Pressure Gauges


Temperature Gauges


Other metering displays

Abstract Images



Abstract

Images

are

not

really

images
.

They

exist

as

real

world

objects

or

representations
.


They

are

computer

generated

images

based

on

some

arithmetic

calculations
.

The

examples

are


Kaleidoscope



Shows

different

patterns

due

to

relative

positions

of

glass

beads

when

it

is

rotated


The

mathematical

used

for

generating

Abstract

Images
:



Discrete

Functions



It

results

in

still

images

that

remain

constant
.


Continuous

Functions



It

is

used

to

show

animated

images

and

operations

such

as

image

fading

or

dissolving

into

another

image

Multimedia data interface Standards


Video Processing Standards:



Intel’s DVI


Apple’s Quick Time


Microsoft’s AVI


Intel’s DVI



DVI

is

actually

both

the

name

of

the

Digital

Video

Interactive

hardware

system

sold

by

Intel

and

the

file

format

associated

with

that

system
.

DVI

technology

is

essentially

a

PC
-
based

interactive

audio/video

system

used

for

multimedia

applications


Apple’s Quick time


QuickTime

(sometimes

called

QTM)

is

the

native

method

of

storing

audio

and

motion

video

information

on

the

Apple

Macintosh

platform
.



It

is

used

to

record

and

play

back

multimedia

information

and

store

the

data

on

magnetic

or

optical

media
.


QuickTime,

however,

is

not

only

a

data
-
storage

format
.

It

is

also

a

collection

of

tools

(the

Movie

Toolbox)

that

allows

QuickTime

movies

to

be

modified

(edit,

cut,

copy,

paste,

and

so

on),

just

as

a

word

processor

is

capable

of

modifying

an

ordinary

text

file
.



Apple’s Quick time


Quick time includes:


System Software


File formats


Compression/Decompression
algorithms


Human interface standards



Microsoft’s AVI



Microsoft’s

Audio

video

interleave

standard,

similar

to

apple’s

quick

time

offers

low

cost,

low

resolution

video

processing
.


It

allows

users

to

set

parameters

such

as

window

size,

quality,

compression

algorithm