AAC for Very young Children

parisfawnAI and Robotics

Nov 17, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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AAC FOR VERY YOUNG
CHILDREN

Lauren
Everley

and Emily Markov


Definitions


Special Characteristics


Varying Etiologies

Introduction

Introduction


Definition
-


Very young refers to children 0
-
5 years of age



Special Characteristics of Population
-


Literacy


Little reading and/ or writing ability


Speech


Pre
-
lingual


Vocabulary


Often limited

Introduction


Varying Etiologies


Autism


TBI


Genetic Conditions (
ie

Down Syndrome)


Cerebral Palsy


Sensory Deficits (
ie

Visual, Hearing)


Communicative Abilities


Motor Abilities


Cognitive Abilities


Sensory Functioning


Behavioral Issues

Characteristics Affecting Device Usage

Characteristics Affecting Device Usage



Communicative Abilities


How does the child currently communicate?


Does the child engage in intentional communication?


How well does the child understand the communication
of others? (receptive communication)


Motor Abilities


What are the child’s current speech and oral motor
abilities?


What movements does the child have sufficient control
over that can be used for AAC activation and control?


How does the child move from place to place?

Characteristics Affecting Device Usage

Characteristics Affecting Device Usage


Cognitive abilities


What cognitive abilities does the child have?


Does the child engage in intentional communicative
behavior?


Does the child appear to understand the concepts of
causality, means
-
end and symbols?


Does the child do better utilizing recognition versus recall
memory?


Sensory Functioning


Does the child have and vision difficulties?


Does the child have any hearing difficulties?


Is the child overly sensitive to stimuli?

Characteristics Affecting Device Usage

Characteristics Affecting Device Usage


Behavioral Issues


Does the child engage in inappropriate or challenging
behaviors?


Unwanted movements


Attention span


SGD


Voice Output System


No tech, low tech, mid tech, high tech

Speech Generating Devices


Voice output system
-



Electronic systems used to replace speech for individuals
with speech impairments


Allows individuals to actively participate in communication
interaction


Produce electronic voice output through speech synthesis or
natural speech


Often takes time to prepare responses

SGD

SGD


does
not
require a
power
source


requires a
power
source


r
equires
extensive
training to
program
and
maintain
the
device.

No Tech

High Tech

Low Tech


requires
a
source of
power


very
easy
to
program

Mid Tech


requires a
power
source


requires
training
to
program
and
maintain

Communication Devices Available for Children


Picture based systems


Three dimensional objects


Wearable communication systems


Gestures/ Sign

Types of Communication Devices

PICTURE BASED

Picture Based System


The use of pictures to facilitate
communication


Child chooses a picture to make a
request


System can range from no
-
tech to
high
-
tech

Picture Based System
-

PECS


Picture Exchange
Communication (PECS
)



The individual gives a
picture of desired item
to communicative partner
who then honors the
request



6 phases ( discrimination,
sentences, answering
questions, etc.)


Affordable


Effective for multiple
etiologies


Allows for social
communication


Can be used even
after “young child”
years


Requires a lot of
attention to learn


Communication limited
to pictures available

PROS

CONS

Picture Based System
-

PECS

Picture Based System
-

M
3


Dynavox

M
3


first speech
-
generating
device to feature
touchscreen

technology



Prerecorded messages



Ideal for young children
because no literacy skills
are needed


Messages sorted by
situational context


Provides verbal
feedback via digitized
feedback


Visual AND auditory
feedback


Multiple access methods


Mid
-
tech, so requires
some training to use
and program


Must be charged to
work


Costly


No room for error
correction

PROS

CONS

Picture Based System
-

M
3


A wide array of clients would benefit from the use
of Picture Based Systems


Low tech systems
-

ideal for any level of cognitive
function, easier to use with high motor ability.


High tech systems
-

can be more suited for children
with low motor abilities because of the multitude of
access methods


Both require a higher attention span

Picture Based System

THREE DIMENSIONAL

Three Dimensional Object


A tangible, often large, object
children can use to communicate


Has dimensions unlike a flat screen or
flat pictures


Often a switch


BIG Mack


A single message can
be recorded (up to two
minutes in length)


Once the client presses
the button, the
message will play
back


Three Dimensional Object


Ideal for
communication for
individuals that need a
larger target area


Low tech, so easy to
program and use


Can hook up to other
devices


Only has one recorded
phrase at a time


Costly


Not very durable



PROS

CONS

Three Dimensional Object
-

BIG
mack


A smaller clientele would benefit from using a
BIGmack

than Picture Based Devices


Provides a larger target for those with low motor
ability or visual impairments


Allows those with low motor ability to play with
toys or make requests


For those with low cognitive function, can be
taught to use the
BIGmack

to make requests

Three Dimensional Object

WEARABLE

Wearable Communication System


Portability


Has a mechanism to attach it to the child to take
with them anywhere they go


Offers consistent voice output for users


Lingo


A low
-
tech
communication tool that
helps students
remember important
details, follow step
-
by
-
step instructions and
focus their attention in
the classroom and the
home


Wearable Communication System


Allows kids to
communicate quickly in
the classroom and at
home


On the go


Durable


Low tech


easy to
manage and maintain

PROS

CONS

Wearable Communication System


Limited responses


Pricey


Clients that would benefit


Children in the classroom


People on the go who need to communicate quickly


Ideal for those with behavioral issues because it does
not require a large attention span.

Wearable Communication System

GESTURE/SIGN

Gestures/ Sign


Gestures are communications like facial expressions,
hand signals, eye gazing, and body postures.


Examples: smiles, handshakes, waving, and raising
certain fingers to say something.



American Sign
Language (ASL)


A language that uses
a system of manual,
facial, and other
body movements as
the means of
communication

Gestures/ Sign


Easy to learn


Promotes language
skills


Many gestures are
easily understood


Inexpensive


Quick and effective*

PROS

CONS

Gestures/ Sign


Not everyone
understands ASL


Clients must be mobile


Limited vocabulary


Clients that would benefit


Deaf and hard of hearing


Anyone who does not have speech capabilities


Anyone can use gestures and signs to enhance oral
communication

Gestures/ Sign

Conclusions

“Don’t let your dreams be dreams”

Sources

http://www.asha.org

http://aac.unl.edu/yaack/

https://www.msu.edu/course/asc/823e/casby/langdevcharts.html

http://www.pecsusa.com/

http://www.dynavoxtech.com

http://www.ablenetinc.com

http://www.ninds.nih.gov

http://www.mayer
-
johnson.com/lingo