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parakeetconspiracyManagement

Nov 20, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Understanding

IT
Infrastructure

Lecture 9

2

Announcements


Business

Case due Thursday



Business

Analysis teams have been formed



Business Analysis Proposals will be due next
week


details to come

Module 2: The
Business of IT




IT increasingly embedded in business model


Advancing technologies drive new products,
processes, & industries


IT capability critical to business model execution


Operational results affect business value creation


Requires sound IT management


We need to explore how:


Changing infrastructure affects business


Management priorities must shift


To exploit opportunities and reduce operational
risks

Overview of

Module 2 Chapters


Chapter 5


Introduces elements of modern IT infrastructure and core IT
management issues


Chapter 6


Addresses the robustness of IT capabilities; system availability and
security


Chapter 7


Explores contemporary IT service models and their management
requirements


Chapter 8


Examines IT project management


CareGroup


Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center


Widely known as leader in the use of IT


Three
-
day network outage



What can we learn from this case


IT is vital to modern organizations


Network redundancy important


Challenges arise from infrastructure complexity


IT leadership is important


The iPremier Company


Luxury goods retailer


Under attack from an unknown hacker


Case covers events as they unfold



What can we learn from this case


IT infrastructure must be secured


Decisions involved, however technical, must be addressed by
business and IT executives

Ford Motor Company / The Power of Virtual
Integration


Century
-
old U.S. manufacturer


Trying to determine whether to model operations on acclaimed young
company (Dell)


Complex questions regarding how IT supports business operations



What can we learn from this case


How Dell leverages information technologies to advantage


Potential of an Industrial Economy firm to adopt Network Economy IT
and business designs


How Ford’s legacies (systems, organizations, relationships) influence
the opportunities the company can pursue

Cisco Systems, Inc.: Implementing ERP


Young, rapidly growing company


Urgent need to replace IT systems supporting core operations


Legacy too difficult to tackle on functional basis


Implementation of an ERP


Goal: one
-
shot, minimal customization


Budget of $15million and 9 months


Elements of implementation:


People and partners, roles and structures, processes and
infrastructure



What can we learn from this case?


The importance of IT in building a operating platform for growth


An implementation approach to high
-
risk, high
-
reward IT initiatives

Understanding IT Infrastructure

Key Learning
Objectives

1.
Recognize the core components of modern IT infrastructure and
understand the management issues associated with these
components

2.
Understand the business opportunities and challenges
associated with pervasive internetworked computing
power


“75% of all IT dollars to go Infrastructure.
Isn’t it time you learned what it is?”

IBM ad campaign




10

Key trends


More reliance on IT infrastructure


New services


Distributed Processing


New business models

11

Challenges


Poor IT decisions lead to


Products with insufficient support


Relying on outdated protocols/systems


Technology / management divide


Who makes decisions?

12

Fig. 5.1 Moore’s Law

13

1980’s


PC released


People moved jobs to computers


No longer needed staff for computing/data
processing


LANs allowed people to share files, printers etc.


IT services provided over distributed servers

14

1990’s


Internet boom


TCP/IP provided robust standard for messages
between all computers on web


Network resources available to individuals

15

Fig 5.2 Evolution of Corporate IT
Infrastructure

16

Fig 5.3 Metcalfe’s Law

“The usefulness of a network increases with the
square of the number of users connected to the
network”

17

Fig 5.4 Bandwidth Explosion

Growth faster than computer chips

18

Components of Internetworking
Infrastructure


Network


Hardware/software that permit exchange of information
between processing units and organizations


Processing Systems


Hardware/software providing ability to handle business
transactions


Facilities


Physical systems that house and protect devices



Trend: Increasing freedom to manage resources


See table 5.1

19

Table 5.1: Fundamental components of
internetworking infrastructure

20

Networks


Local Area Networks (LANs)


Hubs, switches, wireless access points,
network adapters


Wide Area networks (WANs)


Routers


Firewalls, Security Systems


Caching, Content Acceleration

21

Fig 5.5 LAN

An Example of a WAN

23

Processing Systems


Client Devices and Systems


Server Devices and Systems


Mainframe Devices and Systems


Middleware


Infrastructure Management Systems


Business Applications

24

Fig 5.7 Servers in

possible E
-
commerce configuration

25

Facilities


Buildings, physical space


Network Conduits, connections


Power


Environmental Controls


Security

26

Fig 5.8 Modern Data Center

27

Discussion


How much does a typical manager understand
of computing networks?



What educational opportunities are there?

28

Operational Characteristics if
Internetworking


Internetworking Technologies are Based on
Open Standards


Internetworking Technologies operate
asynchronously


Internetworking communications have inherent
latency


Internetworking technologies are naturally
decentralized


Internetworking technologies are scalable


See tables 5.2, 5.3

29

Table 5.2: Measuring Network
Bandwidth

30

Table 5.3: Communication Technology,
Bandwidths and User Groups

31

Business Implications


Quicker communications leads to efficiency


More data leads to better
-
informed decisions


Progress of processes become transparent


Processes more efficient


Make and sell

becomes
sense and respond

32

Threats


Automation can lead to chain reaction,
cascading failures


Outside attacks


See table 5.4

33

Table 5.4: Denial of Service Attacks

34

New service models


Physical location of computers less important


Economies of scale for particular services


New capabilities must be integrated into
existing systems


Deal with legacy technology


Reliability must improve


See next case!


35

Discussion: Outsourcing


What about outsourcing of infrastructure?

36

Case Thursday


iPremier



Made
-
up case of IT failure