Introduction to Image Processing

pancakesnightmuteAI and Robotics

Nov 5, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Introduction to Image Processing

Grass

Sky

Tree

Tree

?

?

Introduction

A picture is worth more than
a thousand words

Module Aims and Objectives


A general introduction to the common
techniques of image processing and its
relations with computer vision and computer
graphics



To review and understand the principal
approaches used, which provide as a basis for
further study in the fields



To offer practical experience in writing
programs that manipulate images, using Java

Module Information


Prerequisites: G51MCS, G51PRG
or equivalent


Course Structure


Lecture:

2 hours/week


Practical:

1 hour/week (starting
week 3/4)


Assessment


Programming Assignment (40%)


1
-
hour exam (60%)


Handouts

http://moodle.nottingham.ac.uk OR


http://sepang.nottingham.edu.my/~hso
oihock/G52IIP/


Reference Books




Digital Image Processing,
3
rd

Edition by Rafael
Gonzalez & Richard Woods




Digital Image Processing
Using Java by Nick Efford

Image Enhancement & Restoration

Image Compression

Law Enforcement & Biometrics

Light and Colour

The spectrum of electromagnetic waves:

http://www.nasa.gov


Radio Images

Knee

Spine

Head

Visible

Infrared

Radio



Operate in the radio band



medicine and astronomy

Radar Images

Mountains in Southeast Tibet



Operate in the microwave band

Thermal Images

Human Body Disperses

Heat (Red Pixels)

Different Colours Indicate

Varying Temperatures



Operate in the infrared band

Remote Sensing

Hurricane Andrew

Taken by NOAA GEOS

America at Night

(Nov. 27, 2000)



Operate in the visible and infrared bands



weather and environmental observation

Light Microscopy

Taxol (250

)

Cholesterol (40

)

Microprocessor (60

)



Operate in the visible band



pharmaceuticals and microinspection

Fluorescence Microscopy

Normal Corn

Smut Corn



Operate in the ultraviolet band

X
-
Ray Imaging

Chest

Head

Gamma
-
Ray Imaging

Positron Emission Tomography

Cygnus Loop in the

Constellation of Cygnus

Other Non
-
Electromagnetic Imaging
Modalities


Acoustic Imaging


Translate

sound waves


into image signals


Electron Microscopy


Shine a beam of electrons through a
specimen


Synthetic Images in Computer Graphics


Computer generated (non
-
existent in the
real world)

Image Processing, Vision, Graphics


In image processing we
do things like


Removing noise from
images


Finding edges and
features in images


In computer vision we do
things like


Finding moving objects
in a scene


Recognising objects
from a database


Build abstract models of
the world from images


In computer graphics we
do things like


Creating a 3D model,
with realistic shape,
colour, texture, and
project it to 2D for
viewing


Animate the 3D model


Creating a virtual world
and animate the objects
in it


The link between imaging
and graphics


Image based modelling

Computer Graphics

(Courtesy of Michael Cohen)

Image

Output

Model

Synthetic

Camera

Real Scene

Computer Vision

Real Cameras

Model

Output

(Courtesy of Michael Cohen)

Vision and Graphics Combined

Model

Real Scene

Real Cameras

Image

Output

Synthetic

Camera

(Courtesy of Michael Cohen)

Another Useful Paradigm


Three processing levels:


Low
-
level process:



Primitive operations like noise reduction, contrast enhancement,
image sharpening…


Input: image Output: image


Mid
-
level process:


Tasks like segmentation, representation, description


Input: image Output: attributes extracted from images



High
-
level process


“Making sense” of an ensemble of recognized objects


Input: image (sequence) Output: interpretation

Digital

Image

Processing

Computer
Vision

Proposed Contents


Fundamentals


Basic Image Manipulation


Noise and Spatial Techniques


Point, Line & Edge Detection


Image Segmentation &
Representation


Basic Spectral Techniques


Others if time permits

Acknowlegements


Slides are modified based on the original slide set
from Dr Li Bai, The University of Nottingham,
Jubilee Campus plus adoptions from the following
sources:



Digital Image Processing book by Gonzalez and Woods


robots.stanford.edu/cs223b07/notes/CS223B
-
L1
-
Intro.ppt


www.nmc.teiher.gr/activities/MASTERS/intensive/IP_Cha
nia/prez/TEI/bebis/CV_Overview.ppt


http://www.csee.wvu.edu/~xinl/courses/ee465/intro.ppt