2.4Commercial applications of Information Visualisation

overratedbeltAI and Robotics

Nov 25, 2013 (4 years and 1 month ago)

136 views

2.4

Commercial applications of Information Visualisation

In this section we present a selection of commercial applications that use information visualisation
techniques:


Visual Thesaurus


Online Visual Thesaurus

http://www.visualthesaurus.com/online/index.html

Visual Thesaurus translates language into a visible architecture by using spatial maps to display
the interrelationships between words and meanings. Users type in a word in the text b
ox to the upper left
of the window, click "look it up," and an interactive map will be displayed showing the meaning of the
word.



Figure
1
: Visual Thesaurus search results


Kart
OO

-

Visual Meta Search Engine

http://www.kartoo.com

KartOO is a metasearch engine with visual interfaces that presents the results generated in a
series of interactive maps. When users move the mouse pointer over these results, the concerned
keywords are highlig
hted and a brief description of the site appears on the left side of the screen.


Figure
2
: Kartoo Search Results


Figure
3
: Kartoo Search Results with highlighted links


Examples of
Possible
Uses of
Information Visualisations for Digital Libraries


London Business School
-

Best of Biz

http://www.bestofbiz.com/


Best of Biz provides specialist business information, tools and resources. Concept Space is a
visua
l search tool for business concepts. It is linked to a wide range of information resources where the
page displays an overview of the major subject area. Colours are used to group the subject areas
according to the themes. Users can click on any of the
coloured circle
s

to explore
a
specific theme.
The Electronic Resource Map visually shows the key resources within the Best of Biz site according to the
subjects. The Resource Finder use
s

the checkboxes to search for specific resources base
d on

topics,

regions or formats
,

and
the
results will be generated according to the search criteria. The displayed
results are also presented according to the colour scheme used in the search to identify the
characteristics of the data source.


Figure
4
: Concept Space


sie眠w


Figure
5
: Concept Space


View 2


Figure
6
: Electronic Resource Map


Figure
7
: Resource Finder


Figure
8
:

Resource Finder displayed search results


MSR Netscan


Usernet Social Accounting Search Engine

http://netscan.research.microsoft.com/treemap/

Netscan shows the hierarchical relationships of
Newsgroups in the Usenet. The relative sizes of
the boxes show the number of Posts per Newsgroup within a period of one month. The change in the
number of Posts for this month compared to last month is shown
in
the variations in colour indicated.
Green m
eans that the number of Posts in that Newsgroup increased, whilst red means that the number of
Posts decreased. Also, from the treemap, the higher the intensity, the larger the change in Posts.


Figure
9
: Netscan Treemap result
s


SmartMoney


Online Stock shares information

http://www.smartmoney.com/marketmap/

Smartmoney is an online stock information
system
that shows stockmarket data via a treemap.
The information is displ
ayed according to categories, e.g. Financial, Technology, Health Care, etc.

The map show
s

more than 500 stocks at once glance. Each colour rectangle in the map
represents an individual company. The rectangle's size reflects the company's share of the mar
ket in their
corresponding category and the colour shows the performance in terms of share prices (
g
reen means the
stock price is up whilst red means it's down and dark colours mean neutral). When the mouse is point
ed
at

a company rectangle a little panel

will
pop up with further information.


Figure
10
: Treemap view of real time stock prices






Other Examples of Existing Research and projects on information visualisation



Antarctica System Inc.’s Visual Net

http://www.antarctica.net/products/examples.html



Visual Insights

-

Web Analytics using visualisation tools

http://www.advizorsolutions.com/



Advizors



Data visuali
sation tools for business

http://www.advizorsolutions.com/


Current Applications of Information Visualisation for Digital Libraries Interface

T
here were a number of visual interfaces developed that were spec
ially designed to support
extended work in Digital Libraries. For example: Stanford Digital Library Project
-

DLITE, NaviQue
(Furnas & Rauch 1998), and SketchTrieve (Hendry & Harper 1997).

Research that focuses on digital geo
-
libraries are: GeoVIBE (Cai
, 2001), Informedia Project
(Christel, 2001)

and the Dynamic Homefinder application
(Williamson, 1992)
. GeoVIBE is an integrated
and flexible geographic information retrieval and browsing tool which combi
nes a geographical model and
a vector space model to form document representations that are tightly linked. Informedia uses a
combination of timelines, keywords, and geographical surrogates for visualising digital video libraries.
Dynamic Homefinder comb
ined map
-
like interface with slider bars to enable dynamic queries similar to
the progressive focusing in GeoVIBE.

Additional projects and research in IV for DLs include:

-

the Alexandria Digital Library (ADL)
(Smith, 1996)

project makes extensive use of hypermap concepts
to facilitate visualisation of geographical contents with browsing maps and image objects.

-

InfoCrystal
(Spoerri, 1993)

provides a spatially compact interface for complex Boolean or vector
space queries with the

use of two sets of icons: criteria icons and interior icons. Queries can be
specified by selecting individual or a group of interior icons presented in a graphical manner.

-

Microsoft TerraServer
(Barclay & Slutz, 2000)

is a multimedia geographical data warehouse that
serves aerial, satellite, and topographic imagery in which queries can be mad
e on images in three
styles: coverage map, place query, and co
-
ordinate query.

-

The Herbarium Specimen Browser (HSB), the main portal of the Digital Flora of Texas project
(
http://www.texasflora.org
) allows examina
tion of the collections through several types of interactive
information visualisations: a hierarchical taxonomic browser, specimen distribution and density maps,
and stackable bar graphs of temporal specimen data. These tools help users extract as much
i
nformation from the data as possible while minimising the associated learning cost and complexity of
these tools.


Table
1
:
Top
-
Ten Problem Lists

Croft (1995)

Hibbard (1999)

Foley (1999)

1)

Efficient, flexible indexing
and retrieval

2)

I
ntegrated solutions

3)

Distributed information
retrieval

4)

Vocabulary expansion

5)

Interfaces and browsing

6)

Routing and filtering

7)

Effective retrieval

8)

Multimedia retrieval

9)

Information extraction

10)

Relevance feedback

1)

Realistic visual displays

2)

Integrated virtual realit
y
and physical reality

3)

Integration of
visualisation with
networking, voice,
artificial vision,
computation and data
storage.

4)

Optimal visual
interactions

5)

Visualisation of high
-
dimensional numerical
information

6)

Visualisation of non
-
numerical information

7)

Dire
ct manipulation with
visualisations

8)

Visual idioms for
collaborative interactions

9)

Abstractions for
visualisation and user
interaction processes

10)

Reconciliation of
expressiveness and easy
to use.

1)

Fill the gap between
image
-
based and
geometric modelling
techni
ques

2)

Fill the gap between
motion
-
capture animation
and
simulation/procedural
animation

3)

Creative information
visualisation

4)

Automated creation of
information and scientific
visualisations

5)

Abstracting away from
reality

6)

Display more pixels

7)

Display fewer pixels

8)

Unified graphics
architectures

9)

User interfaces for 3D
creativity

10)

Truly immersive virtual
reality


In terms of future development of visual interfaces for digital libraries, ten major problems were
identified that are closely related to visual interfaces.

Hibbard (1999) and Foley (1999) both identified the
top
-
ten problems for visualisations. Hibbard (1999) grouped the problems into visual quality, integration,
information, interactions, and abstractions. Foley (1999) suggested that the major challenges a
re how to
extract new and more complex types of relationships and visualise them so that they can make the
contents of digital libraries more accessible and manageable for/by users.

Croft (1995) addressed the top ten research issues for information retri
eval and IV.

Finally, combining all the suggestions and issues raised by domain experts in the area of digital
libraries, Chen and Borner (2002)
outlined these issues that should be addresses by future research in
the area of visual interfaces for digita
l libraries.

These suggestions include:

1)

Theoretical Foundations

2)

Empirical Foundations

3)

Scalability

4)

Labelling

5)

Individual Differences

6)

Support Collaborative Work

7)

Benchmarking and Standardisation

8)

Evaluation

9)

Personalisation

10)

Standardisation


Visual Exploration

of Time
-
series Data

http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/timesearcher/index.shtml


What is it?

TimeSearcher is a prototype for interactive querying and exploration of time
-
series data.


How it is
used

Queries are built using a graphical, direct
-
manipulation metaphor for the specification of queries over
time
-
series datasets
-

the timeboxes. These timeboxes support interactive formulation and modification
of queries. This speeds up the process of
exploring time
-
series data sets and guiding data mining.


Other features such as the drag
-
and
-
drop support for query
-
by
-
example and graphical envelopes that
display the extent of the entire data set and result set from a given query.



Figure
11
: TimeSearcher

Hierarchical Clustering Explorer (HCE)

http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/bioinfovis/hce.shtml


What is it?

HCE is designed for Multidimensional Clustering and Outli
er Detection, it is applied to find meaningful
patterns, clusters and outliers to solve data that are complex multidimensional in nature.

HCE helps users to determine the natural grouping with interactive visual feedback and dynamic query
controls.


How it

is used

HCE applied the following techniques that could be used in interactive explorations of clustering results.



overview of the entire dataset, together with a detail view so that high
-
level patterns and hot spots
can be easily spotted and use for furt
her examination.



dynamic query controls that helps users to restrict the number of clusters they view at a time and
be able to view those clusters more clearly



co
-
ordinated displays provide an overview mosaic that has a bi
-
directional link to 2
-
dimensio
nal
scatterplots



cluster comparisons enable researchers to see how different clustering algorithms group the data.



scatterplot ordering methods enable all 2D projections of a high dimensional data set to be
ordered according to relevant criteria



Fig
ure
12
: Hierarchical Clustering Explore
r




DateLens

http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/datelens/


What is it?

DataLens is a Calendar Interface for Pocket PC PDAs


How it is used

It s
upports users in performing planning and analysis tasks by using a fisheye representation of dates.
Other features include compact overviews, user control over the visible time period, and integrated
search.


This enables users to see overviews and to nav
igate the calendar structure easily, as well as
discovering patterns and outliers.



Figure
13
: DataLens


m潣k整emC

ci杵r攠

㨠䑡瑡䱥湳


䑥ak瑯t⁖敲ei潮





Dynamaps

http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/census/


What is it?

The Dynamap or the Dynamic Query Maptool is designed to facilitate easier viewing and better analysis
of map
s
, in particular for displaying census data.


How it is used

Dynamap

takes a sh
ape file (a map like interface) as input and represents all the data in it in the form of
adjustable widgets.

By all
owing
the
manipulation of more than one widget the formation of a composite query
occurs
instantly every time a widget is scrolled. The map

elements then colour/shade out in accordance with the
query.


Figure
15
: Dynamap


siew ㄠ




Figure
16
: Dynamap


siew 2



Excentric Labeling

http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/excentric/


What is it?

"Excentric labelling" is a dynamic technique that labels a neighbourhood of objects located around the
cursor.


How it is used

By using excentric labelling, users benefit from speed when performing ta
sks that involve the rapid
exploration of large numbers of objects.


Figure
17
: Excentric labelling



TreeMap

http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/treemap/index.shtml


What
is it?

Treemap is a space
-
constrained visualization of hierarchical structures. It is a useful tool for effectively
showing attributes of leaf nodes using size and colour coding.


How it is used

Treemap enables users to compare nodes and sub
-
trees and at
varying depth in the tree, this helps users
to spot patterns and exceptions.


Figure
18
: Treemap
-

View 1


Figure
19
: Treemap


View 2




Fisheye Menus

http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/fisheyemenu/


What is it?

Fisheye Menus support fast selection of one item from a long list.


How
it is

used

The "focus" region is presented full
-
size while the periphery is smaller by using graphical scaling of items
.
This allows the entire list to be visible within a single view with focused items at the center of the list.


Figure
20
: Fisheye View

GRIDL: Graphical Interface for Digital Libraries

http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/west
-
legal/gridl/


What is it?

GRIDL is a two
-
dimensional display that uses categorical and hierarchical axes.


How
it

is

used

Users use the meaningful and limited number of terms on each hieraxis. A cluste
r of colour
-
coded dots or
a bar chart is show at each grid point of the display. Users are able to view the entire result set and can
then click on labels to move down a level in the hierarchy.


Figure
21
: GRIDL

LifeLines for

v
isualizing personal history data

http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/lifelines/


What is it?

Life
-
Lines is used to visualise personal history records. It can reduce the chances of missing information
,

facili
tat
ing

the spotting of anomalies and trends through the visual representation of data

and

streamlin
ing

access to details as the overview of the information can act as a large menu. Also, LifeLines is simple
and c
an

be tailored for various applications.


H
ow
it

is
used

LifeLines provides an overview for personal histories through a visualisation environment. Overviews of
the records can
provide

direct access to the data using timelines. For example, patient records, medical
problems, medications etc, can
be represented as horizontal lines, while icons represent discrete events
such as progress details. The line colour and thickness indicate relationships or significance. Rescaling
tools and filters enables users to focus on particular part of information

in more details.



Figure
22
: LifeLines


sie眠w


Figure
23
: LifeLines


sie眠潦⁍ 摩cal⁒散潲摳


PhotoFinder

http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/photo
lib/


What is it?

PhotoFinder enables users to organi
s
e, annotate, and browse personal photo libraries.




How
it

is

used

The StoryStarter component allows users to export text and images to the web.



Figure
24
: PhotoFinder


siew‱

ci杵r攠

㨠mh潴oci湤敲e


siew′



ci杵r攠

㨠mh潴oci湤敲e


siew″

ci杵r攠

㨠mh潴oci湤敲e


siew‴


CounterPoint: A Zooming Presentation Tool

http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/counterpoint/


What is it?

CounterPoint is a zooming presentation tool that embeds
in

PowerPoint as a plug
-
in.


How
it

is

used

It allows users to arrange the PowerPoint slides on a zooming canvas. C
ounterPoint also provides the
capability to create multiple scripted paths through the spatial slide arrangements.


Figure
28
: CounterPoint



PhotoMesa Image Browser

http://w
ww.cs.umd.edu/hcil/photomesa/


What is it?

PhotoMesa is a zoomable image browser for viewing images with multiple directories.


How it is used

It uses a set of simple navigation mechanisms to move through the directories and browse for images.


Figure

29
: PhotoMesa




Generalized Query Previews

http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/qp/


What is it?

Generali
s
ed query previews form enables users to browse efficiently for large online data.


How
it is

used

It previews information to the users on "multiple" attributes of the data and then provides continuous
feedback about the size or the total number of results generated as the query is being formed.


Figure
30
: Quer
y Previews




SpaceTree

http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/spacetree/


What is it?

SpaceTree is a tree browser that builds on the conventional layout node link diagrams along a single
preferred direction.


Ho
w it is used

It applies dynamic rescaling of branches of the tree to best fit the available screen space, optimi
s
ed
camera movement, and the use of preview icons to summarise the topology of the branches that cannot
be expanded. Furthermore, it also inclu
de
s

features such as integrated search and filter functions.


Figure
31
: SpaceTree


WebTOC

http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/webtoc/


What is it?

WebTOC is a tool to visualise web sit
es through a hierarchical table of contents
b
rowser. It consists of
two parts: the WebTOC Parser and the WebTOC Viewer. The Parser starts with a web page and follows
all the local links, generating a hierarchical representation of the documents locally.
The viewer displays
the information like a table of contents (WebTOC) for the site using a standard web browser.


How it

is

used

Each line of text in the WebTOC represents a link to a document that may be another web page or a
multimedia file such as an i
mage or audio file. Users can display a document referenced by a link simply
by clicking on it as he/she would do with a normal hypertext link.


In addition to the lines of text, a coloured line with a length corresponding to the size of the file
represe
nts each local document. The colour of the line represents the type of file (e.g. text, image,
audio). When a document contains links to other documents, the lines representing the documents might
then be collapsed into a thicker "size bar" that shows the

total size of the documents it references. Each
size bar also has a shadow under it and the size of the shadow indicates the number of items subordinate
to the document it represents. This provides a visual cue to let the user distinguish quickly betwee
n items
with a few subordinate links or many links. Alternatively, a bar representing the number of items can be
shown. Users have the option of viewing just the coloured lines without the text descriptions of the table
of contents to get a compact visual

representation, thus giv
ing

an overall view and mak
ing

size
comparisons easier.


Figure
32
: WebTOC