villasavoy

ovariesracialUrban and Civil

Nov 25, 2013 (4 years and 1 month ago)

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Spring 2007

홍익대학교

건축대학

건축학부

실내건축학

전공

Lecture

-

Historic Residential Houses

Le Corbusier

Villa Savoy is obviously considered Corbusier’s residential masterpiece. It clearly embodies all of his "Five Points of Archi
tecture" and the free
flowing interior from his Domino House.

Briefly, the fiv
e points are: unrestricted interior, ribbon windows, the use of columns (that with structural concrete slabs make the first t
wo
possible), the necessity of a roof terrace and an unadorned exterior. Obviously, these ideas and Corbusier’s buildings inspir
ed
a whole
generation to modernism. But to me, Corbusier was not so much a modernist as he was an artist, a sculptor, who wanted an unre
strained
palette. All these ideas, except for the roof terrace, allowed him to create fluid spaces and an architecture with
out the traditional stylistic
trappings. His reductionism and modernist tendencies were not for the purposes of minimalism and "Less is More" but to master

architectural
space.

Corbusier was not about creating a static, minimalist, open interior. He wante
d to explore the dynamic of moving through, viewing through and
inhabiting complex spaces. The ramp is at the core, literally and figuratively, of this house. It allows Corbusier to choreog
raph a specific route
and thus manipulate the inhabitants to start
to see spaces unfold slowly, progressively in front of them. Maybe the most interesting part of these
progressively open spaces is the final counterpoint. At the end of the ramp on the rooftop garden terrace is a singular, punc
hed, window in a
purposefully

solid outdoor wall creating a "zen view" towards the pastures and thus not letting the inhabitant get too complacent with the

wonderful openness of his plan and the ribbon windows.

The green walls at the sides of the Villa seem a bit naïve at first blush.

Can painting something green really make it blend into nature? Le
Corbusier apparently believed it would. Is is obvious from the main approach to the home Le Corbusier wanted the ground floor

of the house to
read narrower then it is and thus recessed the
ends of the first floor and painted them green. In the end, the green colors recessive nature helps
to further hide the withdrawn first floor. It is my guess that if he completely had his way the whole ground floor would be g
reen as he does on
the gate hou
se, thus completely floating his above nature on an ideal plane

The sculpted roof, therefore, is quite contradictory. As we become more "civilized" through the broadest sense of our moderni
sm, we continue
to make ourselves more remote from reality and nat
ure, and at the same time we idealize it. Corbusier did not want his building to settle into or
onto the ground, with its dirtiness and crassness, but simultaneously idealized that ground by putting a selected version of
nature on his roof
which gave his f
lat roofs both a purpose and the sculptural aspect they so desperately needed.




Spring 2007





Villa Savoye

82 rue de Villiers

78300 Poissy

France

Le Corbusier and Pierre Jea
nneret 1929

The Villa Savoye is a wonderful demonstration of Le Corbusier's 'five points of a new architecture', which he developed in 19
27, exploiting the
new opportunities of reinforced concrete:



Spring 2007





The
pilotis

(supporting columns): 'The house on
pilotis
! The house is firmly driven into the ground
-

a dark and often damp site. The reinforced
concrete gives us the
pilotis
. The house is up in the air, far from the
ground: the garden runs under the house...'


Spring 2007





The roof gardens
: '...the garden is also over the house, on the roof... Reinforced concrete is the new way to create

a unified roof structure.
Reinforced concrete expands considerably. The expansion makes the work crack at times of sudden shrinkage. Instead of trying
to evacuate
the rainwater quickly, endeavor on the contrary to maintain a constant humidity on the concr
ete of the terrace and hence an even temperature
on the reinforced concrete. One particular protective measure: sand covered with thick concrete slabs, with widely spaced joi
nts; these joints
are sown with grass.'



Spring 2007





Free plan
: 'Until now: load
-
bearing walls; from the ground they are superimposed, forming the ground floor and the upper stories, up to the
eaves. The layout is a slave to the supporting walls. Reinfor
ced concrete in the house provides a free plan! The floors are no longer
superimposed by partition walls. They are free.'



Spring 2007





The horizontal window
: 'The window is

one of the essential features of the house. Progress brings liberation. Reinforced concrete provides a
revolution in the history of the window. Windows can run from one end of the facade to the other.'



Spring 2007







The free facade
: 'The columns set back from the facades, inside the house. The floor continues cantilevered. The fa
cades are no longer
anything but light skins of insulating walls or windows. The facade is free.'

(Quotations from Le Corbusier are from the house's visitor brochure published by the Centre des monuments nationaux.)

'The approach is by car and as one passe
s under the building (a demonstration of urban doctrine), and follows the curve of industrial glazing (of
which the geometry was determined by the car's turning circle), it becomes clear that one is to be drawn into a machine
-
age ritual. The plan of
the bu
ilding is square (one of the 'ideal' forms from
Vers une architecture
), curves, ramp and grid of structure providing the basic counterpoint to
the perimeter. The section illustrates the basic divisions of a service and circulation zone below, a
piano nobil
e

above, and the celestial zone of
the solarium on top: it's the section
-
type of Le Corbusier's ideal city but restated in microcosm.'

'If the Villa Savoye had been a mere demonstration of formal virtuosity it would not have touched expressive depths. The
tension of the building
relies on the urgent expression of a utopian dream. Icons of the new age such as the ship and the concrete frame blend into f
orms born of
Purist painting. The rituals of upper middle
-
class existence are translated into an allegory o
n the ideal modern life which even touches upon the
Corbusian typologies for the city: separate levels for people and cars, terraces open to the sky, a ramp celebrating movement
. The fantasy is
translated into conventions that avoid arbitrariness and that
reveal Le Corbusier's ambition to make an equivalent to the logic, order an sense of
truth he had intuited in the great styles of the past. Rationalism was a point of departure, but not the aim. He wished to re
-
inject the ideal
content that relativism and
materialism had destroyed.'

William Curtis,
Le Corbusier: Ideas and Forms
, 1986

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