TOPIC 1: TYPES OF STRUCTURES
ALL STRUCTURES ARE EITHER NATURAL OR MANUFACTURED
TYPES OF STRUCTURES:
MIXTURE (FOOTBALL HELMET)
WHAT TYPE OF STRUCTURE AM I?
CONCRETE BARRIER IN A PARKING LOT
TOPIC 2: DESCRIBING STRUCTURES
Six categories: “For All Students Must Jump Far”
What it is used for. Describes what the structure is supposed to do. For example,
the function of a bridge is to transport trains across a particular area.
Words to describe function:
Aesthetics definition: the study of beauty in art and nature
Think of the types of material used, or the colors a material might be painted.
Marble columns, clothing designs, arched doorways, etc.
Interesting textures, repeating patterns
Carefully chosen materials and design to make a structure look good
Think about it, a product that looks good on the shelf is more likely to sell right?
MARGIN OF ERROR:
EXTRA STRENGTH THAT ALLOWS A
STRUCTURE TO WITH STAND MUCH LARGER LOADS
THAN IT WOULD NORMALLY NEED TO CARRY.
BALANCING SAFETY WITH COST:
GOOD DESIGN IS A
CAREFUL BALANCE BETWEEN HAVING A GOOD MARGIN
OF SAFETY AND REASONABLE COST.
What is the structure made out of?
Cement, Steel, Wood, etc.
COMPOSITE MATERIALS: made from more than one kind of material.
Example: reinforced concrete
steel bars inside to help support
Example: Fiberglass cloth embedded in rigid plastic is molded into boat hulls
LAYERED MATERIALS: thin sheets or layers of materials, usually pressed or
Example: safety glass of a car window helps prevent shattering when glass breaks.
Example: tissue paper contains multiple layers of very thin paper.
LAYERS OF DIFFERENT MATERIALS
WHEN DESIGNERS ARE DECIDING WHICH TYPE OF MATERIALS TO USE IN THEIR
STRUCTURE, THEY WILL CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING:
ALL JOINTS ARE EITHER RIGID OR MOBILE
RIGID=DO NOT ALLOW MOVEMENT
SOME OTHER TYPES OF JOINTS ARE:
TYPES OF JOINTS: 1
, bolts, screws, rivets, dowels
downside to fasteners is that they weaken
material as they must
TYPES OF JOINTS: 2
Clothing hem, paving stones, sheet metal, woodworking, dental fillings, etc.
TYPES OF SEAMS:
TYPES OF JOINTS: 3
EXAMPLE OF TIES
: thread, string, rope that fasten things together; example
seam, shoelace, jacket hood.
TYPES OF JOINTS: 4
ADHESIVES: sticky substances that hold things together.
TYPES OF JOINTS: 5
MELTING: Turn structures material into liquid and join with another piece.
Must be carefully cleaned
Must cool properly
TOPIC 3: MASS AND FORCES
YOUTUBE VIDEO “EUREKA!”
TERMS TO KNOW:
the amount of matter (stuff) an object has in it.
: a force that is caused by the gravitational pull between one object and
HOW DOES AN OBJECT’S WEIGHT CHANGE?
CAN CHANGE WHEN THE OBJECT’S LOCATION CHANGES TO A PLACE WHERE
THERE ISN’T AS MUCH GRAVITATIONAL PULL, FOR EXAMPLE, IN SPACE.
SI unit of force
1 Newton=enough force to stretch a rubber
10 N=enough force to lift a carton of milk
200 N=the force of a hard
thrown baseball hitting your hand
MASS AND FORCE:
=multiply by 10
Grams to Kilograms=multiply by 1,000
=divide by 100
to Grams=multiply by 100
1 Newton=100 Grams
1 Kilogram=1,000 Grams
TOPIC 3 TERMS TO KNOW CONTINUED:
Forces: stresses such as pushes and pulls
Kilogram: same amount of mass as 1,000 grams
Balance: type of measuring instrument used to determine an object’s
TOPIC 4: FORCES, LOADS, AND STRESSES
Types of force:
a material by pulling ends apart.
Tensile strength: largest tension force the material can stand before breaking.
ability to withstand crushing or squeezing together
Compressive strength: measures largest compression force the material can stand
before losing its shape or breaking into pieces.
Bend or tear a material by pressing different parts in opposite
directions at the same time.
*Shear strength: measures the largest shear force material can
stand before ripping apart.
Twist a material by turning ends in opposite directions.
*Torsion strength: measures the largest torsion force the
material can stand and still spring back to its original shape.
TOPIC 4 ADDITIONAL TERMS:
Dead load: permanent force acting on a structure. Includes weight of actual structure.
Live load: a changing, non
permanent force acting on a structure.
External forces: forces acting on structure from outside
Internal forces: forces acting on structure from within the materials of structure, which
can cause structure to change shape or size.
Deformation: change internally of structure’s shape or size.
TOPIC 4: RESISTING STRESS
Steel: high tensile strength, strong force pulling particles together
Graphite: low shear strength, particles arranged in layers, which is why its used for
Rubber: high torsion strength, particles attract each other in all directions; which is
why they hold together when twisted.
What is the name for something that serves a specific function and resists forces?
A person's weight is really a measure of the gravitational force between that person
Rigid joints are used in a structure to allow joined materials to move easily.
What are the four types of structures?
The Patterson family hired the Quick Fix Renovation Company to do some renovations
in their home. They wanted doors placed into some walls and other walls
removed in order to make the house more functional for their needs. Several
weeks after the renovations were completed, Mrs. Patterson noticed that the
ceiling was cracking and sagging where a wall had been removed. What is the
most likely explanation for the sagging?
materials were used.
removed wall helped to support the weight of the roof.
removed wall originally divided two rooms.
removed wall was poorly constructed.
Which of the following is a composite material?
C. Reinforced Concrete
Lucy, an architect with a Calgary firm, is responsible for designing a new public library.
She has been told what the function will be and she knows the safety regulations.
As well as function and safety, she wants the building to be beautiful. What is
another word for "looking good" in structure design?
What is the name for the process of melting two pieces of the same material
What is the correct unit of measurement for weight?
Spider silk has a great deal of what type of strength?