Two Nations Live on the Edge

ovariesracialUrban and Civil

Nov 25, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Chapter 18:

Cold War Conflicts


Section 4:

Two Nations Live

on the Edge


Objective…

Explain how nuclear rivalry leads to
the U.S. policy of Brinksmanship.


Brinksmanship Rules U.S. Policy

-

67

X the Hiroshima
bomb

1. How does the hydrogen bomb differ
from the atomic bomb?



-

U.S. tests in Nov, 1952…

-

Soviets test in Aug, 1953




2. What were John Foster Dulles’ beliefs about
communism & what did he advocate that the
US do to stop the spread of communism?



3. I & E: Brinksmanship
-

“pushing a dangerous situation or
confrontation to the limit of
safety… especially to force a
desired outcome
.”
-
Webster's Dictionary

Anti
-
communism is a moral crusade (good vs. evil) …The US makes it clear
that we will use any and all means of force against communism aggression.
…including nuclear weapons.

The willingness under DDE to go to
the brink of all out war.

Bomb Shelters…

Happy Days Bomb Shelter


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gEZFxOscI
-
s


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MhNMB5I3l18


“Duck
and
cover”

Duck and Cover

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FOXHW8RAoGs



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lW4s7TETtJA



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IKqXu
-
5jw60



Greenbrier Resort

White Sulphur Springs, W.Va.

The Congressional Bunker in
Greenbrier, WV

“….buried 720 feet into the hillside
under the Greenbrier
Hotel.


…surrounded by ceiling and
walls that are 3 to 5 feet thick
reinforced concrete. In addition, there
is 20 to 60 ft of dirt cover between the
substructure and the hotel.”




Greenbrier Hotel

Workers at the Mosler Safe
Company, circa 1960, stand
by one of the two giant
blast doors they built for
vehicular entrances to the
secret fallout shelter for
Congress located
underneath at the
Greenbrier resort

in White
Sulfur Springs, West
Virginia. The door is 19.5
inches (49.5 centimeters)
thick and weighs more than
20 tons.

To protect the new
underground
headquarters of the
North American Air
Defense Command
(NORAD) from
shockwaves caused by
nuclear explosions,
workers (circa 1963)
install the first of more
than 1,300 giant metal
springs on which
buildings were later
constructed.

The Federal Reserve's Communications and Records Center
(Culpeper, Virginia)

From December 10, 1969 until 1988, Mount Pony stored several billion dollars worth of U.S.
currency including a large number of $2 bills shrink
-
wrapped and stacked on pallets 9 feet (2.7
meters) high. Following a nuclear attack, this money was to be used to replenish currency
supplies east of the Mississippi.

The main entrance to the facility.


Prior to July 1992, the bunker, about 70 miles southwest of Washington, D.C., also
served as a continuity of government facility. With a peacetime staff of 100, the site
was designed to support an emergency staff of 540 for 30 days

In November 1997, Congress
authorized the transfer of the
facility from the Federal Reserve
to the Library of Congress which,
using funds from a private
foundation, will purchase and
renovate the site to house its
extensive motion picture,
television, and recorded sound
collections.


Government propaganda film on civil defense…


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r1K3ja204wI


Science Fiction Reflects Cold War Fears

Read 628
-
629 in your test and answer the following questions…


Objective…


Explain how the science fiction of the 1950s reflected
the anxiety of the age.

1. What is the message conveyed in each of
the following science fiction stories…



Invasion of the Body Snatchers





The Martian Chronicles





A Canticle for
Leibowitz

-


“Invasion of the Body Snatchers”...

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L
-
jzblCbsuA








“The Blob”...

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XhyRpvgm03g



The Cold War Spreads Around the World

/


The Cold War Takes to the Skies


Objective…

Describe how the Cold War goes global.



4. Who was President DDE relying on to
conduct the covert actions of the Cold War?




5. Iran (1951)

Iran placed the oil industry in Iran under Iranian control.


US reaction?…

Why?...

We wanted an Iranian government sympathetic to the demands of
western powers & western companies to control the
OIL FIELDS.
…The Shah of Iran is returned to power.


The CIA gives $Ms to over
-

throw the Iranian government



6. Guatemala (1954)



Leader of Guatemala gave US owned land to peasants.


US reaction?…

Why?...

The CIA trains a Guatemalan army to over throw the
government
.

It was believed that the Guatemalan government was Communistic.


7. West Germany (1955)

West Germany

rearms & join’s

NATO


Why?...

Soviet Reaction?…

Soviets form the Warsaw Pact a military alliance
between the Soviet Union & 7 Eastern European
countries.

Fear related to rearming Germany

NATO:

North Atlantic Treaty
Organization


A western
military alliance… “
an attack on
one is an attack on all
.”



8. Geneva Summit (1955)

President DDE proposes “open Skies” Doctrine.


Why?...

Soviet reaction?…

The Open Skies Doctrine



The Soviets & US would
allow flights over each
other’s territory to
monitor each other.

The Soviets rejected the idea.

The Soviets did not trust the motives of the U.S
.




9. Egypt (1956)


The Suez War

Britain, France & Israel invade Egypt & occupy the Suez Canal.


Why?...

US reaction?…


Egypt makes a foreign aid deal
with the Soviets.



Egypt nationalizes (takes over)
the Suez canal.



Britain, France & Israel invade
Egypt & occupy the Suez Canal.

The US proposes the
*
Eisenhower Doctrine

To control the influence of the Soviets in the Middle East.

* The US would defend the Middle East against Communist aggression



10. Hungary (1956)

Soviet tanks invaded Hungary & fired on protestors.


US reaction?…

Why?...

In 1956, the Hungarian
people rise up in revolt
against the Soviet
occupation of their country
and demand democracy.

The
Sovites

violently crush
the revolt…


The US ignores the promises of the Truman Doctrine
and does nothing to support the revolutionaries.

The fear of nuclear war.



11. USSR (1957)
-

The Soviets launch Sputnik.


US reaction?…

Why?...

SHOCK & FEAR… A triumph of Soviet technology that
forced the US to re
-
evaluate both the space program
and our educational program.

The US had fallen behind in the arms race



12. USSR (1960)

Soviets shoot down an American U
-
2 spy plane.


US reaction?…

Why?...

The US denies spying… but finally admits that we were spying

Spying to monitor nuclear developments of the Soviets

The U
-
2 Wreckage

U
-
2 Spy Plane


U
-
2 wreckage on displayed in Moscow


The Soviets
recovered

the parachute
&

cameras

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yCoXJ_bDGTM


Event…

5. Iran (1951)
-

Iran
placed the
oil
industry in Iran
under
Iranian
control
.

U.S. Reaction…

Why?...

6. Guatemala (1954)
-

Leader
of
Guatemala gave American
-
owned

land
to
peasants.

U.S. reaction…

Why?...

7. West Germany (1955)
-

West Germany

rearms
& join’s


NATO.

Soviet reaction…

Why?...

8. Geneva Summit (1955
)
-

President
Eisenhower

proposed the “Open
Skies”
Doctrine
.

Soviet reaction…

Why?...

9. Egypt (1956)
-

Britain
, France
& Israel
invade Egypt

& occupy the
Suez
Canal.

U.S. reaction…

Why?...

10. Hungary (1956)
-
Soviet
tanks invaded

Hungary & fired on
protestors
.

U.S. reaction…

Why?...

11. USSR (1957)
-
The
Soviets launch
S
putnik
.

U.S. reaction…

Why?...

12. USSR (1960)
-
Soviets
shoot down
an
American
U
-
2
spy plane.

U.S. reaction…

Why?...

The Death of Josef Stalin

-

Stalin died of a brain
hemorrhage on March 5, 1953. His body was embalmed and placed next to
Lenin's in the tomb at Red Square. In 1961, with Stalin falling into disgrace,
the corpse was quietly removed & buried.

Nikita Khrushchev

is the new leader
of the Soviet
Union.