k. Thu (Prof) G-242.a Effective Communicationx - Alaska Division ...

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Nov 25, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Effective Communication

G
-
242.a

Alaska Division of Homeland Security &
Emergency Management

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Instructor Introductions

DJ DesJardin

State Training Officer

Alaska Division of Homeland
Security & Emergency Management

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Course Introduction

It addresses:


Basic communication skills


How to communicate in an emergency


How to identify community
-
specific communication issues


Using technology as a communication tool


Effective oral communication


How to prepare an oral presentation

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Sending and Receiving Messages

The send

receive model of communication includes:


The sender sends a message.


The receiver gets the message and personalizes it.


The receiver, in turn, sends feedback and thus becomes a
sender.


The original sender now becomes a receiver and reacts to the
feedback.


Generally, a new communication sequence is then initiated.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Hearing vs. Listening

Hearing is the special sense by which noises and tones are
received as stimuli.


Hearing is a sensory experience that gathers sound waves
indiscriminately.


We can hear something without choosing to listen.

Listening is a voluntary activity.


Listening includes more than just sound being received by the
ear and transmitted to the brain.


Listening includes interpreting or processing that sound.


Active listening involves listening with empathy.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Active Listening

How
to improve listening skills:

1.
The first step is to decide to listen and concentrate on the
speaker.

2.
Try to understand the speaker’s situation and concentrate
on his or her point of view.

3.
Observe the speaker’s vocal inflection, enthusiasm or lack
of it, and style of delivery.

4.
Listen without interruption. Note key phrases or use word
associations to remember the speaker’s content.

5.
Use paraphrasing

or clarifying questions
to confirm that
you received the intended message
.

6.
Finally, provide feedback to the speaker.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Roadblocks to Effective Listening

External roadblocks include noise
, an uncomfortable temperature or
seating, or an inappropriate location.


Internal roadblocks include a variety of conditions or reactions:

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals


Emotional interference.


Defensiveness.


Hearing only facts and not
feelings.


Not seeking clarification.


Hearing what is expected
instead of what is said.


Stereotyping.


The halo effect.


Automatic dismissal.


Resistance to change.

Tips for Active Listening

Additional techniques to ensure active listening:


Make eye contact.


Adjust your body posture.


Give verbal or nonverbal acknowledgment.


Clear your mind.


Avoid distracting behaviors.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Communication Variables

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Variables

Characteristics

Amount of information

Either the sender or receiver is more

i
nformed than the other.

Attitudes

Consider how different the attitudes are between the sender and
the receiver.

Communication skills

When

the sender and receiver have different communication
skills, it more likely that miscommunication

will happen.


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reading, memory, analytic skills, and ability to listen.

Communication styles

General behavior patterns of our personalities form our personal
communication styles.


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communication’s effectiveness.

Communication Variables, Continued

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Variables

Characteristics

Culture

Cultural differences impact how a message is sent and received.


To be an effective communicator, you need to be sensitive to
cultural differences without stereotyping.


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.

Previous experiences

Create a filter through which we hear the world
.


Inference, judgment, and generalization can become as
significant as facts.

Sensory channel

The five senses (seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, and smelling)
are the basic channels of communication.


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m敳獡来献

Nonverbal Clusters

Boredom


slouching
in seat


yawning


staring
out window


no
eye contact


neutral
expression


fidgeting


closed
posture


drifting
attention


slow
to respond


neutral
or “slurred”
speech

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Frustration


rubbing
forehead with hand


tense
, worried expression


throwing
hands up in the
air


Evaluation


chewing
on eyeglass frames


wearing
a thoughtful, intense
expression

More Nonverbal Clusters

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Agreement or
enthusiasm


leaning towards speaker


making eye contact


touching speaker’s arm or
hand


nodding head


relaxed, open posture


smiling or laughing


faster speech


higher pitch

Disagreement

or
confusion


frowning


shaking
head


leaning
back or away


pursing
lips


tightened
jaw

and closed posture


staring
elsewhere


shallow
, rapid breathing


limited
facial expression and
hand gestures


slower
speech


lower
pitch

Emergency Communication


Public information


Accuracy is critical


Timeliness is essential


Warnings require response


Barriers to communication


Partner to ensure
all messages are consistent

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Make sure the message is clear!

When communicating
during
an emergency, you should
always:


Present
the information in sequence; present the reason for the
message, the
supporting information, and the conclusion.


Word
the message precisely, making every word count.


Avoid
jargon, codes, and acronyms.


Use
common terminology for all personnel and facilities.


Omit
unnecessary details.


Speak
in sync with other related authorities.


Keep
messages consistent across various media.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Emergency Alert System (EAS)

Local
partners should be well versed in
the use
of
warning
tones
,
which include:


Crawl messages
, which is a
message that moves across
the
bottom
of a TV
screen


Cable
television
override


National
Oceanic
and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA)
weather
radio


Other warning technologies
linked to EAS.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Oral Communication

Different
types of oral
communication during
an emergency
include
:


Individual
briefings.


Phone
conversations.


Public
speeches.


On
-
air
interviews.


Public
Service Announcements (radio and/or television).

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Written Communication

Types
of
written
communication include:


Fax


E
-
mail


Public
notice


Fact
sheet or flier


Press
release


Feature
article

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Documentation

Never underestimate the value of
printed communication,
because it allows for proper documentation
.


It
allows the information to:


Be
consulted in the future.


Exist
independent of human memory.


Be
reviewed and revised before it is delivered.


Be
passed on intact to a second audience.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Effective Communication

The
most effective communication tool is one that:


Reaches
the identified target audience.


Gets
information to the audience when

they
need it, for as long as
they need
it.


Can
be expected to deliver the message

reliably
.


Enhances
comprehension of the message content.


Can
be accessed within resource limitations.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Use of Technology

Most
often, you will use
a combination
of methods to
deliver a consistent message.


Other
times,
one communication
tool is sufficient.


Your
selection will depend upon the reach
and frequency
you want to achieve, as well as the message content and
audience.


The online course lists various communication goals
with
strategy considerations that you may find useful.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Local and State Annexes

Review them and
determine:


How
does your community issue emergency communications?


What
areas of emergency communications can be improved?


What
steps can you take to implement these improved
communications?


Should
you partner with others in this effort?

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Mainstream America

These
traditions shape the way we
interact with
other people
.


As our country evolved, our
population
has experienced
a
huge influx of
immigrants.


Today
, America hardly
resembles the
country that the
Founding Fathers
envisioned.


We are older and more diverse.


More
accepting of others
whose languages
, cultures, and
traditions are
different.


Recognize the
inherent value of all
Americans.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Communication Differences

Cultural
differences reflect internal beliefs
and thought
patterns

that cause people to react differently to the same
situation.


Differences
in age and sex, the presence of a disabling
condition, and even the
part of the country you live
in can
affect how you communicate.


Misunderstandings
that occur involving people from different
cultures have nothing to do with what they
said, it’s
how they
said it, what they did when they said it, or even who they said
it to.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Local Cultures

Ways to learn:


Attend various cultural activities within your community.


Talk to the leaders
of
the cultural groups in your community
.


Read news articles about the groups represented in your
community
.


If you have a message to deliver,

determine it has been appropriately

communicated.


Look for changes in body
language
.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Improving Communication

Communication tips:


Don’t
assume sameness
.


Don’t assume that you understand what

the
other person means.



Don’t inadvertently cause the behavior.


PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Technology as a Tool

Selecting
the best technology to support your message maximizes its
impact
.


Types of technology:


Telephone


Telecommunications Device for

the Deaf (TDD)


Radio


Fax


Email


Microphone and Overhead

Projection Equipment


Public Address System (mobile)


Emergency Alert System (EAS)

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Important Factors about Technology


The Public
Address System communicates
with the public
when other forms of communication are not available or are
not
working
.


Technology

can be an effective communication tool but, as
with traditional communication tools, they
can disrupt the
message when used incorrectly
.


When using a radio, be aware that other people may overhear
your message
.


When using email, be sure to
use proper spelling and grammar
.


In most cases, you can use a mix of high
-
tech and low
-
tech
tools to support your message
.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Matching the Message

In
your role as
an Emergency Management professional,
you
may be
asked to
communicate critical information in:


One
-
on
-
one
conversations.


Small
group discussions.


Public
presentations.


Media
interviews.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Media as an Ally

The
news media can be a strong ally in alerting and
informing the public.


Establish
credible and productive working

relationships.


In most instances, the media will be cooperative

in
publishing important planning, response, and

recovery
information.


You are in a position to assist
the media
in understanding the
important public service role they play
.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Questions to Match Your Message


How
many people are in the audience
?


How
many times will I have to deliver the message?


Does
this method use my time efficiently?


Is
my message going to the correct audience?


Is
the message going to others in addition to the correct audience?


Will
there be a negative impact if this message is delivered to
some
people
who do not need it?


What
image do I want to convey with my message (e.g.,
authoritative, competent
, informed, or sympathetic)?


Am
I respecting the emotional sensitivity of the message?


Will
I be able to track the success of my communication effort?

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Interviews and Press Conferences

In
both circumstances, your primary

audience
is the
public
with the media

serving
as a conduit for your information.


Speak as
though you are directly

addressing
your audience.


The
media industry is a sensitive secondary
audience.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Minimize Misunderstandings

To
minimize misunderstandings, build strong relationships
with
media representatives
.


Work
actively to keep the media informed.


Keep
up
-
to
-
date contact lists for media representatives.


Be
aware of media deadlines.


Respond
to media inquiries promptly.


Be
respectful and tactful, even if you are asked questions that
make
you uncomfortable
.


Be
honest about what you know.


Acknowledge
what you do not know and offer to seek
answers
.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Media Interviews

Important tips:


Track
all media inquiries and note the

reporter’s
name, organization, date, and

purpose
.


If
possible, review the scope of the

interview with
the
reporter.


Provide
background
information
.


Identify
the points that you want to
communicate.


Identify
a message that you can incorporate into your first and
last remark.


Dress
appropriately.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Nonverbal Cues

More
than half of face
-
to
-
face

communication
is exchanged through

nonverbal cues.


Up
to 65 percent of the meaning your

message
is
unspoken.


Use nonverbal cues to
amplify
your

message
.


By reading your
listener, you can gather real
-
time
feedback.


If
your message is not getting through
, maybe
you need to
adjust your nonverbal broadcast.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Body Language

When a
speaker’s body language is in sync with the verbal
message
, the
message is reinforced.


Listeners
are more likely to respond
with respect
, harmony, or
trust.


Mismatched
body language can actually block

communication
and
breed resentment
and distrust.


When
there is a conflict between verbal
and

nonverbal
messages, people are more likely to

believe
the nonverbal message.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

What do you
mean? I’m
not angry!

Humor

Humor
used
properly

will:


Establish
commonality.


Increase
trust.


Reduce
anxiety.


Provide
relief.


Pace
the delivery of
complicated
information.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

That tickles
me pink!!!

Tips for Using Humor

People
hear and interpret jokes very differently.


People’s sense
of
humor reflects their
culture, values,
life
experience
, fears, and imagination
.


Humor should
be determined while
you are
preparing your
presentation
.


Humor should be relevant
to your presentation.


Use
humor to make a point, one that advances your overall
objective
.


If you accidently offend someone, earnestly apologize to the
individual publicly then follow up by personally apologizing.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Speech Anxiety

Speech anxiety is the single most common

social
anxiety in the United States.


Anxiety can range from simple

nervousness
to a degree that makes the

speaker
physically ill.


For most people, pre
-
speech anxiety consists

of
tightness in their chest, dry mouth, and

clammy
palms.


The online course has a Speech Anxiety
Inventory.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Plan the Presentation


Determine
the
goal
of the
presentation
.



Investigate the logistics:


Room size


Available equipment


Number of other
speakers





Learn
about the audience
so that you can tailor your
message:


Age
range


Gender
ratio


Size
of the group


Common
interests


Hot issues


Cultural


Language


Special needs

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Determine Type of Speech

Decide
the type of speech that is appropriate:


Informational


Motivational


A
combination of both
types

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Informational presentations:


Transmit
specific knowledge.


Present
information directly or
through explanation.


Feature
statistics or supporting
research.


Present
ideas in logical sequence

Motivational
presentations:


Create
awareness, change
attitudes, or gather support.


Use
concrete language to
communicate abstract points.


Use
vivid and interesting
language
.

Build an Outline

Outline the presentation:


Introduce the topic.


Clarify your opinion.


Identify key messages.


Establish a logical
sequence.


Identify
the information or research

required
to support key points
from

colleagues, libraries, files, etc.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Prepare to Present

Practice:


Present
the speech
aloud
.


Read
the speech in front of a
mirror.


Look for opportunities
to speak
aloud.


Acceptance:


Accept
the fact you are
nervousness.


Take comfort in
knowing,
the more you present the easier it
will get.


Accept the fact you may misspeak during the presentation.


If you do misspeak, plan to correct yourself immediately
and smoothly.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Relaxation Techniques

Relaxation techniques:


Stretching


Muscle
tensing and relaxing


Deep
breathing


Body
alignment


Consciously
choosing to let go of tension


Visualizing
an effective presentation

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

Online Course


Web location:
http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/IS/is242a.asp



The online course provides useful materials to help you and
your community write an effective EOP


For those that are interested, you may now take final exam.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

44

Wrap Up


Please complete the course evaluation.


Your feedback and suggestions will be used to improve future
training.


PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

45

Final Exam

The “Course Enrollment Application” must be fully completed in
order to get credit for taking today’s final exam.


Please print clearly and completely fill
-
in each bubble.


The Shipping Address is where your certificate will be mailed.


Please complete the first section in Section 2, although you
may choose not to enter your organization’s name and address.


The last page is where you will mark your answers to the final
exam questions.


There should be
25 filled
-
in bubbles

in

the answer section
.


Again it is critical to fully complete each field, so you can
receive the proper credit for taking this exam.

PDS provides fundamentals for emergency management professionals

46