Human_Enviro_Interactionx

ovariesracialUrban and Civil

Nov 25, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Bell Ringer

Unit 1 Refresher


Use your notes to answer the questions.



What are the three main kinds of maps?



What are the
equinox

and
solstice
?



What is a
subduction

fault
?

Physical Geography Wrap
-
Up Notes

An assortment of ideas and concepts that need to be touched on.

What is on and above the Earth?


Atmosphere



Layer of air above
the Earth


Lithosphere

-

Solid rocky portion
of the Earth’s surface


Hydrosphere

-

Water
-
covered
portion of the Earth


Biosphere

-

Anywhere that life
can be found in any form,
includes the other three zones


Geographic Information Systems (GIS)


Using computers, maps can be
made with
layers
, each
containing different information.
This information can be viewed in
any useful combination.


Global Positioning System (GPS)


Using the radio signals emitted by 24 satellites in orbit around the
Earth, a GPS can determine a specific location anywhere on the
ground. It is used by both civilians and the military.

Extreme Event

Ranking Scales


Hurricanes


Tornadoes


Earthquakes

Hurricanes


Rated on the “
Saffir
-
Simpson Scale
”, from 1
-
5.

Saffir

Simpson Hurricane Scale

Category

Wind Speed

Estimated Storm Surge

Tropical Storm

39
-
73 mph

0
-
3 ft

Category 1

74
-
95 mph

4
-
5 ft

Category 2

96
-
110 mph

6
-
8 ft

Category 3

111
-
130 mph

9
-
12 ft

Category 4

131
-
155 mph

13
-
18 ft

Category 5

> 156 mph

>18
ft


Tornadoes


Rated on the Fujita Scale, from 0
-
6, based on wind speed and damage done.

F
-
Scale
Number

Intensity
Phrase

Wind
Speed

Type of Damage Done

F0

Gale tornado

40
-
72
mph

Some damage to chimneys; breaks branches off trees; pushes
over shallow
-
rooted trees; damages sign boards

F1

Moderate
tornado

73
-
112
mph

Peels
surface off roofs; mobile homes pushed off foundations or
overturned; moving autos pushed off the roads; attached
garages may be destroyed

F2

Significant
tornado

113
-
157
mph

Considerable damage.


Roof torn off frame houses; mobile
homes demolished; boxcars pushed over; large trees snapped
or uprooted; light object missiles generated

F3

Severe
tornado

159
-
206
mph

Roof and some walls torn off well constructed houses; trains
overturned; most trees in forest uprooted

F4

Devastating
tornado

207
-
260
mph

Well
-
constructed houses leveled; structures with weak
foundations blown off some distance; cars thrown and large
missiles generated.

F5

Incredible
tornado

261
-
318
mph

Strong frame houses lifted off foundations and carried
considerable distances to disintegrate;
cars fly
through the air
in excess of 100 meters; trees debarked; steel
reinforced
concrete structures badly damaged.

F6

Inconceivable
tornado

319
-
379
mph

These winds are very unlikely.
If
this level is ever achieved,
evidence for it might only be found in some manner of ground
swirl pattern, for it may never be identifiable through
engineering studies.

Earthquakes


Measured from 1
-
10 on the “Richter Scale”, each one x10 the power of the previous level.

Magnitude

Description

Earthquake effects

Less than 2.0

Micro

Micro earthquakes, not felt
.

2.0

2.9

Minor

Generally not felt, but recorded.

3.0

3.9

Often felt, but rarely causes damage.

4.0

4.9

Light

Noticeable shaking of indoor items, rattling noises. Significant
damage unlikely.

5.0

5.9

Moderate

Can cause major damage to poorly constructed buildings over
small regions. At most slight damage to well
-
designed buildings.

6.0

6.9

Strong

Can be destructive in areas up to about 160 kilometres (100

mi)
across in populated areas.

7.0

7.9

Major

Can cause serious damage over larger areas.

8.0

8.9

Great

Can cause serious damage in areas several hundred kilometres
across.

9.0

9.9

Devastating in areas several thousand kilometres across.


10.0+

Massive

Never recorded, widespread devastation across very large areas;
see below for equivalent seismic energy yield.


Human Environment Interactions

There are
two
key
human/environment
interaction
:




Humans
adapt
to

the
environment
.

They alter what
they do and how they do it.



Humans
modify

the
environment.

They change the
landscape to suit their needs.


Changes can be positive or
negative in
both cases.


Can you think of some examples of
each?

Haiti Earthquake Article

Read the NYT article “Haiti”, and answer the following questions on your own
paper, in complete sentences. Please write the questions on
your sheet. Use
the
Student Atlas, pp50
-
55 for some of the questions. Turn it in to the blue basket
when you are finished.


1.
Where is Haiti, and why was it originally settled?


2.
What is the capital city of Haiti, and what are the latitude and longitude of
this city?


3.
What is the primary use of land in Haiti? What is the approximate population
density?


4.
What are some of the political, social, and economic challenges that Haiti has
faced in the past?


5.
In a paragraph, list three “human
-
environment interactions”, where Haitians
have either modified the environment to suit their purposes, or had their
lives altered by the environment.