DIVISION 3 CONCRETE

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DESIGN AND CON
STRUCTION STANDARDS

DIVISION 3

FACILITIES MANAGEMENT SERVICES


CONCRETE














Division 3 of the Carnegie Mellon University Design and Construction Standards Manual
addresses the following concrete standards related to University projects.


03001

CONCRETE

03100

CONCRETE FORMWORK

03200

CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT

03300

CAST
-
IN
-
PLACE CONCRETE

03310

CONCRETE HOUSEKEEPING PADS

03320

CONCRETE TOPPINGS

03346

CONCRETE FLOOR FINISHING

03370

CONCRETE CURING

03455

GLASS
-
FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE

















DIVISION 3

CONCRETE

DESIGN AND CON
STRUCTION STANDARDS

DIVISION 3

FACILITIES MANAGEMENT SERVICES


CONCRETE


December 1998


P.

3
-
3


03001 CONCRETE

All concrete material shall comply with the

requirements and standards published by the
following:



ASTM C 150



National Ready
-
Mix Concrete Association (NRCA)



American Concrete Institute (ACI)



ACI 211.1, “Recommended Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal and
Heavyweight Concrete”



ACI 211.2, “
Recommended Practice for Selecting Proportions for Structural
Lightweight Concrete”



ACI 301, “Specifications for Structural Concrete for Buildings”



ACI 310, “Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete”

Concrete types for specific use shall be as fo
llows:

Type I

Standard Portland cement for general construction.

Type II

Modified Portland cement for use in general concrete construction exposed
to moderate sulfate action, or where moderate heat or hydration is required, as for
heavy foundations and mas
s structures. Type II is often used in lieu of Type I in
locations with reactive aggregates.

Type III

High early strength Portland cement for use where high strengths are
required at an earlier age. Type III is often used in lieu of Type I in cold weather.

Air
-
entrained Portland cements are available in types I, II, and III. The cements contain
small quantities of air
-
entraining agents interground with the cement clinker during
manufacture.

Admixtures

Admixtures shall be employed only when necessary for use

in a particular concrete, and
they shall be in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

Admixtures shall comply with ASTM C 494 and are classified as follows:

Type A

Water
-
reducing

Type B

Retarding

Type C

Accelerating

Type D

Water
-
reducing and ret
arding

Type E

Water
-
reducing and accelerating

Type F

High range water
-
reducing

Type G

High range water
-
reducing and retarding

The use of chloride
-
containing admixtures is prohibited because it can cause detrimental
effects on embedded metals and degrada
tion of concrete structures.

DIVISION 3



DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS

CONCRETE



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4


December 1998





As water reduction is almost always desirable, all concrete should require the use of a
water
-
reducing admixture and/or high range water
-
reducing admixture (superplasticizer).

03100 CONCRETE FORMWORK

This section addresses “ar
chitectural” cast
-
in
-
place finishes required by the design. These
include exposed formboard, embossing, molds, smooth surface, and other textures.

Cast
-
in
-
place finishes must be clearly detailed and specified as precisely as practicable.
The Design Consul
tant shall be responsible for the close coordination of all parties
having input to cast
-
in
-
place finishes.

There are a wide variety of special finishes or textures that can be imparted on ornamental
concrete using rubber, wood, plastic or plaster waste m
olds. Many of these are proprietary
design patterns; however, most of the major formwork accessory suppliers can provide
similar systems. In any case, special finishes or textures must be adequately detailed
and/or specified, so that there is no possible m
isunderstanding over the intent of design.

ACI Standard “Recommended Practice for Concrete Formwork” (ACI 347) provides
recommendations for materials, applications, and specifications for forming systems.

Recommended tolerances for footings and steps are
as follows:

Footings:



Variation in dimension in plan of minus 0.5 in.
or

plus 2 in. (applies to concrete only,
not to reinforcing bars or dowels)



Misplacement or eccentricity shall be 2% of the footing width in the direction of
misplacement but not more th
an 2 in. (applies to concrete only, not to reinforcing bars
or dowels)

Variation in steps:



In a flight of stairs: rise=0.125 in., tread=0.25 in.



In consecutive steps: rise=0.0625 in., tread=0.125 in.

03200 CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT

All concrete reinforcing s
hall comply with the following standards:



Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute (CRSI), “Recommended Practice for Placing
Reinforcing Bars”



CRSI, “Recommended Practice for Placing Bar Supports”



American Welding Society (AWS) D 1.4, “Structural Welding Code
-

Reinforcing
Steel”

All concrete reinforcement shall comply with ASTM A 615. However, a minimum of 2
in. of cover over the reinforcing steel shall be maintained.

Reinforcing steel is generally of two types: bars and mesh. The bars must be deformed.

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS


DIVISION 3

FACILITIES MANAGEMENT SERVICES



CONCRETE


December 1998



P. 3
-
5


Welded

wire fabric shall always be two
-
way reinforcement with equal gage wire at equal
spacing.

The use of epoxy
-
coated reinforcing steel in severely exposed concrete membrane is
required.

03300 CAST
-
IN
-
PLACE CONCRETE

All cast
-
in
-
place concrete shall comply wit
h the following standards:



ACI 302, “Recommended Practice for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction”



ACI 304, “Recommended

Practice for Measuring, Mixing, Transporting, and Placing
Concrete”



ACI 305, “Recommended Practice for Hot Weather Concreting”



ACI 306
, “Recommended Practice for Cold Weather Concreting”



ACI 309, “Consolidation of Concrete”



ACI 315, “Recommended Practice for Detailing Reinforced Concrete Systems”



ACI 614, “Recommended Practice for Measuring, Mixing, Transporting, and Placing
Concrete”



CR
SI, “Reinforced Concrete
-

A Manual of Standard Practice”

Mix designs shall be submitted to the Design Consultant for approval prior to placing
concrete.

A sample panel of exposed concrete is required for both horizontal and vertical
components prior to th
e beginning of construction. The panels shall show all of the
various finishing techniques that are required in the structure, such as finishes, joints,
texture of formed material, and sandblasting. The concrete used shall be provided from
the project conc
rete supplier and shall represent the approved project mix in strength,
color, and texture.

Required Contractor
-
Provided Items

The Contractor shall provide the following items and construction methods required in
concrete construction:



Required depth of co
ver reinforcing steel in critical sections and severe exposure
locations



Expansion joint assemblies and structure movement



Sealing and waterproofing requirements for protection of the structure and its
occupants



Special concreting methods



Design Consultant
-
approved repair techniques employed during the construction
process on such items as cracks, spalls, and honeycomb



Construction joints and connections for maintenance and protection



Required dimensions and sizes for embedded items

DIVISION 3



DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS

CONCRETE



FACILITIES MANAGEMENT SERVICES


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December 1998







Handrail and guardrail h
eight, diameter, extension, mounting, and embedment
requirements



Coordination of the electrical and mechanical requirements for penetrations in slabs
and beams and across expansion joints



Drainage requirements for horizontal construction



Vapor barrier and
waterstop utilization (see Division 7, Section 07200 Insulation and
Vapor Barriers)



Special concrete finishes, such as “heavy broom finish” for handicap access ramps

As defined in ASTM E 1155, “Standard Test Method for Determining Floor Flatness and
Leveln
ess Using the ‘F
-
Number’ System (Inch
-
Pound Units),” flatness characterizes the
relative degree to which a surface conforms to a plane. Levelness characterizes the
relative degree to which a surface parallels the horizontal plane.

Floor specifications shal
l comply with “F” curve nomenclature. “F” curves
shall

be used
to specify both levelness and flatness.

These curves are based on a large database that has
been statistically analyzed to generate these curves
.


Flatness and Levelness
Guidelines

for Typical Applications



Floor Use Category


Examples

Min. Flatness

F
-
Number (FF)

Min. Levelness

F
-
Number (FL)

Special use floors requiring
extraordinary flatness/levelness

Aisles in high bay warehouses, air pa
llet
areas, skating rinks, TV, or movie studios


100


50

Commercial/industrial use floors
requiring better than average
flatness/ levelness

Fork truck aisles, office areas employing
modular relocatable partition systems,
furniture display areas


30


25

Commercial/industrial use floors
having no special flatness/
levelness requirements

Pedestrian aisles, manufacturing areas,
plazas


20


17

Sub
-
floors receiving “thin”
coverings that will not mask the
sub
-
floor condition

Floors under vinyl, epoxy toppings,

paint,
and carpeting


20


17

Sub
-
floors receiving “thick”
coverings that will mask the sub
-
floor condition

Floors under concrete toppings (bonded
and unbonded), ceramic tile, and sand
bed terrazzo


15


13

Field Testing

The University will employ materia
l testing resources for items that normally require
field
-
testing services. The Design Consultant shall specify the frequency and type of
quality control testing required. The testing shall include, but not be limited to, all
structural members, footings,
architectural concrete, sidewalks, and any combined
delivery over 20 yards of concrete. The University Project Manager shall be responsible
for the coordination of the field
-
testing.

All testing shall comply with the following standards:

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS


DIVISION 3

FACILITIES MANAGEMENT SERVICES



CONCRETE


December 1998



P. 3
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7




ACI 214, “Recommen
ded Practice for Evaluation of Compression Test Results of
Field Concrete”



ACI 311, “Recommended Practice for Concrete Inspection”

Tests of air
-
entrained concrete shall be made to determine the percentage of air entrained
in the concrete. These tests shall

comply with PennDOT, Section 704.1(c)1.

03310 CONCRETE HOUSEKEEPING PADS

Floor
-
mounted equipment, including specialty laboratory equipment such as nuclear
magnetic resonators (NMRs), shall be installed on concrete housekeeping pads. Pads
shall be isolate
d from the surrounding slab if vibration requirements warrant.

03320 CONCRETE TOPPINGS

Concrete toppings are often required for leveling existing concrete floors, for abrasion
resistance, and for areas where a special surface is required.

Floor toppings s
hould be limited to a relatively thin, non
-
reinforced layer of 1 to 1.5 in.
thickness.


All concrete toppings shall comply with the following standards:



ASTM C 779, “Standard Method of Tests for Abrasion Resistance of Horizontal
Concrete Surfaces” (when re
quired)



ACI 302
-
80, “Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction”



The Euclid Chemical Co., Floor Systems Design Guide

03346 CONCRETE FLOOR FINISHING

A trowel finish shall be applied to monolithic slab surfaces that will be exposed to view.
Slab surface
s shall be covered with resilient flooring, carpet, paint, or another finish
-

coating system.

A trowel and fine broom finish shall be applied where ceramic or quarry tile will be
installed with thin
-
set mortar. The trowel finish shall be applied as specifi
ed and
immediately followed with a light surface fine
-
broom finish.

A non
-
slip broom finish shall be applied to exterior concrete platform, steps, and ramps
and in other areas as required. (See Division 2, Section 02525, Walkways, Steps, Ramps,
Curbs, and
Gutters for guidelines for concrete sidewalk patterns.)

A chemical hardener finish shall be applied to interior concrete floors where indicated. A
liquid chemical hardener shall be applied after complete curing and drying of concrete
surface. Liquid harden
er shall be diluted with water and applied in three coats in the
following strengths (parts of hardener
/
water):

f
irst
c
oat


1
/
3;

s
econd coat


1
/
2
;

third
coat



2
:
3
.

Each coat shall be evenly applied, and allowed to dry for 24 hours between coats.

DIVISION 3



DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS

CONCRETE



FACILITIES MANAGEMENT SERVICES


P. 3
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8


December 1998





Propriet
ary chemical hardeners shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer’s
printed instructions.

After the final coat of chemical
-
hardener solution is applied and dried, surplus hardener
shall be removed by scrubbing and mopping with water.

03370 CONCR
ETE CURING

The University requires the use of wet curing instead of curing compounds for structural
members, where practical.

The Contractor shall cure formed concrete surfaces, including the undersides of beams,
supported slabs, and other similar surfac
es by moist curing in place of full curing or until
forms are removed.

The Contractor shall provide curing and sealing compound to exposed interior slabs and
if required, walks, and curbs. The Contractor shall apply specified curing and sealing
compound to

concrete slabs as soon as final finishing operations are complete (within two
hours). Sealing compounds shall be applied uniformly in continuous operation by power
-
spray or roller in accordance with manufacturer’s directions. Areas subject to heavy
rainfa
ll shall be recoated within three hours after initial application. Continuity of coating
and repair damage shall be maintained during the curing period.

The Contractor shall not use membrane
-
curing compounds on surfaces that are to be
covered with coating
material applied directly to concrete, liquid floor hardener,
waterproofing, dampproofing, membrane roofing, flooring (such as ceramic or quarry tile
or glue
-
down carpet), painting, and other coatings and finish materials.

The Contractor shall final cure c
oncrete surfaces to receive liquid floor hardener or finish
flooring using moisture
-
retaining cover, unless otherwise directed.

All curing and sealing compounds shall comply with the manufacturer’s instructions and
strict volatile organic compound (VOC) r
equirements.

03455 GLASS
-
FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE

The use of fiber reinforcement for secondary reinforcement in structural plain concrete is
optional. The contractor shall refer to ASTM C 1116
-
89 “Standard Specification for Fiber
Reinforced Concrete and
Shotcrete” for classification and designation of type.

The application shall be an approved and tested substitute for secondary wire
reinforcement for shrinkage and thermal crack control. The material used shall have been
evaluated by independent testing
laboratories and shall have met or exceeded a value of 3
for performance level 1 of ASTM C 1116, 1
5

toughness index.