Consequences SMSD - Teachers

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Nov 25, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Consequences

By:

Jamie Wolfe

PBS Facilitator

Sharon Klose &

Sharon Manson

Behavior Specialists




In nature there are neither
rewards nor punishments;
there are only
consequences.
-

Robert B. Ingersoll

Behavioral Consequences


Balance of positive reinforcement for
appropriate behavior and logical
consequences for inappropriate behavior


Research shows that a combination of using
positive reinforcement and logical
consequences is more effective than either
approach used alone

Consequences


Key assumptions
-


Consequences are used as a pause to get our
students’ attention.


Consequences should be organized in a
hierarchy, starting with the mildest first.


Consequences teach students that they have
the power of choice.

Consequences



Consequences need to be:


Related


Respectful


Reasonable

-

Nelson, 1985



Choosing an Appropriate Consequence


Consequences should be arranged in a
hierarchy: from a redirect, to a minor
response, to a major response strategy.



All consequences should:


Be natural and/or logical


Provide some wiggle room for the
teacher


Be specific and concrete

Natural Consequences


Consequences that follow naturally
from an event or situation.


Places responsibility where it
belongs
-

on the child.


Require little or no involvement from
the adult.

Logical Consequences


Logical consequences are structured
learning opportunities.


Arranged by the adult, experienced by the
student, and logically related to the
situation or misbehavior.


Have their greatest impact when they are
immediate, consistent, temporary, and
followed by a clean slate.

Wiggle Room for the Teacher


Let students know your job is to do what
will most help each student.


Fair is not everyone getting the same
thing. Fair is everyone getting what they
need. Your response can vary slightly
from student to student and from
situation to situation.

Wiggle Room for the Teacher


Having a hierarchy of consequences
allows us to make professional judgment
calls while still being consistent.


Follow the PRIDE flow chart.


Be Specific and Concrete


Consequences should be thought out
in advance.


Consequences should be behavioral
in nature.


Consequences should clearly
delineate the actions that the
student needs to take.

Implementing Consequences


Be consistent!


Move up the hierarchy from a redirect to a
Major.


Justifying the implementation of a
consequence.


Keep it short and simple!


Watch the volume of your voice.


Recognize appropriate behavior. Deliver a
PRIDE paw ticket, as soon as possible.

Logical Consequences vs. Punishment


LOGICAL CONSEQUENCES


Teach


Leave the child with feeling of
control


Use thinking words


Provide choices within firm
limits


Are given with empathy


Are tied to time and place of the
infraction


Are similar to what would
happen to an adult in
comparable situation


Emphasizes what a student
should do


Teaches students to take
responsibility for their choices


Increases self
-
esteem

PUNISHMENT


Control


Leaves the child feeling
powerless


Uses fighting words


Demands compliance


Is given with anger


Is arbitrary


Emphasizes what a students
should
NOT

do


Results in the student focusing
on the adult rather than on their
choices


Decreases self
-
esteem

Punishment Risks


Least effective response for reducing anti
-
social
behaviors



Provides short
-
term outcomes, but may not produce
desired long
-
term outcomes


Decreases positive attitudes
-
increases withdrawal,
aggression, vandalism, truancy, tardiness, drop out
rate


Risks of Misusing Negative
Reinforcement


Inadvertently reinforcing inappropriate behaviors


Missing the opportunities to teach coping strategies
and appropriate behaviors


Losing the opportunity to understand why (function)
the behavior occurred

How Positive Reinforcement
Can Be Misused


Providing a “reward” rather than a
reinforcer
.


Inadvertently reinforcing the wrong behavior.


Reinforcing a present behavior, rather than an
intended (past) behavior.


Providing too few
reinforcers

for too short of period of
time.

It is possible, within the SAME
interaction,

for one person to be positively
reinforced

and another person to be
negatively reinforced.

Keep in Mind

Menu of
Reinforcers


Escape/Avoid
-
tasks, situations, people


Physiological
-
food, touch


Tangibles
-
stickers, money, tokens


Closure
-
completing a task, end of the year


Privileges
-
line leader, free time


Social Status/Recognition
-
star student


Attention
-
peer/adult, public/private


Praise
-
adults, parents, teachers/staff, peers


Belonging/Acceptance
-
individual, groups


Intrinsic
-
self
-
satisfaction



Reinforcement


Frequency
-
how often given?


Variety
-
how many choices?


Power
-
how desirable?


Immediacy
-
how soon?

Rules for Using Positive
Reinforcement


Establish yourself as a
reinforcer


Be sincere


Be simple and clear


Tell people they are appreciated


Avoid using “but”


Don’t reinforce and punish or ask for more at the same
time



Responding to Misbehavior


Handle the misbehavior gently and in private


Move toward the student in an aura of personal
contact


Develop non
-
verbal cues


Direct student toward the desired behavior


Direct consequence to the individual


-
Effective Strategies for Successful Teaching, Diana Browning Wright



When Consequences do not Work


When students are not learning from the
consequence, ask yourself:


Was the consequence immediate?


Was the consequence applied in a consistent
manner?


Was the consequence temporary in duration?


Was the consequence followed by a clean
slate and forgiveness?

Positive Reinforcement


All of us adapt our behavior depending on how we
are reinforced.


Positive reinforcement encourages positive
behavior.


Extrinsic reinforcement may be needed until
intrinsic reinforcement takes over.


Allow students a choice of reinforcement.


Only give reinforcement after it has been earned.

I have come to a frightening conclusion.

I am the decisive element in the classroom.

It is my personal approach that creates the climate.

As a teacher, I possess tremendous power to make a child’s
life miserable or joyous.

I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration.

I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal.

In all situations, it is my response that decides whether a
crisis will be escalated or de
-
escalated, and a child
humanized or dehumanized.








-

Hiam

Ginott





Teacher and Child 1976 Avon Books

“Since you change people everyday, make sure you
change them for the better.”


-
Aubrey C. Daniels