Mobile Robotics: 2. Robotics Fundamentals

oregontrimmingAI and Robotics

Nov 2, 2013 (3 years and 1 month ago)

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Mobile Robotics:

2. Robotics Fundamentals

Dr. Brian Mac Namee (
www.comp.dit.ie/bmacnamee
)

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Acknowledgments

These notes are based (heavily)
on those provided by the authors
to accompany “Introduction to
Autonomous Mobile Robots” by
Roland Siegwart and Illah R.
Nourbakhsh

More information about the book is available at:

http://autonomousmobilerobots.epfl.ch/

The book can be bought at:

The MIT Press

and
Amazon.com

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Contents

Today we’ll look in more detail at what we
mean when we talk about robots


Definition


Taxonomy


Applications


Advantages & disadvantages


Components


Autonomous robot control

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What Is A Robot?

The term robot was first
introduced by the Czech
playwright Karel Čapek in his
1921 play
Rossum’s Universal
Robots
(the word
robota

being
the Czech word for worker)

We will use the following
definition:

Karel Čapek was one
of the most influential
Czech writers of the
20
th

century. At one
time
the Gestapo had
ranked him as "public
enemy number 2" in
Czechoslovakia!

“a
robot

is an artificial physical
agent that performs tasks by
manipulating the physical world”

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Robot Taxonomy

The Japanese Industrial Robot Association
gives the following classification of robots:


Class 1: Manual Handling Device


Class 2: Fixed Sequence Robot


Class 3: Variable Sequence Robot


Class 4: Playback Robot


Class 5: Numerical Control Robot


Class 6: Intelligent Robot

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Robot Taxonomy

We are primarily interested in intelligent robots
and can break these down simply as follows:


Manipulator robots


Mobile robots


Humanoid robots

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Manipulator Robots

Physically anchored to their

workplace

Manipulator motion usually

involves an entire chain of

controllable joints, enabling

such robots to place their

effectors in any position

within the workplace

Manipulators are by far the most common type
of industrial robots
-

a 2 billion dollar industry!

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Mobile Robots

We can divide mobile robots into the following
categories:


Wheeled robots


Legged robots


Aerial robots (UAVs)


Others

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Wheeled Robots

For more on the DARPA Grand Challenge go to:

www.darpa.mil/grandchallenge/index.asp

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Legged Robots

For more on Boston Dynamics go to:
www.bostondynamics.com

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Aerial Robots

More information on these projects can be found at:

lis.epfl.ch/index.html?content=research/projects/BioinspiredFlyingRobots/index.php

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Aerial Robots

More information on these projects can be found at:

lis.epfl.ch/index.html?content=research/projects/BioinspiredFlyingRobots/index.php

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Other Mobile Robots

A video of a slightly scary robotic amphibious snake

http://www.techeblog.com/index.php/tech
-
gadget/acm
-
r5
-
amphibious
-
snake
-
like
-
robot


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Humanoid Robots

Hybrid robot: a mobile robot equipped with
manipulators

Hybrids can apply their effectors further a
-
field
then anchored manipulators

However, their task is made harder because
they don’t have the rigidity that the anchor
provides

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ASIMO

ASIMO slalom video available at:

world.honda.com/HDTV/ASIMO/New
-
ASIMO
-
slaloming/index.html

Loads of ASIMO videos are available from HONDA at:

world.honda.com/HDTV/ASIMO/


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Robot Applications

Indoor Structured Environments


Transportation


Customer support in museums, shops, etc.


Cleaning large buildings


Building surveillance


Research


Entertainment

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Robot Applications (cont…)

Outdoor Unstructured Environments


Space


Mining


Sewage tubes


Forest


Agriculture


Construction


Fire fighting


Military


Underwater


Aerial

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Advantages

The major advantages of robots are:


Decreased labor costs


Increased precision and productivity


Increased flexibility compared with specialised
machines


Robots can perform dull, repetitive jobs


Robots can operate in hazardous environments

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Components

The major components of a mobile robot are:


Power supply


Sensors


Control


Actuators

Actuators

Power

Sensors

Control

Environment

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Components (cont…)

Power Supply:
the
power plant and
associated power transmission system
, such
as a battery with associated equipment, or a
power supply unit which converts electricity
from the mains to appropriate power
requirements

Sensors:
Including lasers, cameras, sonar and
microphones, sensors enable robots to collect
information about their own state and the state
of their environment

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Components (cont…)

Actuators:

devices which transduce power
into kinetic energy or movement

Types of actuators include:


Electric motors


Pneumatic actuation (using compressed gas)


Hydraulic actuation (using pressurized fluids)


Robotic end effectors (e.g. grippers)

Control Subsystem:
responsible for
evaluating the information collected and
processed by sensors and for planning actions

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Robot Control Mechanisms

Robots may be controlled:


Directly by a human, such as remotely
-
controlled
bomb
-
disposal robots, robotic arms, or shuttles


Autonomously according to their own decision
making ability, provided by artificial intelligence

Many robots fall in
-
between these extremes,
being controlled by pre
-
programmed
computers

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Mobile Robot Control

Tele
-
operated


Pioneer, robot that
was designed to
explore the
Sarcophagus at
Chernobyl

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Mobile Robot Control (cont…)

Autonoumous


EPFL Guide Robot

We are primarily
interested in autonomous
robots

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Autonomous Robot Control

Actuators

Sensors

Control

Deliberative
Behaviour

Reactive
Behaviour

Environment

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Summary

Today we:


Defined what we mean by a robot


Investigated some of the areas in which robots
are used


Defined the key components of a robot


Started to think about robot control mechanisms

Next time we start the real work


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Questions