Chapter 4 Decision Support and Artificial Intelligence

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Jul 17, 2012 (5 years and 1 month ago)

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Chapter 4
Decision Support and Artificial Intelligence


True/False Questions


T F 1. The intelligence phase of decision making finds or recognizes a problem, need, or
opportunity.
Answer: True Level: Easy Page: 133


T F 2. The choice phase of decision making considers ways to solve problems, fill needs, or take
advantage of opportunities.
Answer: False Level: Easy Page: 133


T F 3. The four phases of decision making are linear and once one phase is complete it is never
returned to.
Answer: False Level: Easy Page: 133


T F 4. A structured decision involves processing a certain kind of information in a specified way
so that you will always get the right answer. No "feel" or intuition is necessary.
Answer: True Level: Easy Page: 134


T F 5. A recurring decision is one that happens repeatedly, and often periodically, whether
weekly, monthly, quarterly, or yearly.
Answer: True Level: Easy Page: 134


T F 6. A recurring decision is one that you make infrequently and you may even have different
criteria for determining the best solution each time.
Answer: False Level: Easy Page: 134


T F 7. Most decisions fall somewhere between structured and nonstructured.
Answer: True Level: Easy Page: 134


T F 8. A decision support system (DSS) is a highly flexible and interactive IT system that is
designed to support decision making when the problem is not structured.
Answer: True Level: Easy Page: 135


T F 9. A geographic information system (GIS) is a decision support system designed specifically
to work with spatial information.
Answer: True Level: Easy Page: 139

Test Bank, Chapter 4 70



T F 10. Spatial information is any information that can be shown in its original form.
Answer: False Level: Easy Page: 139


T F 11. Artificial intelligence (AI) is the science of making machines imitate computer thinking
and behavior.
Answer: False Level: Easy Page: 141


T F 12. A robot is a mechanical device equipped with simulated human senses and the capability of
taking action on its own.
Answer: True Level: Easy Page: 141


T F 13. Expert systems are adaptive systems that work independently, carrying out specific,
repetitive, or predicable tasks.
Answer: False Level: Easy Page: 144


T F 14. An expert system is also called a knowledge-based system.
Answer: True Level: Easy Page: 142


T F 15. An expert system is an artificial intelligence system that applies reasoning capabilities to
reach a conclusion.
Answer: True Level: Easy Page: 142


T F 16. An expert system is fundamentally the same as a DSS.
Answer: False Level: Medium Page: 135


T F 17. The knowledge acquisition component of an expert system stores the rules.
Answer: False Level: Easy Page: 146


T F 18. A neural network is an artificial intelligence system that is capable of finding and
differentiating patterns.
Answer: True Level: Easy Page: 148


T F 19. A genetic algorithm is a neural network that mimics the evolutionary,
survival-of-the-fittest process to generate increasingly better solutions to a problem.
Answer: False Level: Medium Page: 151


T F 20. An intelligent agent is software that assists you, or acts on your behalf, in performing
repetitive computer-related tasks.
Answer: True Level: Easy Page: 154


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T F 21. A buyer agent is an intelligent agent on a Web site that helps the customer find products
and services.
Answer: True Level: Easy Page: 154


T F 22. A buyer agent is also called a user agent.
Answer: False Level: Easy Page: 154


T F 23. Data-mining agents observe and report on equipment.
Answer: False Level: Easy Page: 155


T F 24. The design phase of decision making focuses on determining how software will work.
Answer: False Level: Easy Page: 133


T F 25. The implementation phase of decision making involves carrying out the chosen solution,
monitoring the results, and making adjustments as necessary.
Answer: True Level: Easy Page: 133


T F 26. Model management is used within IS to manage "perfect" or "model" databases.
Answer: False Level: Easy Page: 136


T F 27. Data management and model management are terms that can be used interchangeably.
Answer: False Level: Easy Page: 136


T F 28. The domain expert translates expertise into a format that the expert system can understand.
Answer: False Level: Easy Page: 146


T F 29. The knowledge engineer creates knowledge for the expert system.
Answer: False Level: Easy Page: 146


T F 30. A rule-based expert system stores expertise in a relational database.
Answer: False Level: Medium Page: 146


T F 31. The knowledge base of an expert system stores rules.
Answer: True Level: Medium Page: 146


T F 32. The inference engine of an expert system is used to locate patterns within data.
Answer: False Level: Medium Page: 146


Test Bank, Chapter 4 72



T F 33. The explanation module is part of a decision support system.
Answer: False Level: Medium Page: 147


T F 34. An expert system captures and applies human knowledge.
Answer: True Level: Easy Page: 147


T F 35. A genetic algorithm follows a trial and error approach.
Answer: True Level: Medium Page: 151


T F 36. Selection refers to giving preference to better outcomes.
Answer: True Level: Medium Page: 152


T F 37. Crossover refers to giving preference to better outcomes.
Answer: False Level: Medium Page: 152


T F 38. Mutation refers to giving preference to newer outcomes.
Answer: False Level: Medium Page: 152


Multiple Choice Questions


39. Which phase of decision making finds or recognizes a problem, need, or opportunity?
A) Intelligence
B) Design
C) Choice
D) Implementation
Answer: A Level: Easy Page: 133


40. Which phase of decision making considers possible ways of solving problems, filling needs, or
taking advantage of opportunities?
A) Intelligence
B) Design
C) Choice
D) Implementation
Answer: B Level: Easy Page: 133


41. Which phase of decision making examines and weighs the merits of each solution, estimates the
consequences of each, and chooses the best one?
A) Intelligence
B) Design
C) Choice
D) Implementation
Answer: C Level: Easy Page: 133
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42. Which phase of decision making carries out the chosen solution, monitors the results, and makes
adjustments as necessary?
A) Intelligence
B) Design
C) Choice
D) Implementation
Answer: D Level: Easy Page: 133


43. Recognizing the threat of new competition is considered what phase of decision making?
A) Intelligence
B) Design
C) Choice
D) Implementation
Answer: A Level: Medium Page: 133


44. Which type of decision involves processing a certain kind of information in a specified way so that
you will always get the right answer?
A) Structured decision
B) Nonstructured decision
C) Recurring decision
D) Nonrecurring decision
Answer: A Level: Easy Page: 134


45. Which type of decision is one for which there may be several "right" answers and there is no precise
way to get a right answer?
A) Structured decision
B) Nonstructured decision
C) Recurring decision
D) Nonrecurring decision
Answer: B Level: Easy Page: 134


46. Which type of decision is one that happens repeatedly, and often periodically, whether weekly,
monthly, quarterly, or yearly?
A) Structured decision
B) Nonstructured decision
C) Recurring decision
D) Nonrecurring decision
Answer: C Level: Easy Page: 134


47. Which type of decision is made infrequently?
A) Structured decision
B) Nonstructured decision
C) Recurring decision
D) Nonrecurring decision
Answer: D Level: Easy Page: 134

Test Bank, Chapter 4 74



48. Which type of decision represents calculating gross pay for hourly workers?
A) Structured decision
B) Nonstructured decision
C) Recurring decision
D) Nonrecurring decision
Answer: A Level: Medium Page: 134


49. Which type of decision represents deciding to employ a new marketing campaign?
A) Structured decision
B) Nonstructured decision
C) Recurring decision
D) Nonrecurring decision
Answer: B Level: Medium Page: 134


50. Which type of decision represents deciding to sell a company?
A) Structured decision
B) Nonstructured decision
C) Recurring decision
D) Nonrecurring decision
Answer: D Level: Easy Page: 134


51. Which type of AI system is an adaptive system that works independently, carrying out specific,
repetitive, or predictable tasks?
A) Expert systems
B) Neural networks
C) Genetic algorithms
D) None of the above
Answer: D Level: Easy Page: 142


52. Which of the following is not a DSS component?
A) Data management
B) Model management
C) Information management
D) User interface management
Answer: C Level: Medium Page: 136


53. Which of the following is a DSS component?
A) Data management
B) Model management
C) User interface management
D) All of the above
Answer: D Level: Medium Page: 136


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54. Where are the DSS models located?
A) Data management
B) Information management
C) User interface management
D) Model management
Answer: D Level: Medium Page: 136


55. Which component of a DSS performs the function of storing and maintaining the information that
you want your DSS to use?
A) Data management
B) Model management
C) User interface management
D) All of the above
Answer: A Level: Medium Page: 136


56. Which component of a DSS allows you to communicate with the DSS?
A) Data management
B) Model management
C) User interface management
D) All of the above
Answer: C Level: Easy Page: 138


57. Which of the following is a type of spatial information?
A) Roads
B) Sewer systems
C) Layout of electrical lines
D) All of the above
Answer: D Level: Medium Page: 139


58. Artificial intelligence is the science of making machines:
A) Imitate computer thinking and behavior
B) Imitate human thinking and behavior
C) All of the above
D) None of the above
Answer: B Level: Medium Page: 141


59. Which of the following statements describes a robot?
A) Is a mechanical device
B) Has simulated human senses
C) Has the capability of taking action on its own
D) All of the above
Answer: D Level: Medium Page: 141


Test Bank, Chapter 4 76



60. Which AI system reasons through problems and offer advice in the form of a conclusion or
recommendation?
A) Expert systems
B) Neural networks
C) Genetic algorithms
D) Intelligent agents
Answer: A Level: Easy Page: 142


61. Which AI system can be "trained" to recognize patterns?
A) Expert systems
B) Neural networks
C) Genetic algorithms
D) Intelligent agents
Answer: B Level: Easy Page: 142


62. Which AI system generates increasingly better solutions to problems by generating many
solutions?
A) Expert systems
B) Neural networks
C) Genetic algorithms
D) Intelligent agents
Answer: C Level: Easy Page: 142


63. Which AI system is an adaptive system that works independently, carrying out specific, repetitive,
or predictable tasks?
A) Expert systems
B) Neural networks
C) Genetic algorithms
D) Intelligent agents
Answer: D Level: Easy Page: 142


64. What is another name for an expert system?
A) Neural network
B) Knowledge-based system
C) Intelligent agent
D) None of the above
Answer: B Level: Easy Page: 142


65. Which of the following areas would contain expert systems?
A) Forestry management
B) Medicine
C) Process Control
D) All of the above
Answer: D Level: Medium Page: 142


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66. What do expert systems combine?
A) Information, people, and IT components
B) Information, people, and IT specialists
C) Artificial intelligence, people, and IT components
D) Artificial intelligence, IT components, and IT specialists
Answer: A Level: Medium Page: 145


67. Who provides the domain expertise in the form of problem-solving strategies?
A) Domain expert
B) Knowledge engineer
C) IT specialist
D) None of the above
Answer: A Level: Easy Page: 146


68. Who formulates the domain expertise into an expert system?
A) Domain expert
B) Knowledge engineer
C) Domain specialist
D) None of the above
Answer: B Level: Medium Page: 146


69. Which IT component stores the rules for an expert system?
A) Knowledge base
B) Knowledge acquisition
C) Inference engine
D) User interface
Answer: A Level: Easy Page: 146


70. Which IT component is used to enter the rules in an expert system?
A) Knowledge base
B) Knowledge acquisition
C) Inference engine
D) User interface
Answer: B Level: Easy Page: 146


71. Which IT component in an expert system takes problem facts and searches the knowledge base for
rules that fit?
A) Knowledge base
B) Knowledge acquisition
C) Inference engine
D) User interface
Answer: C Level: Easy Page: 146


Test Bank, Chapter 4 78



72. Which IT component in an expert system is used to run the consultation?
A) Knowledge base
B) Knowledge acquisition
C) Inference engine
D) User interface
Answer: D Level: Easy Page: 146


73. All of the following are IT components of an expert system, except:
A) Knowledge base
B) Knowledge acquisition
C) Interface engine
D) User interface
Answer: C Level: Easy Page: 146


74. Which component is part of an expert system?
A) Knowledge engine
B) Knowledge interface
C) User base
D) User interface
Answer: D Level: Medium Page: 146


75. Expert systems can do all of the following, except:
A) Reduce errors
B) Reduce costs
C) Improve customer service
D) Use common sense
Answer: D Level: Easy Page: 147


76. What can expert systems do?
A) Use common sense
B) Use judgment
C) Automate everything
D) None of the above
Answer: D Level: Easy Page: 147


77. Experts systems can do all of the following, except:
A) Handle massive amounts of information
B) Aggregate information from various sources
C) Decrease personnel time spent on tasks
D) Increase personnel time spent on tasks
Answer: D Level: Medium Page: 147


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78. Which AI system mimics the evolutionary, survival-of-the-fittest process to generate increasingly
better solutions to a problem?
A) Self-organizing neural network
B) Back-propagation neural network
C) Genetic algorithm
D) None of the above
Answer: C Level: Easy Page: 151


79. All of the following are genetic algorithm concepts of evolution, except:
A) Selection
B) Crossover
C) Mutation
D) Multiplication
Answer: D Level: Easy Page: 152


80. What is the genetic algorithm concept of evolution that refers to the survival of the fittest?
A) Selection
B) Crossover
C) Mutation
D) None of the above
Answer: A Level: Easy Page: 152


81. What is the genetic algorithm concept of evolution that combines portions of good outcomes in the
hopes of creating an even better outcome?
A) Selection
B) Crossover
C) Mutation
D) None of the above
Answer: B Level: Easy Page: 152


82. What is the genetic algorithm concept of evolution that randomly tries combinations and evaluates
the success of the outcome?
A) Selection
B) Crossover
C) Mutation
D) None of the above
Answer: C Level: Medium Page: 152


83. What are the three layers of a neural network?
A) Input, output, and decision
B) Input, output, and hidden
C) Input, output, and highlighted
D) None of the above
Answer: B Level: Medium Page: 151


Test Bank, Chapter 4 80



84. Which of the following is a disadvantage of a neural network?
A) Learn and adjust to new circumstances on their own
B) Lend themselves to massive parallel processing
C) Function with only complete or well-structured information
D) Cope with huge volumes of information
Answer: C Level: Medium Page: 151


85. What is the biggest problem with neural networks?
A) The way the input layer functions
B) The way the output layer functions
C) The way the hidden layer functions
D) All of the above
Answer: C Level: Medium Page: 151


86. Which of the following describes a genetic algorithm?
A) An AI system
B) An optimizing system
C) Finds the combination of inputs that give the best outputs
D) All of the above
Answer: D Level: Medium Page: 151


87. Which situation is good for a genetic algorithm?
A) Hundreds of solutions are possible
B) Thousands of solutions are possible
C) Millions of solutions are possible
D) All of the above
Answer: D Level: Easy Page: 152


88. Which of the following describes an intelligent agent?
A) Assists you
B) Acts on your behalf
C) Performs repetitive computer-related tasks
D) All of the above
Answer: D Level: Medium Page: 154


89. What will future intelligent agents be like?
A) Autonomous
B) Act independently
C) Learn and adapt to changing circumstances
D) All of the above
Answer: D Level: Medium Page: 154


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90. Which of the following represents an intelligent agent in Microsoft Word?
A) Font size
B) Paperclip help figure
C) Bold button
D) All of the above
Answer: B Level: Medium Page: 154


91. All of the following are types of intelligent agents, except:
A) Buyer agents
B) Shopping cart
C) Data-mining agents
D) Monitoring-and-surveillance agents
Answer: B Level: Easy Page: 154


92. Which intelligent agent makes money by selling advertising space?
A) User agent
B) Personal agent
C) Data-mining agent
D) Shopping bot
Answer: D Level: Easy Page: 154


93. Which of the following is the most successful shopping bot Web site to date, with more than a
million visitors a month?
A) MyAgent.com
B) MySimon.com
C) FERRET
D) None of the above
Answer: B Level: Medium Page: 154


94. Which intelligent agent is used by Amazon.com when it displays a list of books that you might like
to buy based on what you're buying now and what you've bought in the past?
A) Shopping bot
B) User agent
C) Monitoring-and-surveillance agent
D) Data-mining agent
Answer: A Level: Medium Page: 155


95. Which intelligent agent takes action on your behalf?
A) User agent
B) Monitoring-and-surveillance agent
C) Data-mining agent
D) Buyer agent
Answer: A Level: Easy Page: 154


Test Bank, Chapter 4 82



96. Which intelligent agent can play computer games as your opponent?
A) User agent
B) Monitoring-and-surveillance agent
C) Data-mining agent
D) Buyer agent
Answer: A Level: Easy Page: 155


97. Which intelligent agent observes and reports on equipment?
A) User agent
B) Monitoring-and-surveillance agent
C) Data-mining agent
D) Buyer agent
Answer: B Level: Easy Page: 156


98. Which intelligent agent is used by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory to monitor inventory and
schedule equipment ordering?
A) User agent
B) Monitoring-and-surveillance agent
C) Data-mining agent
D) Buyer agent
Answer: B Level: Medium Page: 156


99. All of the following are functions of a monitoring-and-surveillance agent, except:
A) Watch your competition and bring back price changes
B) Monitor sites for updated information
C) Plays computer games as your opponent
D) Monitor auction sites for products or prices
Answer: C Level: Medium Page: 156


100. Which intelligent agent operates in a data warehouse discovering information?
A) User agent
B) Monitoring-and-surveillance agent
C) Data-mining agent
D) Buyer agent
Answer: C Level: Easy Page: 157


101. What are the two categories of computer-aided decision support?
A) Decision support and user agents
B) Decision support and artificial intelligence
C) Decision supply and artificial intelligence
D) Decision supply and user agents
Answer: B Level: Easy Page: 141


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102. When can a recurring decision happen?
A) Hourly
B) Daily
C) Weekly
D) All of the above
Answer: D Level: Easy Page: 134


103. What is a highly flexible and interactive IT system designed to support decision making when the
problem is not structured?
A) Decision Support System
B) AI
C) Transaction Processing System
D) None of the above
Answer: A Level: Easy Page: 135


104. Which of the following is an advantage of DSS?
A) Increased productivity
B) Increased understanding
C) Increased speed
D) All of the above
Answer: D Level: Easy Page: 135


105. The data management component of a DSS deals with which type of information?
A) Personal
B) External
C) Organizational
D) All of the above
Answer: D Level: Easy Page: 136


106. Which type of information system is used to deal with spatial information?
A) Decision Support System
B) Transaction Processing System
C) Database Management System
D) Geographic Information System
Answer: D Level: Easy Page: 139


107. According to your textbook, what percentage of the top 500 companies use some form of artificial
intelligence in decision support?
A) 36%
B) 48%
C) 70 %
D) 85%
Answer: C Level: Medium Page: 142


Test Bank, Chapter 4 84



108. Expert systems typically focus on one area of knowledge. This is called the:
A) Domain expert
B) Knowledge engineer
C) Domain expertise
D) Knowledge acquisition
Answer: C Level: Easy Page: 146


109. A rule-based expert system stores data in the form of:
A) Relational database
B) Rules
C) Tables
D) Files
Answer: B Level: Medium Page: 146


110. Which component of an Expert System is used to explain the reasoning process and results?
A) Domain expert
B) Knowledge engineer
C) Domain expertise
D) Explanation module
Answer: D Level: Easy Page: 147


111. Which of the following artificial intelligence programs is often used to understand handwriting in
applications like PDAs?
A) Expert System
B) Decision Support System
C) Neural Network
D) Genetic Algorithm
Answer: C Level: Hard Page: 148


112. Which artificial intelligence system is used to spot credit card fraud?
A) Expert System
B) Decision Support System
C) Neural Network
D) Genetic Algorithm
Answer: C Level: Hard Page: 148


113. Which of the following Artificial Intelligence systems mimics the structure and functioning of the
human brain?
A) Expert System
B) Decision Support System
C) Neural Network
D) Genetic Algorithm
Answer: C Level: Hard Page: 148


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114. A neural network differs from an expert system in what area?
A) Ability to adjust itself
B) Need for external knowledge
C) Computational requirements
D) They are the same thing
Answer: A Level: Hard Page: 148


115. Which decision making phase is also called the diagnostic phase?
A) Intelligence
B) Design
C) Choice
D) Implementation
Answer: A Level: Medium Page: 133


Fill in the Blank Questions


116. The _________ phase of decision making finds or recognizes problems, needs, or opportunities.
Answer: Intelligence Level: Easy Page: 133


117. The __________ phase of decision making carries out the chosen solutions, monitors the results,
and makes adjustments as necessary.
Answer: Implementation Level: Easy Page: 133


118. A(n) ____________ decision involves processing a certain kind of information in a specified way
so that you will always get the right answer.
Answer: Structured Level: Easy Page: 134


119. A(n)__________ decision is one for which there may be several "right" answers and there is no
precise way to get a right answer.
Answer: Nonstructured Level: Easy Page: 134


120. A(n) ___________ decision is one that happens repeatedly, and often periodically, whether weekly,
monthly, quarterly, or yearly.
Answer: Recurring Level: Easy Page: 134


121. A(n) _____________, or ad hoc, decision is one that you make infrequently (perhaps only once)
and you may even have different criteria for determining the best solution each time.
Answer: Nonrecurring Level: Easy Page: 134


122. A(n) ____________________ is a highly flexible and interactive IT system that is designed to
support decision making when the problem is not structured.
Answer: Decision support system (DSS) Level: Easy Page: 135
Test Bank, Chapter 4 86



123. A(n) ______________ is a decision support system designed specifically to work with spatial
information.
Answer: Geographic information system (GIS) Level: Easy Page: 139


124. ____________ is any information that can be shown in map form.
Answer: Spatial information Level: Easy Page: 139


125. _____________ is the science of making machines imitate human thinking and behavior.
Answer: Artificial intelligence Level: Easy Page: 141


126. A(n)______ is a mechanical device equipped with simulated human senses and the capability of
taking action on its own.
Answer: Robot Level: Easy Page: 141


127. A(n)_____________ is an artificial intelligence system that applies reasoning capabilities to reach
a conclusion.
Answer: Expert system Level: Easy Page: 142


128. A(n) ____________ is an IT specialist who formulates the domain expertise into an expert system.
Answer: Knowledge engineer Level: Easy Page: 146


129. The _____________ is the IT component of an expert system that stores the rules.
Answer: Knowledge base Level: Easy Page: 146


130. A(n) _________ is an artificial intelligence system that is capable of finding and differentiating
patterns.
Answer: Neural network Level: Easy Page: 148


131. __________ agents observe and report on equipment.
Answer: Monitoring and surveillance Level: Easy Page: 156


132. A buyer agent is an intelligent agent on a Web site that helps the customer find
_____________________.
Answer: Products and services Level: Easy Page: 154


133. A shopping bot is also called a(n) ________________.
Answer: Buyer agent Level: Easy Page: 154


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134. A(n) _____________ is software that assists you, or acts on your behalf, in performing repetitive
computer-related tasks.
Answer: Intelligent agent Level: Easy Page: 154


135. _______________ are intelligent agents that take action on your behalf.
Answer: User agents Level: Easy Page: 154


136. _____________ agents observe and report on equipment.
Answer: Monitoring-and-surveillance Level: Easy Page: 156


137. The __________ phase of decision making involves considering possible ways of solving a
problem.
Answer: Design Level: Easy Page: 133


138. The __________ phase of decision making involves examining and selecting a solution.
Answer: Choice Level: Medium Page: 133


139. __________ focuses on storing information within a decision support system.
Answer: Data management Level: Medium Page: 138


140. __________ focuses on storing and managing statistical models used within decision support
systems.
Answer: Model management Level: Medium Page: 138


141. The __________ allows you to communicate with the DSS.
Answer: User interface management Level: Medium Page: 138


142. When businesses utilize GIS software to generate maps, we call it __________.
Answer: Business geography Level: Medium Page: 140


143. A(n) __________ provides the domain expertise in the form of problem-solving strategies.
Answer: Domain expert Level: Easy Page: 146


144. A rule-based expert system stores data in the form of _________.
Answer: Rules Level: Medium Page: 146


145. An expert system stores expertise in the __________.
Answer: Knowledge base Level: Medium Page: 146


Test Bank, Chapter 4 88



146. The __________ component of an expert system is used to acquire rules.
Answer: Knowledge acquisition Level: Medium Page: 146


147. The __________ component of an expert system takes the problem facts and searches the
knowledge base for rules that apply.
Answer: Inference engine Level: Medium Page: 146


148. The __________ module of an Expert System elaborates on how and why a specific decision was
reached.
Answer: Explanation Level: Medium Page: 146


149. A(n) __________ mimics the structure and function of the human brain.
Answer: Neural network Level: Hard Page: 149


150. A(n) __________ mimics the evolutionary survival-of-the-fittest process to generate increasingly
better solutions to a problem.
Answer: Genetic algorithm Level: Medium Page: 151
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