workflow, working practices

orangesvetElectronics - Devices

Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Describe the impact of ICT on
workflow, working practices
and management and security
of information


Access shared information


Transmit information electronically

`
Communicate around a computer network

`
Reduced need for movement and
duplication of documents

`
Local Area Networks (LAN’s) and Wide Area
Networks (WAN’s) are heavily used

`
Allows access and communication of
information without the need for paper


E
-
mail: fast communication, arrange and
even hold meetings on line


Networked software: databases and
electronic diaries allows accessing of
centrally stored information

`
Technology has led to de
-
layering of
organisations

`
Too many levels of mgt have previously
hampered communications

Input:


E
-
mail allows information to be received instantly
from internal/external sources


Internet enables required information to be
collected speedily

Process:


Software enables effective and efficient processing
of information, increasing productivity

Output:


E
-
mail, e
-
diary, Internet and presentation packages
enable effective transmission of information


Reduced need for movement of people


Fast communication around the
organisation

`
Reduced need to accommodate people in
specific areas

`
Fewer layers of management

`
Reduced amount of lost/misplaced
documents


Less time wasted


Reduced costs

Advances in ICT over recent years have
resulted in flexible working practices
becoming more common


Hot
-
desking


Home working


Teleworking


Video
-
conferencing/audio
-
conferencing
-



which allow remote meetings in a cost
effective manner

Over the last 20

30 years, organisations have
moved from having one mainframe
computer to process data for a few of their
activities (such as payroll or accounts) to
having company
-
wide, often country
-

or
worldwide,
networks of computers

affecting
and controlling every aspect of their
business.

The vast quantities of data and information
that are held by these networks must be
organised and protected


in other words,
this data must be
managed
.


It is about setting up systems, procedures

and controls relating to the way data is
input
,
stored
and
retrieved
, who it is
accessed
by,
how it is kept
up
-
to
-
date
and how it is kept
secure


Centralised Systems:


Central dept. dealing with computer services


Responsibility for data mgt.


Including purchase and maintenance of
hardware and software, setting up systems


Training, using policies, codes of practice and
support systems



A potential disadvantage is that one size
doesn’t fit all


some sections of the
organisation might have particular needs

Advantages:


Standardisation of computer hardware and
software


Standard systems and procedures


Control of what is being used and how


Build
-
up expertise and specialisation


Overview of organisational data requirements
and performance

Keeping up to date with developments is
essential and having specialists makes this
easier, rather than relying on enthusiastic
amateurs

Having the right input and storage devices


this will depend on the type of data being
entered, the volume of data and how often it
needs to be backed up

Having adequate processor speed, hard drive
and memory capacity will ensure the system is
optimised


Storage and retrieval devices include:



External hard drives

`
DVDs


CD
-
ROM’s


large amounts, easily stored


Zip drives


large amounts, fast retrieval

`
Pen drives


portable, easy to use

Input devices:


Voice data entry


speak into microphone,
interprets and displays on screen

`
Scanners & Optical Character Recognition


scan documents and images

`
Hand
-
held devices


portable, information
can be downloaded to the main computer
later

`
Touch screen


touch areas of screen rather
than type

`
Mouse, light pen, smart card, bar code
reader


Utility programmes


helps to search for lost
files, check for viruses, check IDs and
passwords


Performance mgt


monitor, analyse and
report the performance of software


Communications software


control the flow
of data to and from remote sites


Applications software


mainly use
Integrated

packages (Microsoft Office)


Customised software


specially written for
the organisation


Database mgt system


centralised database
resource for the whole organisation


Allows a common database with many tables
to be linked together


Accessed by everyone


Data is not stored several times in separate
files


Data is consistent


More information is available to all users


Greater security


different levels of access
can be granted so only certain people can
access some information


Reduces time spent inputting data


data held
in one file only


Security



theft, damage and destruction



Integrity



‘correctness’ of data and involves
the prevention of inaccurate data entry



Privacy



held securely so that only those who
need access to the data can access it



Confidentiality



those who do have access
respect the data and do not discuss it with
others who do not have a right to know


Organisations have a responsibility to
identify

and quantify the risks that their
data is exposed to and to put
countermeasures

in place


policies and
procedures that reduce or remove the
identified risks


Ensure windows are closed and office s are
locked when the building is empty


Alarm the buildings


Use cameras and surveillance equipment


Restrict visitor access


Keep visitors away from computer areas


Train staff on how to move equipment


Provide trolleys for transporting items



Keep fire doors closed to prevent the spread
of fire


Have fir fighting equipment and train staff
how to use it


Install a sprinkler system to help put fires out


Lag pipes to reduce the risk of burst pipes


Take out adequate insurance


if the worst
happens you can recover from it


If the servers, hard drives and laptops are
stolen then the data goes with them


Viruses can make files and PCs unusable


SO


Store the original software securely


the
software can be reinstalled on another system
if necessary


Back up all files regularly



This means controlling or restricting access
to those people who are authorised to use the
data



Access rights can be set at different levels


relative to the position held in the
organisation



See notes on privacy and confidentiality



Organisations are also responsible for
ensuring the security and confidentiality of
data held in paper based information.


Files are returned to the filing cabinet after
use


Filing cabinets are locked and the keys stored
somewhere safe


Papers are not left at the photocopier


All papers are collected from printers
promptly


Papers are not left on desks unattended


Papers are shredded or disposed of properly

BEAR IN MIND THAT THE IMPACT CAN BE
EITHER POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE


Speed
: at which data can be input, processed,
transferred and retrieved


Accessibility
: appropriate access for
authorised users and restricted access for
others


Security and integrity
: if unauthorised users
can corrupt data, effectiveness and
competitiveness can be reduced


Responsiveness
: if information is out of date then
so are decisions made. Firms must respond quickly



Customer satisfaction
: may affect customer
records, response times



Staff morale and motivation
: affected by quality of
data mgt. Frustrating and stressful


`
Quality of information
: appropriate quality and
quantity. Accurate and up
-
to
-
date



BEAR IN MIND THAT THE
CONSEQUENCES
CAN BE EITHER POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE


`
Cost
: duplication of data and user effort
use up time and resources which costs
money

`
Reduced effectiveness: poor information
leads to quality of decisions being
affected and reduces
effectiveness


Reputation: poor responsiveness to
customers and poor decision making
can affect reputation


Legal action: must conform to legal
requirements. Poor data
mgt

could
lead to legal action

`
Loss of customers: impact badly on
level of customer service



Collected fairly and lawfully


Held for only the specified and lawful
purpose described in the register


Used only for the purposes described


Adequate, relevant and not excessive


Accurate and up
-
to
-
date


Held for no longer than necessary


Protected by proper security


Ensures exclusive ownership is maintained


No unauthorised copying of materials takes
place


Effects books, films, music, computer
programs


To copy work you must get permission to
do so


May also have to pay a fee


Copyright symbol
-

©


May also show copyright owner


Prevent unauthorised access to computer

systems or materials


Deter criminals seeking to use computers in
committing offences eg. Making unauthorised
changes to data with criminal intent


Unauthorised access with the intent to
commit or help further offences