Pengantar pada Komunikasi-termediasi-komputer/Introduction to ...

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Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Pengantar

pada

Komunikasi
-
termediasi
-
komputer
/Introduction
to Computer
-
mediated
Communication

Oleh

Ahmad
Riza

Faizal

S.Sos
; IMDLL.

ahmad.riza@unila.ac.id

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

Tujuan

Perkuliahan


Memahami

pengertian

komunikasi
-
termediasi
-
komputer


Mengetahui

teori
-
teori

yang
melandasi

komunikasi
-
termediasi
-
komputer


Mengetahui

aplikasi

dari

komunikasi

termediasi

komputer

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

What is Computer
-
mediated
Communication (CMC)?


Computer
-
Mediated Communication

(CMC) is any form of communication
between two or more individual people
who interact and/or influence each other
via separate computers through the
Internet or a network connection
-

using
social software. CMC does not include
the methods by which two computers
communicate, but rather how people
communicate via computers
.

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

Another definitions:


A relatively new but rapidly growing
form of
interaction

(
Lee & Nass, 2002
)



The
process

by which people create, exchange, and
perceive information using computer systems that
facilitate encoding, transmitting, and decoding
messages (
December, 2003
)



The communication that takes place between people
via

the computer (
Herring, 1996)



Interaction between two or more intelligent agents
that relies on ICT

usually a personal computer and
networks

as its primary medium (
Ess
, 2007)

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

CMC: at its broadest, at its smallest


At its broadest CMC can encompass
virtually all computer uses (
Santoro, 1995
)



In general, the term CMC refers to both
task
-
related

and
interpersonal

communication conducted by computer.
This includes communication both
to

and
through

a personal or mainframe
computer.(
Ferris, 1997
)

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

HCI in 1960/70

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

Software engineering

Computer graphics

HCI

Cognitive science

Software psychology

HCI: years 90 and later

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

Media and information

User interface software and tools

HCI

Usability engineering

Groupware and cooperative activity

CMC vs. HCI


In many ways, the difference between CMC and
HCI are not fundamental differences. But they
focus on different characteristics of new media
technologies.


HCI focuses on characteristics of the
technology

and individual user’s
psychological
processes
.


Interactivity


Presence


Cognition

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

CMC vs. HCI


CMC focuses on characteristics of the
communicative
environment

and user
interactions


Anonymity (being anonymous)


Synchronicity (real
-
time vs. delayed
conversation)


Relationship development


Impression formation

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

Dimensions of CMC


Cue Richness


Amount of multisensory communication cues
available to each participant


Decreasing Cue Richness example: full
-
motion A/V,
graphics with audio, audio only, text with emoticons, text


Synchronicity


Synchronous


all participants acting
simultaneously or within very short time window


Asynchronous


participant engages in
communication at any time, without requiring
simultaneous presence of other participants

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

Types of CMC


Asyncronous


Syncronous

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

Asyncronous

Communication



Asynchronous activities are independent
of real
-
time and are comprised of
activities, such as, viewing a web page,
composing an Electronic Mail (e
-
mail),
watching a video clip, or
dowloading

a file.


Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

Asyncronous CMC


CMC can include

anything that is text
-
based,
uses ICT as a technological base and can be
used for two

way transmission of ideas.

Examples of CMC can include:


emails


mailbases


shared network group folders


discussion boards (or fora/forums)


frequently updated hyperlinked webpages.

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

Synchronous Communication


Synchronous activities occur concurrently
between two or more users including such
real
-
time applications as chat rooms or
instant messaging which allow users to
interact simultaneously through text, audio,
and video with other users located
anywhere in the world.


Synchronous CMC includes:


Chat


Instant messaging


Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

Type
vs

Dimensions

Type/Dimension

Low Cues

High Cues

Asyncronous

Low cues ACMC

Ex: email,
sms

High cues ACMC

Ex: video email,
MMS, media
sharing sites

Syncronous

Low cues SCMC

Ex: chatting, IM,
online games

High

cues SCMC

Ex: real
-
time
video conference

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

Theories in CMC


Media Richness Theory


Reduced cues


Social Identity model of
Deindividuation

Effects (SIDE model)


Hyperpersonal

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

Media Richness Theory

(Daft &
Lengel
, 1986)


The degree of richness of a communication
medium is dependent on the capacity of the
medium to process ambiguous communication


Richer media are more effective for equivocal
tasks, and leaner media are better for unequivocal
tasks


Primary assumption is the more the medium
reproduces face
-
to
-
face communication, the more
people will feel the other person is “real”.


Implication: higher bandwidth (information
content), produces more feelings of presence and
connection


Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

Media Richness Theory


Media have different abilities to reduce
ambiguity

and
uncertainty
. People will
most likely choose the medium that
reduces these elements the most

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

Task
-
media Fit Hypothesis

Suh

(1999) explains the relationship between a
task and media richness as follows:


When a medium is too rich for a task
(choice of a product), inefficient
communication can result due to the
distraction of non
-
essential cues and
information; and


When a medium is too lean for a task, then
inefficient communication may result
because insufficient cues and information are
transmitted.

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

Reduced cues


Low
ambiguity/uncertainty








High
ambiguity/uncertainty





Face to face


Video conferencing


Telephone


Instant messaging


Letter


E
-
mail

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

Social Identity model of
Deindividuation

Effects (SIDE) Theory


The lack of individuating information
renders
intragroup

differences less salient,
thereby facilitating group identification
with the partners


The polarization thus enhanced
attachment to the group accounts for
increased social influence (Lea, Spears, &
de
Groot
, 2001;
Postmes
, Spears, & Lea,
1999)

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

SIDE Theory


The ability of engaging in anonymous
communication is believed to be a very
important feature of CMC.


Different levels of anonymity


True anonymity


Visual anonymity


Perceived anonymity


Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

SIDE Theory


Earlier research suggest that anonymity
would lead to impersonal
(depersonalized) communication


Anonymity and distance lead to a decrease in
self
-
awareness


Decrease in self
-
awareness lead
to
deindividuation


Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

SIDE Theory


What is self
-
awareness?


at any given moment, an individual’s attention can be
directed either outward to the external environment
toward things such as tasks, other people, or the
social context, or directed inward to various aspects
of the self (Duval &
Wicklund
, 1972).


The different features of the self can be categorized
into two major parts (
Fenigstein
,
Scheier
, & Buss,
1975):


The public self


physical appearance, table manners, and accent.


the private self


personal beliefs, hidden inner feelings, thoughts, and memories that are
covert to others including religious beliefs and childhood memories

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

SIDE Theory


Public Self
-
awareness


Attention is directed towards to the public
aspects of the
self


Public self
-
awareness has consistently been
found to cause conformity towards perceived
majority opinions (Duval &
Wicklund
, 1972;
Froming
, Walker, &
Lopyan
, 1982;
Scheier

&
Carver, 1980;
Wicklund

& Duval, 1971)


It can be heightened by the presence of film
or video cameras

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

SIDE Theory


Private Self
-
awareness


Attention is directed towards to those private
aspects of the
self


has been shown to cause individuals to be
more aware of, and more responsive to, their
emotions (
Scheier
, 1976;
Scheier

& Carver,
1977), and engage in more self
-
disclosure
(
Joinson
, 2001)..


It can be heightened by the presence of a
small mirror & self
-
portrait.

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

SIDE Theory


Theoretically, many explanations of both pro
-

and anti
-
social behaviors in computer
-
mediated communication
(CMC) appear to hinge on changes in individual self
-
awareness.


Empirically, very few studies directly tested the effect of
self
-
awareness on common outcomes of CMC research.


although self
-
awareness has been found to impact self
-
disclosure
& persuasion in CMC (
Joinson
, 2001; Matheson &
Zanna
, 1988;
1989),


the reduction of social cues in CMC can decrease users’ overall
self
-
awareness, leading to a state of deindividuation, thereby
fostering interactions that are more task
-
oriented, impersonal,
and in some cases even uninhibited and anti
-
normative.

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

SIDE Theory


Visual anonymity allows us to communicate with
each other without worrying about many other
social information (social identities)


Appearance


Skin color


Gender


Age


As a consequence, we tend to


Communicate more honestly with less bias


Communicate more freely with less social constraints


Focus on the tasks rather than the socio
-
emotional
aspects of the conversation.

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

SIDE Theory


Deindividuation is good for decision making
and corporate environment


Less influenced by power structure


Speak more freely and thus encourages creativity


Focusing on tasks and not bothered by social
formality


Deindividuation is bad for social
environment


Difficult to be personal


Conversation may become direct and cold
(impersonal)

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

SIDE Theory


According to this perspective, deindividuation
may not always be impersonal.


Just because a conversation is visually anonymous, it
doesn’t mean that we don’t engage in self
-
regulation
and monitoring


What is important is which social identity is salient at
the moment

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

Hyperpersonal

Communication in CMC


visual anonymity of CMC enables users to mask
physical or behavioral cues that are undesirable,
and selectively self
-
disclose more favorable
information.


Thus, communication in CMC, due to
anonymity, allow a person to strategically create
an “ideal self” to present to the other person.

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

Hyperpersonal

Communication in CMC


This allows communicators to carefully
think about what to say, how to say it, and
when to say it.


It also allows individuals to use their
imagination to “idealize” the person
whom they are talking to.


Thus, leading to intense social
relationships beyond normal level (hyper
-
personal).

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

Hyperpersonal

Theory (Joseph
Walther)


Media providing fewer nonverbal and meta
-
linguistic cues provide more feelings of presence


People assume conversational partners are like
themselves


May explain tendency to self
-
reveal
inappropriately


Compared to ordinary face
-
to
-
face situations, a
hyperpersonal

message sender has a greater
ability to strategically develop and edit self
-
presentation, enabling a selective and optimized
presentation of oneself to others



Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

Terima

Kasih

Thank you

Tusen

takk

Grazie Mille

Aitah

Domo
Arigatou

Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013