NP10_Chapter01

orangesvetElectronics - Devices

Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Computers and Digital Basics

Chapter 1

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Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

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Chapter Contents


Section A: All Things Digital


Section B: Digital Devices


Section C: Digital Data Representation


Section D: Digital Processing


Section E: Password Security

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SECTION

A

Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

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All Things Digital


The Digital Revolution


Convergence


Digital Society

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The Digital Revolution


The digital revolution is an ongoing process
of
social, political, and economic

change
brought about by digital technology, such as
computers and the Internet


A constellation of technologies, including
digital electronics, computers,
communications networks, the Web, and
digitization are fueling the digital revolution

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The Digital Revolution


Digital electronics use electronic circuits to
represent data (
bits? bytes?
)


Today, digital electronic devices include computers,
portable media players such as iPods, digital
cameras and camcorders, cell phones, radios and
televisions, GPSs, DVD and CD players, e
-
book
readers, and arcade games

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The Digital Revolution

Household Ownership of Personal Computers in the U.S.

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The Digital Revolution


The second phase of the digital revolution
materialized when the
Internet

was opened to
public use


E
-
mail


Bulletin boards


Chat groups


Blogs


Online social

networks

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The Digital Revolution


A
computer network

is a group of computers linked
by wired or wireless technology to share data and
resources (what is the Internet?)


The
Web

(www) is a collection of linked documents,
graphics, and sounds that can be accessed over
the Internet


Cyberspace
is a term that refers to entities that exist
largely within computer networks


Digitization

is the process of converting text,
numbers, sound, photos, and video into data that
can be processed by digital devices

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Convergence


Technological convergence

is
a process by which several
technologies with distinct
functionalities evolve to form a
single product


Convergence tends to offer
enhanced functionality and
convenience

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Convergence

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Digital Society


Digital technology is an important factor in global
and national
economies
, in addition to affecting the
economic status of individuals


Globalization can be defined as the worldwide
economic interdependence

of countries that occurs
as cross
-
border commerce increases and as
money
flows more freely among countries


Individuals are affected by
the digital divide
, a term
that refers to the gap between people who have
access to technology and those who do not


Digital technology permeates the very core of
modern life

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Quick Quiz

1.
The ______________ is an ongoing process of
social, political, and economic change brought
about by digital technology, such as computers
and the Internet.

2.
True/False: Bulletin boards are personal journals
posted online for general public access.

3.
_______ property refers to the ownership of
certain types of information, ideas, or
representations.

a.
Digital

b.
Intellectual

c.
Online

d.
Licensed

Digital Revolution

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SECTION

B

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Digital Devices


Computer Basics


Personal Computers, Servers, Mainframes,
and Supercomputers


PDAs, Portable Players, and Smart Phones


Microcontrollers

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Computer Basics


A
computer

is a multipurpose device that
accepts input
,
processes data
,
stores data
, and
produces output
, all
according to a series of stored instructions

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Computer Basics


Computer
input

is whatever is typed,
submitted, or transmitted to a computer
system


Output

is the
result

produced by a
computer


Data

refers to the
symbols

that represent
facts, objects, and ideas


Computers
manipulate data

in many
ways, and this manipulation is called
processing


Central Processing Unit (CPU)


Microprocessor

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Computer Basics


Memory

is an area of a computer that
temporarily
holds data waiting to be processed, stored, or
output


Storage

is the area where data can be left on a
permanent basis

when it is not immediately needed
for processing (examples?)


A
file

is a
named collection of data

that exists on a
storage medium


The
series of instructions
that tells a computer how
to carry out processing tasks is referred to as a
computer program


Software

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Computer Basics


A stored program is a series of instructions
for a computing task can be loaded into a
computer’s memory and executed by the
computer to perform a task or tasks


Allows you to switch between tasks


Distinguishes a computer from other simpler
devices

Examples?

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Computer Basics


Application software

is a related set of
computer programs that helps a person
carry
out a task and get work done on a computer


System software

allows the computer to
operate (basic tasks) and monitor itself in
order to function efficiently


Operating system

(OS)

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Personal Computers, Servers,
Mainframes, and Supercomputers


A
personal computer

is a microprocessor
-
based computing device designed to meet
the computing needs of an individual

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Personal Computers, Servers,
Mainframes, and Supercomputers


The term
workstation

has two meanings:


An ordinary personal computer that is connected
to a network


A powerful desktop computer used for high
-
performance tasks

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Personal Computers, Servers,
Mainframes, and Supercomputers


A videogame console, such as
Nintendo’s Wii, Sony’s PlayStation,
or Microsoft’s Xbox, are
not generally
referred to as personal computers

because of their history as

dedicated
game devices

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Personal Computers, Servers,
Mainframes, and Supercomputers


The purpose of a
server

is to
serve
client

computers on a
network

(such as the Internet or a home network) by
supplying them with data or application support


A
mainframe

computer (or simply a mainframe) is a
large

and expensive computer capable of simultaneously
processing data for hundreds or thousands of users


A computer falls into the
supercomputer

category if it is, at
the time of construction, one of the
fastest

computers in the
world


A
compute
-
intensive problem

is one that requires massive amounts
of data to be processed using complex mathematical calculations

What is an
input/output
-
intensive
problem?? Examples??

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Personal Computers, Servers,
Mainframes, and Supercomputers

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Microcontrollers


A
microcontroller

is a
special
-
purpose
microprocessor

that is built into the machine
it controls


Microcontrollers can be
embedded

in all sorts
of everyday devices

Examples?

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Quick Quiz

1.
A (n) ______________ is a special
-
purpose
microprocessor that is built into the machine it
controls.

2.
True/False: Just about any personal computer,
workstation, mainframe, or supercomputer can be
configured to perform the work of a server.

3.
Any software or digital device that requests data
from a server is referred to as a(n) _______.

a.
minicomputer

b.
client

c.
mainframe

d.
terminal

microcontroller

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SECTION

C

Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

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Digital Data Representation


Data Representation Basics


Representing Numbers, Text, and Pictures


Quantifying Bits and Bytes


Circuits and Chips

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Data Representation


Data representation refers to the form in which
data is stored, processed, and transmitted


Digital devices

work with distinct and separate
data (discrete, on/off)


Analog devices

work with continuous data

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Representing Numbers, Text,

and Pictures


Numeric data


Binary number system


Character data


ASCII, Extended ASCII,
EBCDIC, and Unicode


Digitizing is the process of
converting analog data
into digital format


Bit

=
B
inary Dig
it



on or off, 1 or 0

Sound waves…..

Images….

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Data Representation

Extended ASCII?

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Quantifying Bits and Bytes

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Circuits and Chips


An integrated circuit (computer chip) is a
super
-
thin slice of semiconducting material
packed with microscopic circuit elements

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Circuits and Chips


Bits take the form of
electrical pulses that
can travel over circuits


System board

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SECTION

D

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Digital Processing


Programs and Instruction Sets


Processor Logic

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Programs and Instruction Sets


Computers
, portable media players, handheld
computers, and smart phones all work
with digital
data


Computer
programmers

create programs that
control digital devices. These programs are usually
written in a
high
-
level programming language


The
human
-
readable version of a program
, created
in a high
-
level language by a programmer is called
source code

Examples of high
-
level programming languages?

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Programs and Instruction Sets

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Programs and Instruction Sets


A collection of preprogrammed activities a
microprocessor
is hardwired to perform is called an
instruction set


The
list of codes

for a microprocessor’s instruction
set, called
machine language
, can be directly
executed by that processor’s circuitry (Note:
machine language is
specific/unique

to a given
microprocessor architecture)


The end product is called
machine code


1s and 0s

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Programs and Instruction Sets


An
op code

(short for operation code) is a
command word

for an operation such as add,
compare, or jump.


The
operand

for an instruction specifies the
data

(or the address of the data) for the operation.


In the following example, the op code might
mean
Add

and the operand is
1
, so the
instruction means
Add 1
!

000000100 00000001

Op code

Operand

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Programs and Instruction Sets

A simple few lines of source code

in a high
-
level programming
language often results in multiple
machine language instructions.

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Processor Logic


The
ALU (arithmetic logic unit)

is the part of the
microprocessor that performs
arithmetic and logical
operations


The ALU uses
registers

to hold data that is being
processed


The microprocessor’s
control unit

fetches each
instruction, just as you get each ingredient out of a
cupboard or the refrigerator (
control
/
flow operations
)


The term
instruction cycle

refers to the process in
which a computer executes a single instruction

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Processor Logic

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Processor Logic

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Quick Quiz

1.
A(n) __________________ is a super
-
thin slide
of semiconducting material packed with
microscopic circuit elements, such as wires,
transistors, capacitors, logic gates, and resistors.

2.
True/False: The machine language used by
digital computers is expressed as sequences of
human
-
readable characters.

3.
A prefix which refers to a million bytes of storage
is ______.

a.
kilo
-

b.
giga
-

c.
mega
-

d.
tera
-

Integrated Circuit (IC)

Chapter 1 Complete

Computers and Digital Basics