Innovation Tool: TRIZ (An Introduction)

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Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Weaver Intro to Triz


Innovation Tool: TRIZ (An Introduction)

Jonathan Weaver

UDM ME Department

Development support by David Roggenkamp and

Arun Aakaluashok

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Weaver Intro to Triz

References


There are numerous books on the subject and web materials available,
some of the best are at
http://www.aitriz.org/ai/index.php
, some
specifics:


http://www.triz
-
journal.com/archives/2006/01/07.pdf


Kraev’s Corner

featured a twelve lesson sequence in the
Triz
Journal

which you might enjoy; the lessons are available at
http://www.triz
-
journal.com/archives/2006/


A full listing of the 40 principles with examples can be found at
http://www.triz
-
journal.com/archives/1997/07/b/index.html


The contradiction matrix may be found at
http://www.triz40.com/aff_Matrix.htm


And Suddenly the Inventor Appeared
, by Genrich Altshuller


Triz materials from Patsy Brackin, Rose Hulman.


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Weaver Intro to Triz

"The creative person pays close attention to
what appears discordant and contradictory ...
and is challenged by such irregularities."



Frank Barron (1942
-
2002)
, was an
internationally known psychologist and UC
Berkeley professor who studied highly creative
thinkers in architecture, science, mathematics and
literature.


He was


Guggenheim Fellow and a
Fellow for Advanced Study in the Behavioral
Sciences.


Barron received the American
Psychological Association's Richardson Creativity
Award and the Rudolf Arnheim Award for
Outstanding Contribution to Psychology and the
Arts.

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Processing Sweet Peppers


What does this have to do with invention and innovation?

To remove seeds from peppers, the peppers may be placed
in a pressure chamber. The pressure can be slowly
increased so that the pressure diffuses through the pepper
skin to the interior of the pepper. If the pressure is then
suddenly reduced, the stem and seeds explode out of the
pepper! (1945)

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Beyond Peppers


Other applications of pressure increase/drop:


Splitting diamonds along micro
-
cracks (1972)


Removing stems from bell peppers


Removing shells from sunflower seeds


Cleaning filters


Unpacking parts wrapped in protective paper


Producing sugar powder from sugar crystals


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Weaver Intro to Triz

Genrich Altshullar, Father of TRIZ



Born 15
-
Oct
-
1926,


Age 14, patented underwater breathing apparatus that generated oxygen from hydrogen
peroxide.


Age 20, as Lieutenant in Caspian Sea Navy, patented method for escaping immobilized
submarine without diving gear and was offered position as patent examiner.


Age 22, wrote to Stalin to inform him that the Soviet Union’s approach to technology
was chaotic and ignorant and that he had devised a systematic approach by which any
technical problem could be solved.


Age 23, Invited to a meeting and taken into custody.


Age 24, Sentenced to 25 years in prison.


Age 29, Released early from prison following Stalin’s death and learns his grief stricken
mother has committed suicide.


Age 30, Publishes Psychology of Inventive Creativity.


Age 42, Organizes first TRIZ seminar.


Age 43, Publishes Algorithm of Inventing (40 Inventive Principles).


Age 50s, Diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease.


Age 58, Publishes And Suddenly the Inventor Appeared.


Age 63, Named president of newly established Russian TRIZ Association.


Age 72, Dies. (1999)


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Weaver Intro to Triz

TRIZ


Altshuller recognized that the same fundamental problem
(contradiction) had been addressed by a number of
inventions in different areas of technology


He

also observed that the same fundamental solutions were
used over and over again, often separated by many years


He reasoned that if the latter innovator had had knowledge
of the earlier solution, their task would have been
straightforward


He sought to extract, compile, and organize such
information

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Psychological Inertia Vector

Your training and
biases may bring you
down this path

A better solution might
lie over here

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Altshuller’s Research Results

Patents

(World Wide)

Inventive

Patents


KEY FINDINGS



Definition of inventive


problems



Levels of invention



Patterns of evolution



Patterns of invention

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Levels of Innovation


LEVEL 1:

Apparent

(no invention)


Established solutions


Well
-
known and readily accessible



LEVEL 2:

Improvement


Small improvement of an existing system, usually with
some compromise



LEVEL 3: Invention Inside Paradigm


Essential improvement of an existing system

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Levels of Innovation
(Cont.)


LEVEL 4: Invention Outside Paradigm


A concept for a new generation of an existing system
based on changing the principle of performing the
primary function



LEVEL 5: Discovery


Pioneer invention of an essentially new system


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Weaver Intro to Triz

Levels of Innovation
(Cont.)




Examples of innovation levels



LEVEL 1

Compromising Design

LEVEL 2

Resolving the technical
contradiction

LEVEL 3

Resolving
the physical
contradiction

LEVEL 4

New Technology

LEVEL 5

New Phenomena

Washing Machine

Washing Machine with
Vertical Drum

Washing Machine
with Horizontal
Drum

Washing Machine
with Double Drum

Cavitational
Ultrasound
Washing Machine

Field Cleaning
Machine (forecast)

TV Set

Electromechanical TV

Mono Cathode
-
Ray Tube TV

Color

Cathode
-
Ray Tube
TV

LCD/LED TV

Three
-
Dimensional
TV

Phone Set

Two
-
Piece Hand
Phone

One
-
Piece Hand
Phone

Telephone and Fax
Machine

Radio Wireless
Home Phone

Mobile Cell Phone



Source:
Kraev’s Corner Triz Lesson 2

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Levels of Innovation
(Cont.)

Percentages of Levels of Invention
32
45
18
5
1
Level 1: Apparent
Solution
Level 2: Improvement
Level 3: Innovation
Level 4: Invention
Level 5: Discovery
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Weaver Intro to Triz

Two Types of Contradiction


Physical Contradiction


A conflict between two mutually exclusive physical requirements
to the same parameter of an element of the system


Element should be hot and cold


Element should be hard and soft


Technical contradiction


A conflict between characteristics within a system when improving
one parameter of the system causes the deterioration of other
parameter


Increasing the power of the motor (a desired effect) may cause the
weight of the motor to increase (a negative effect).


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Weaver Intro to Triz

Dealing with Physical Contradictions


Four principles for overcoming physical contradiction:


Separation of contradictory properties in time


Separation of contradictory properties in space


System transformations


Phase transformation, or physical
-
chemical
transformation of substances

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Examples of Physical Contradictions


Separation of contradictory properties in time


For overcoming nail’s rotation into the wall, we can propose to
make the nail with a noncircular section shape. But all process for
production of these nails should be changed for making the new
shape and it is expensive!


Separation of contradictory properties in space


Bifocals by Ben Franklin


System transformations


For measuring contact force between a door’s seal and housing of
the refrigerator, we can use some special electronic sensors
between them. But what kind of sensors do we need


and how to get
them? Is there a simpler way to solve the problem?

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Raspberry Syrup Filled Chocolate Bottles


It was a young girl’s birthday. One of the guests brought a big box of
chocolate candies. The candies were shaped like small bottles filled
with thick raspberry syrup. Everybody liked them. One of the guests
said, “I wonder how these candies are made?”


“First they made the bottles and then they filled them up with syrup,”
explained another guest.


“The syrup would have to be very thick, otherwise the candy would
not be sturdy enough,” said the third guest. “At the same time, the
syrup would be very difficult to pour into the bottle. It is possible to
warm the syrup making it more liquid. The problem now is that the
syrup would melt the chocolate bottle. We would gain in quantity and
lose in quality. There would be many defective candies.”


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Weaver Intro to Triz

How Do They Do It?


Applying the phase transformation principle, can you
envision a solution?


The syrup should be poured into a mold, frozen, and then
dipped into the melted chocolate


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Weaver Intro to Triz

Handling Technical Contradiction


Altshuller identified a set of engineering parameters such
that a contradiction can be stated in the form
improving
one parameter causes deterioration of the other parameter


A set of inventive principles are developed


A tool is provided which helps direct the inventor to a
appropriate principles for a given contradiction


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Weaver Intro to Triz

Engineering Parameters

Based on his patent research, Altshuller identified a total of
39 engineering parameters:

1.
Weight of moving object.

2.
Weight of non
-
moving object.

3.
Length of moving object.

4.
Length of non
-
moving object.

5.
Area of moving object.

6.
Area of non
-
moving object.

7.
Volume of moving object.

8.
Volume of non
-
moving object.

9.
Speed.

10.
Force.

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Engineering Parameters
(Cont.)

11.
Tension, pressure.

12.
Shape.

13.
Stability of object.

14.
Strength.

15.
Durability of moving object.

16.
Durability of non
-
moving object.

17.
Temperature.

18.
Brightness.

19.
Energy spent by moving object.

20.
Energy spent by non
-
moving object.

21.
Power.

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Engineering Parameters
(Cont.)

22.
Waste of energy.

23.
Waste of substance.

24.
Loss of information.

25.
Waste of time.

26.
Amount of substance.

27.
Reliability.

28.
Accuracy of measurement.

29.
Accuracy of manufacturing.

30.
Harmful factors acting on object.

31.
Harmful side effects.

32.
Manufacturability.

33.
Convenience of use.

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Engineering Parameters
(Cont.)

34.
Repairability.

35.
Adaptability.

36.
Complexity of device.

37.
Complexity of control.

38.
Level of automation.

39.
Productivity.


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Weaver Intro to Triz

Inventive Principles

Based on his patent research, Altshuller identified a total of
40 inventive principles:

1.
Segmentation.

2.
Extraction.

3.
Local Quality.

4.
Asymmetry.

5.
Combining.

6.
Universality.

7.
Nesting.

8.
Counterweight.

9.
Prior counter
-
action.

10.
Prior action.

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Inventive Principles

(Cont.)

11.
Cushion in advance.

12.
Equipotentiality.

13.
Inversion.

14.
Spheroidality.

15.
Dynamicity.

16.
Partial or overdone action.

17.
Moving to a new dimension.

18.
Mechanical vibration.

19.
Periodic action.

20.
Continuity of useful action.

21.
Rushing through.

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Inventive Principles

(Cont.)

22.
Convert harm into benefit.

23.
Feedback.

24.
Mediator.

25.
Self
-
service.

26.
Copying.

27.
An inexpensive short
-
lived object instead of an expensive
durable one.

28.
Replacement of a mechanical system.

29.
Use a pneumatic or hydraulic construction.

30.
Flexible film or thin membranes.

31.
Use of porous material.

32.
Changing the color.

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Inventive Principles

(Cont.)

33.
Homogeneity.

34.
Rejecting and regenerating parts.

35.
Transformation of physical and chemical states of an object.

36.
Phase transition.

37.
Thermal expansion.

38.
Use strong oxidizers.

39.
Inert environment.

40.
Composite materials.





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Weaver Intro to Triz

Principle 1: Segmentation


Divide an object into independent parts.


Replace mainframe computer by personal computers.


Replace a large truck by a truck and trailer.


Use a work breakdown structure for a large project.


Make an object easy to disassemble.


Modular furniture


Quick disconnect joints in plumbing


Increase the degree of fragmentation or segmentation.


Replace solid shades with Venetian blinds.


Use powdered welding metal instead of foil or rod to get better
penetration of the joint.


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Weaver Intro to Triz



If we have to paint the wooden stairs that lead us to the second
floor, then, we should paint every other step and then once those
steps are dried then we will paint the rest of the steps. This allows
us to use the stairs without having to wait for all of them to dry
with just some minor inconveniences.



Example of Segmentation

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Principle 2: Taking Out


Separate an interfering part or property from an object, or single out
the only necessary part (or property) of an object.


Locate a noisy compressor outside the building where
compressed air is used.


Use fiber optics or a light pipe to separate the hot light source
from the location where light is needed.


Use the sound of a barking dog, without the dog, as a burglar
alarm.


A complete list of the principles with examples can be found where
these two samples were obtained:

http://www.triz
-
journal.com/archives/1997/07/b/index.html


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Weaver Intro to Triz

Contradiction Table

Engineering Parameters

39 Parameters

39 Parameters

Inventive Principles

useful to solve

the contradiction

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Excerpt of the Contradiction Table from
http://www.triz40.com/aff_Matrix.htm

Worsening feature

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Fertilizer Example


The Problem: Optimal use of fertilizer requires that it be
applied when the soil reaches a specific temperature.


Because soil temperatures change continually, the
challenge for tomato growers was being able to distribute
fertilizer over a vast amount of acreage at the precise
moment the soil reaches optimal temperature.

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Fertilizer Example (Cont.)


In TRIZ terms, this problem presents as one of production
rate vs temperature.


If we look at the contradiction matrix, we find the
intersection of production rate and temperature and infer
four suggested principles to apply:


#10: Preliminary Action (perform before needed)


#21: Skipping


#28: Mechanics Substitution


#35: Parameter Changes (such as state changes)

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Fertilizer Example (Cont.)


These four principles would be investigated to see if they
lead to any new ideas


In this case, principle 10 leads to an excellent solution:



If the fertilizer is packaged in capsules containing a
liquefied gas, the capsules can be applied to the soil
ahead of time. When the soil reaches optimum
temperature, the gas expands, breaks the capsule, and
releases the fertilizer.

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Ball Bearing Example


Problem Statement : Sorting of ball bearings by size in a
simple and inexpensive way.


Because machining the ball bearing to a very high degree
of accuracy is expensive and hence they were made with
an acceptable degree of accuracy. The concern is how to
segregate these balls into groups each having very similar
dimensions.

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Ball bearing Example (Contd.)


The parameter to be improved is quality of control vs length of a
moving object.


According to Contradiction Matrix, we get the following suggestive
principles to overcome the contradiction. They are:


#16


Partial or excessive action


#17


Shift to a new dimension


Incline an object or turn it on its side


Moving an object in 2D or 3D space


Use of multi layer assembly of objects


Project images on neighboring areas or on reverse side of the object


#26


Copying


#24
-

Mediator

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Ball Bearing Example (Contd.)


Principles 16 and 26 are not considered because they
would suggest increasing the accuracy which would
increase the cost of machining.


We use principle 24 along with Principle 17 to help us
resolve this issue:


Here we introduce an intermediate object to facilitate us
in sorting.


The intermediate object will be positioned at an angle
and the balls are made to move in 3D space.

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Piping of Steel Shot Example


Pipe for transporting steel shot


Problem: Pipe wears out at spots from steel shot
movement.


Conflict: Shot must move, but movement causes wear.


TRIZ Conflict


Improving objective: Productivity (#39)


Worsening objective: Loss of substance (#23)

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Piping of Steel Shot Example (Cont.)


Suggested principles:


#10: Preliminary action, #23: Feedback, #35: Parameter
changes, and #28: Mechanical interaction substitution
--

Use electrical, magnetic fields to interact with object.


Solution


Place a magnet at high wear spots (corners)

to adhere shot to pipe to create a coating.

Source: slides from Patsy
Brackin
, Rose
-
Hulman

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Final Remarks (Cont.)


Try to avoid some of the common dysfunctions exhibited by
development teams during concept generation, which include:


Consideration of just a few alternatives, often proposed by
the most assertive members of the team.


Failure to consider carefully the usefulness of the concepts
employed by other firms in related and unrelated products.


Involvement of only one or two people in the process,
resulting in a lack of confidence and commitment by the rest
of the team.


Ineffective integration of promising partial solutions.


Failure to consider entire categories of solutions.


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Weaver Intro to Triz

Final Remarks


Thinking
out of the box

is severely over rated in my
opinion; the real key is to make the box as large as
possible, and make sure the right stuff is in the box!


Triz is one tool that can help enlarge


and fill with the
appropriate stuff


your box!

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Weaver Intro to Triz

Grow Your Box!

You

Your company

Your industry

All industries

The world

All that can ever be known

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Weaver Intro to Triz


This is intended to be a brief introduction to TRIZ. There
is an awful lot more available on the topic readily available
for anyone wanting to learn more!


Time permitting, let’s take a look at some of the examples
in
Kraev’s Corner: Lesson 6

Closing