Enterprise Architecture

orangesvetElectronics - Devices

Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

74 views

IT
ARCHITECTURES

5
-
2

Architectures

-

HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE BASICS


Hardware Basics


Computer Categories


Software Basics




MANAGING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES


Enterprise Architectures


Information Architecture


Infrastructure Architecture


Application Architecture


HARDWARE AND
SOFTWARE

5
-
4

LEARNING

OUTCOMES

1.
Describe the six major categories of
hardware and provide an example of
each


2.
Identify the different computer categories
and explain their potential business uses


3.
Explain the difference between primary
and secondary storage




5
-
5

LEARNING

OUTCOMES

4.
List the common input, output, storage,
and communication devices


5.
Describe the eight categories of
computers by size


6.
Define the relationship between
operating system software and utility
software



5
-
6

INTRODUCTION


Information technology (IT)
-

any
computer
-
based tool that people use to work
with information and support the information
and information
-
processing needs of an
organization


Hardware
-

consists of the physical devices
associated with a computer system


Software
-

the set of instructions that the
hardware executes to carry out specific tasks



5
-
7

HARDWARE BASICS


Computer
-

an electronic device operating
under the control of instructions stored in its own
memory that can accept, manipulate, and store
data



Hardware components include:

1.
Central processing unit (CPU)

2.
Primary storage

3.
Secondary storage

4.
Input device

5.
Output device

6.
Communication device



5
-
8

HARDWARE BASICS

5
-
9

Central Processing Unit


Central processing unit (CPU)
(or
microprocessor
)
-

the actual hardware that interprets and executes the
program (software) instructions and coordinates how all
the other hardware devices work together



Control unit
-

interprets software instructions and literally
tells the other hardware devices what to do, based on the
software instructions



Arithmetic
-
logic unit (ALU)
-

performs all arithmetic
operations (for example, addition and subtraction) and all
logic operations (such as sorting and comparing numbers)

5
-
10

Central Processing Unit


The number of CPU cycles per second
determines the speed of a CPU


Megahertz (MHz)
-

the number of millions of
CPU cycles per second


Gigahertz (GHz)
-

the number of billions of CPU
cycles per second




5
-
11

Central Processing Unit


CPU speed factors


Clock speed


Word length


Bus width


Chip line width



Binary

digit

(
bit
)
-

the smallest unit of information
that a computer can process



Byte

-

a group of eight bits representing one
natural language character

5
-
12

Advances in CPU Design


Complex instruction set computer (CISC) chip
-

type of CPU that can recognize as many as 100 or
more instructions, enough to carry out most
computations directly



Reduced instruction set computer (RISC) chip
-

limit the number of instructions the CPU can
execute to increase processing speed



Virtualization
-

a protected memory space created
by the CPU allowing the computer to create virtual
machines



5
-
13

Primary Storage


Primary storage
-

the computer’s main
memory, which consists of the random
access memory (RAM), cache memory, and
the read
-
only memory (ROM) that is directly
accessible to the CPU



5
-
14

Random Access Memory (RAM)


Random access memory (RAM)
-

the
computer’s primary working memory, in
which program instructions and data are
stored so that they can be accessed directly
by the CPU via the processor’s high
-
speed
external data bus


Volatility


Cache memory


5
-
15

Random Access Memory (RAM)

5
-
16

Read
-
Only Memory (ROM)


Read
-
only memory (ROM)
-

the portion
of a computer’s primary storage that does
not lose its contents when one switches
off the power


Flash memory


Memory card


Memory stick

5
-
17

Secondary Storage


Secondary storage
-

consists of equipment
designed to store large volumes of data for
long
-
term storage


Megabyte (MB
or
M
or
Meg)
-

roughly 1 million
bytes


Gigabyte (GB)
-

roughly 1 billion bytes


Terabyte (TB)
-

roughly 1 trillion bytes

5
-
18

Secondary Storage

5
-
19

Magnetic Medium


Magnetic medium
-

a secondary storage medium that
uses magnetic techniques to store and retrieve data on
disks or tapes coated with magnetically sensitive materials



Magnetic tape
-

an older secondary storage medium that
uses a strip of thin plastic coated with a magnetically
sensitive recording medium



Hard drive
-

a secondary storage medium that uses
several rigid disks coated with a magnetically sensitive
material and housed together with the recording heads in a
hermetically sealed mechanism

5
-
20

Optical Medium


Optical medium types include:


Compact disk
-
read
-
only memory (CD
-
ROM)


Compact disk
-
read
-
write (CD
-
RW) drive


Digital video disk (DVD)


DVD
-
ROM drive


Digital video disk
-
read/write (DVD
-
RW)

5
-
21

Input Devices


Input device
-

equipment used to
capture information and commands


Manual input devices


Joystick


Keyboard


Microphone


Automated input devices


Bar code scanner


Digital camera


Magnetic ink character reader


5
-
22

Output Devices


Output device
-

equipment used to see,
hear, or otherwise accept the results of
information processing requests


Cathode
-
ray tube (CRT)


Liquid crystal display (LCD)


Laser printer


Ink
-
jet printer


Plotter

5
-
23

Communication Devices


Communication device
-

equipment
used to send information and receive it
from one location to another


Dial
-
up access


Cable


Digital subscriber line


Wireless


Satellite



5
-
24

COMPUTER CATEGORIES


For the past 20 years, federally funded
supercomputing research has given birth
to some of the computer industry’s most
significant technology breakthroughs
including:


Clustering


Parallel processing


Mosaic browser


5
-
25

COMPUTER CATEGORIES


Computer categories include:


Personal digital assistant (PDA)


Laptop


Tablet


Desktop


Workstation


Minicomputer


Mainframe computer


Supercomputer

5
-
26

SOFTWARE BASICS


System software
-

controls how the various
technology tools work together along with the
application software


Operating system software


Utility software


Application software

5
-
27

Utility Software


Types of utility software


Crash
-
proof


Disk image


Disk optimization


Encrypt data


File and data recovery


Text protect


Preventative security


Spyware


Uninstaller

5
-
28

Application Software


Types of application software


Bowser


Communication


Data management


Desktop publishing


E
-
mail


Groupware


Presentation graphics


Programming


Spreadsheet


Word processing

5
-
29

OPENING CASE QUESTIONS

Electronic Breaking Points

1.
Identify six hardware categories and place each
product listed in the case in its appropriate
category


2.
Describe the CPU and identify which products
would use a CPU


3.
Describe the relationship between memory sticks
and laptops. How can a user employ one to help
protect information loss from the other?


4.
What different types of software might each of the
products listed in the case use?



Enterprise
Architecture

5
-
31

LEARNING OUTCOMES

7.
Explain the three components of an enterprise
architecture


8.
Describe how an organization can implement a
solid information architecture


9.
List and describe the five
ilities

of an infrastructure
architecture


10.
Compare Web services and open systems

5
-
32

ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES


Enterprise architecture

-

includes the plans for
how an organization will build, deploy, use, and
share its data, processes, and IT assets



Enterprise architect (EA)
-

a person grounded
in technology, fluent in business, a patient
diplomat, and provides the important bridge
between IT and the business

5
-
33

ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES


Primary goals of enterprise architectures

5
-
34

ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES

5
-
35

INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE

5
-
36

Backup and Recovery


Backup
-

an exact copy of a system’s
information



Recovery

-

the ability to get a system up
and running in the event of a system crash
or failure and includes restoring the
information backup


Fault tolerance


Failover

5
-
37

Disaster Recovery


Disaster recovery best practices include:


Mind the enterprise architectures


Monitor the quality of computer networks that
provide data on power suppliers and demand


Make sure the networks can be restored quickly
in the case of downtime


Set up disaster recovery plans


Provide adequate staff training, including verbal
communication protocols “so that operators are
aware of any IT
-
related problems


5
-
38

Disaster Recovery

Financial Institutions Worldwide Spending on Disaster Recovery

5
-
39

Disaster Recovery


Disaster recovery plan
-

a detailed process for
recovering information or an IT system in the
event of a catastrophic disaster such as a fire
or flood



Disaster recovery cost curve
-

charts (1) the
cost to the organization of the unavailability of
information and technology and (2) the cost to
the organization of recovering from a disaster
over time


Hot site


Cold site

5
-
40

Disaster Recovery Cost Curve

5
-
41

Information Security


A good information architecture includes:


A strong information security plan


Managing user access


Up
-
to
-
date antivirus software and patches

5
-
42

INFRASTRUCTURE
ARCHITECTURE

5
-
43

INFRASTRUCTURE
ARCHITECTURE


Five primary characteristics of a solid
infrastructure architecture:

1.
Flexibility



systems must meet all types of
business changes

2.
Scalability



refers to how well a system can adapt
to increased demands

3.
Reliability



ensures all systems are functioning
correctly and providing accurate information

4.
Availability



addresses when systems can be
accessed by employees, customers, and partners

5.
Performance



measures how quickly a system
performs a certain process or transaction in terms
of efficiency IT metrics of both speed and
throughput

5
-
44

APPLICATION ARCHITECTURE


Application architecture
-

determines
how applications integrate and relate to
each other


5
-
45

Web Services


Web service
-

contains a repertoire of Web
-
based data and procedural resources that use
shared protocols and standards permitting
different applications to share data and services



Interoperability
-

the capability of two or more
computer systems to share data and resources,
even though they are made by different
manufacturers

5
-
46

Web Services


Event
-

detect threats and opportunities
and alert those who can act on the
information



Service

-

more like software products
than they are coding projects, and must
appeal to a broad audience, and they
need to be reusable if they are going to
have an impact on productivity

5
-
47

Open Systems


Open system
-

a broad, general term that
describes nonproprietary IT hardware and
software made available by the standards
and procedures by which their products
work, making it easier to integrate them


Allow systems to seamlessly share information


Capitalize on enterprise architectures


Eliminate proprietary systems and promote
competitive pricing


5
-
48

OPENING CASE QUESTIONS

Electronic Breaking Points

5.
How can an organization use an information
architecture to protect its IT investment in electronic
devices outlined in the case?


6.
How can an organization use the devices mentioned
in the case to protect information security?


7.
Identify the five ilites and rank them in order of
importance for a laptop (1 highest, 5 lowest)


8.
Describe how a “Customer Phone Number” Web
service could be used by one of the products outlined
in the case

5
-
49

CLOSING CASE ONE

Chicago Tribune

1.
Review the five characteristics of
infrastructure architecture and rank them in
order of their potential impact on the Tribune
Co.’s business


2.
What is the disaster recovery cost curve?
Where should the Tribune Co. operate on the
curve?


3.
Define backups and recovery. What are the
risks to the Tribune’s business if it fails to
implement an adequate backup plan?

5
-
50

CLOSING CASE ONE

Chicago Tribune

4.
Why is a scalable and highly available enterprise
architecture critical to the Tribune Co.’s current
operations and future growth?


5.
Identify the need for information security at the
Tribune Co.


6.
How could the Tribune Co. use a classified ad
Web service across its different businesses?

5
-
51

CLOSING CASE TWO

UPS in the Computer Repair Business

1.
Do you think UPS’s entrance into the laptop repair
business was a good business decision? Why or why not?


2.
Identify the different types of hardware UPS technicians
might be working on when fixing laptops


3.
Assume you are a technician working at UPS. Explain to a
customer the different types of memory and why only
certain types of data are lost during a computer failure.
Also identify a potential backup strategy you can suggest to
the customer


4.
Assume you are a technician working at UPS. Explain to a
customer the different types of software found in a typical
laptop



5
-
52

CLOSING CASE THREE

Fear the Penguin

1.
How does Linux differ from traditional
software?


2.
Should Microsoft consider Linux a threat?
Why or why not?


3.
How is open source software a potential
trend shaping organizations?

5
-
53

CLOSING CASE THREE

Fear the Penguin

4.
How can you use Linux as an emerging
technology to gain a competitive
advantage?


5.
Research the Internet and discover
potential ways that Linux might
revolutionize business in the future