Computer Concepts 7 - Niedermayer.ca

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Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Computer Concepts 7th Edition

Parsons/Oja

Chapter 1

Computer, Internet, Web, and E
-
Mail Basics

Section A: Computer Basics

2


Computer

refers to a device that
performs four functions:


accepts
input


processes

data


stores

data


produces
output

What is a computer?

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1.
INPUT


Input

means to feed information into a computer


Input can be typed, submitted or transmitted to a
computer system


Words and symbols in a document


Numbers for a calculation


Pictures


An
input device

gathers input and transforms it
into a series of electronic signals for the
computer to store and manipulate


Keyboard


Mouse

What is a computer?

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Mail Basics

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Computer Basics

2.
PROCESSING


Data

refers to the symbols that represent facts,
ideas and objects


Processing

is the way that a computer
manipulates data


performing calculations


sorting lists and numbers


drawing graphs


A
computer program

is
software

that sets up a
computer to do a specific task


A computer processes data in a device called the
central processing unit

(CPU)

What is a computer?

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3.
STORAGE


A computer stores data so that it will be
available for processing


Memory

is an area of a computer that
temporarily

holds data that is waiting to be
processed


Storage

is the area where data can be left
on a
permanent

basis


Storage devices

include hard drives, CD
-
ROMs, floppy disks, etc.

What is a computer?

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Computer Basics

4.
OUTPUT


Computer
output

is the results produced by the
computer


Reports


Documents


Music


Graphs


Pictures


An
output device

displays, prints or transmits
the results of processing


Printer


Monitor

What is a computer?

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Mail Basics

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What is a computer?

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E
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Mail Basics

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Computer Basics


Computers use
stored programs


A series of instructions for completing a task, for
example:


Calculating interest payments on a loan


Word processing


These instructions can be easily replaced by a
different set of instructions when it’s time for a
different task to be completed


For example, you can finish editing a report, then move
onto sending an e
-
mail


This is the single most important
characteristic that distinguishes a computer
from other simpler devices, such as
calculators

What is a computer?

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E
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Mail Basics

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Computer Basics

1.
A computer does four things:

a)
_____________________

b)
_____________________

c)
_____________________

d)
_____________________

2.
_________ is an area of a computer that temporarily holds
data.

3.
A keyboard is an example of a(n) _________ device.

4.
A computer processes data in the _________ processing
unit.

5.
The idea of a(n) ________ program means that a series of
instructions for a computing task can be loaded into a
computer’s memory.

Self Quiz Questions

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E
-
Mail Basics

10

Computer Basics

1.
A computer does four things:

a)

Accepts input


b)

Processes data


c)

Stores data


d)

Produces output


2.

Memory

is an area of a computer that temporarily holds
data.

3.
A keyboard is an example of a(n)

input

device.

4.
A computer processes data in the

central

processing unit.

5.
The idea of a(n)

stored

program means that a series of
instructions for a computing task can be loaded into a
computer’s memory.

Self Quiz Answers

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Mail Basics

11


Before:


Computers are categorized into three
main categories from least powerful to
most powerful:


microcomputers


minicomputers


mainframe computers


Today:


A computer is categorized based on its
technology, function, size, performance,
and cost

Computer Categories

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Old Computer Categories


Mainframe computers

were the first type of computer that
were very large, and were usually housed in a closet
-
sized
metal frame


This term also applies to a category of large, expensive
computers that were sold to big corporations and government
agencies


Minicomputers

(1968) were smaller, less expensive, and
less powerful than mainframes, and were used by small
businesses


Microcomputers

(1971) were a newer type of computer
whose CPU had a single chip, called a
microprocessor


Today, just about any computer, no matter how
large or small, uses one or more microprocessors
as its CPU


so these terms are no longer valid

Computer Categories

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Today’s Computer Categories


Personal computers


Handheld computers


Workstations


Videogame Consoles


Mainframes


Supercomputers


Servers

Computer Categories

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A
personal computer

is a type of
microcomputer designed to meet the
computing needs of an individual


Desktop computers


Notebook (or “laptop”) computers


Cost starts at $500, but most spend
$1000 to $1200

What is a Personal
Computer?

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A
handheld computer

is one that is designed
to fit into a pocket, run on batteries, and be used
while you are holding it


Also called a
PDA

(Personal Digital Assistant)


Send and receive e
-
mail


Use maps and global positioning


Maintain expense account,

contacts, to
-
do lists, memos, etc.


Make voice calls using cellular

service


Designed to be a computing

accessory, not your main computer

What is a handheld?

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The term “workstation” has two
meanings


Powerful desktop models designed for
specialized tasks, such as 3D graphics


Ordinary personal computers connected
to a local area network


A
computer network

is two or more
computers or other devices that are
connected for the purpose of sharing
data and programs

What types of computers can be
classified as workstations?

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A
videogame system (i.e. Sony’s Playstation)

is a computer, but typically it has not been
considered a computer category because of its
history as a dedicated game device that
connects to a TV set and provides only a pair of
joysticks for input


Today’s videogame systems contain
microprocessors that are equivalent to those
found in a fast personal computer, as they are
equipped to produce graphics that rival those on
sophisticated workstations

Is a PlayStation a computer?

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A
mainframe

computer is a large and
expensive computer that is capable of
passing data simultaneously to many
users


Can cost over $1 million


Used by governments

and large corporations to

provide centralized storage

What is so special about a
mainframe computer?

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A
supercomputer

is one of the fastest
computers in the world, at the time of
construction


Breaking codes


Modeling weather systems


Simulating nuclear explosions


Research simulations


A $100 million supercomputer scheduled for
completion in 2005 is designed to use 1 million
microprocessors, and will process over 1 quadrillion
operations per second

How powerful is a
supercomputer?

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A
server

serves the computers on a network
by supplying them with data or resources
(Internet, network files, printing, e
-
mail, etc.)


A
client

receives data or uses resources
from a server


Any computer can be a server or a client


High performance servers are needed when
there is a need for lots of users and rapid
response

What makes a computer a
server?

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A
personal computer system

consists of
the following:


System unit
: case that holds the main circuit boards,
microprocessor, power supply, and storage devices


Display device
: Monitor or LCD screen


Keyboard
: Primary input device


Mouse
: Secondary input device


Floppy disk drive
: Storage for small amounts of data


Hard disk drive
: Storage for large amounts of data


CD and DVD drives
: Storage or audio


Sound card and speakers
: Plays audio


Modem
: Connects to the Internet


Peripheral devices
: Printers, scanners, etc.

What’s a personal computer
system?

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What is a personal computer
system?

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E
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Mail Basics

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Personal Computer Systems

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E
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Mail Basics

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A
peripheral device

designates
equipment that might be added to a
computer system to enhance its
functionality


Printer


Digital camera


Scanner


Joystick


Graphics tablet

What is a peripheral device?

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Computer Basics

1.
The three old categories of computers were

a)
__________________

b)
__________________

c)
__________________

2.
Desktop computers and laptops are examples of
__________ computers.

3.
Microsoft’s Xbox gaming system is considered to be a
computer. True or false?

4.
A personal computer or workstation that requests data from
a server is known as a(n) __________.

5.
The ___________ is the case that holds the main circuit
boards, microprocessor, power supply, and storage devices
for a personal computer system.

Self Quiz Questions

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E
-
Mail Basics

26

Computer Basics

1.
The three old categories of computers were

a)

Mainframe

b)

Minicomputer

c)

Microcomputer

2.
Desktop computers and laptops are examples of

personal

computers.

3.
Microsoft’s XBox gaming system is considered to be a
computer.
True

4.
A personal computer or workstation that requests data from
a server is known as a(n)

client
.

5.
The

system unit

is the case that holds the main circuit
boards, microprocessor, power supply, and storage devices
for a personal computer system.

Self Quiz Answers

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E
-
Mail Basics