1.1 - Your Future and Computer Competency

orangesvetElectronics - Devices

Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

165 views

CSC 134


Lecture outline


1


1.1
-

Your Future and Computer Competency

I.

InfoTech:

InfoTech is the fusion of computer technology and communication
technology. InfoTech is the merging of computers with high
-
speed
communications links carrying data, sound, and video.


Computer
Technology:

Programmable, multiuse machine that accepts
data and figures and processes it into usable information.


Communication Technology:

Consists of electromagnetic devices and
systems for communicating over long distances
.



II.

Online
: Using a co
mputer or other information device, connected through a
voice or data network, to access information and services from another computer
or information device.


III.

E
-
mail:
Messages transmitted over a computer network.


IV.

Network:

Communications sys
tem connecting two or more computers.


V.

Cyberspace:

Encompasses not only the online world and the Internet in
particular, but also the whole wired and wireless world of communications in
general. Two most important aspects of cyberspace include the Int
ernet and
World Wide Web.


Internet:
Worldwide network that connects up to 400,000 smaller
networks in more than 200 countries.


World Wide Web
: Interconnected system of computers all over the world
that store information in multimedia form. Multimedia:

refers to
technology that presents information in more than one medium, such as
text, still images, moving images, and sound.

The Varieties of Computers

I.

This section defines the five different categories of computers.


1.

Supercomputer:

High
-
capacity mach
ines with hundreds of thousands of
processors that can perform over 1 trillion calculations per second.


2.

Mainframe computer:

Water
-

or air
-
cooled computers that vary in size from
small, to medium, to large, depending on their use.


3.

Workstation:

Expensive
, powerful computers usually used for complex
scientific, mathematical, and engineering calculations and for computer
-
aided
design and computer
-
aided manufacturing.


CSC 134


Lecture outline


2

4.

Microcomputer:




Personal:

Fit next to a desk, desktop or carried around.




Desktop:

Case
or main housing sits on the desktop.




Tower:

Case sits in a tower on the floor.




Notebook:

Laptop, lightweight portable computers with built
-
in
monitor, keyboard, hard
-
disk drive, battery and AC adapter.




PDA:

Personal organization tools
-
schedule planne
rs, address books,
to
-
do lists, send e
-
mail and faxes.


5.


Microcontrollers:

Embedded computers are the tiny, specialized
microprocessors installed in “smart” appliances and automobiles.


II.

Client Server Architecture: A network architecture in which each com
puter or
process on the network is either a client or a server.


Server:

Describes how the computer is used, not the type of computer.
A server, central computer, holds collections of data and programs for
connecting PCs, workstations, and other devices,

which are called clients.


Client:

Clients are PC’s or Workstations on which users run applications.
Clients rely on servers for resources, such as files, devices, and even
processing power.

Understanding Your Computer:

I.

The primary purpose of the compu
ter is to process data into information.


Data:

Consists of the raw facts and figures that are processed into information.


Information:

Data that has been summarized or otherwise manipulated for use
in decision
-
making.


II.

Hardware and Software Definitio
n


Hardware:

Consists of all the machinery and equipment in a computer system.


Software: Consists of all the instructions that tell the computer how to perform a
task.


III.

The table below demonstrates the five primary computer operations and lists the
as
sociated hardware and software.

BASIC

FTWARE

CSC 134


Lecture outline


3


BASIC OPERATIONS



HARDWARE


SOFTWARE

1: Input

Whatever is put in to a computer system.


Keyboard

Mouse

System Software

2: Process

Manipulation a computer does to transform
data into information.


Motherbo
ard

Processor Chip

CPU

System Unit

System Software

Application Software

3: Storage

Temporary or primary storage is the computer
circuitry that temporarily holds data waiting to
be processed.


Permanent or secondary storage is the area
in the computer wh
ere data or information is
held permanently.


Memory Chip

Floppy Disk

Hard Disk

CD
-
Rom

Zip Disk Drive

Tape Drive

System Software

4: Output

Anything that is output from the computer
system, the results of processing.


Monitor

Printer

Sound Speakers

Vid
eo Card

Sound Card

System Software

5: Communications

Extension capability: Data maybe input from
afar, processed in a remote area, stored in
different locations, or output in other places.


Modem

Network Cable

Infrared Technology

System Software



IV.

So
ftware
: The programs, routines, and symbolic languages that control the
functioning of the hardware and direct its operation. There are two types of
software


system and application.


System Software:

Helps the computer perform essential operating task
s
and enables the application software to run.


Application Software:
Enables the user to perform specific tasks


solve
problems, perform work, or entertain.








CSC 134


Lecture outline


4

1.2 Future of IT

I.

The three directions in which computers have developed include:




Miniatu
rization




Speed




Affordability


II.

The three directions of communications development include:





Connectivity:

Ability to connect computers to one another by
communications line, so as to provide online information.





Interactivity:

Two
-
way communicati
on: A user can respond to information
he or she receives and modify the process.





Multimedia:

Technology that presents information in more than one
medium
-
such as text, pictures, video, sound, and animation.


III.

Developments occurring based on the combi
nation of computers and
communications include:




Convergence:
Describes

the combining of several industries
through various devices that exchange data in the format used by
computers. The industries are computers, communications,
consumer electronics, en
tertainment, and mass media.




Portability:

Mobility.




Personalization:
Creation of information tailored to an individual’s
preference.




Information Overload:

Too much information.



IV.

The three ethical considerations resulting from information technolo
gy include:




Speed and scale:

Data security and personal privacy.




Unpredictability:
InfoTech is less predictable and reliable than other
technologies such as electricity, television and automobiles.




Complexity:

Computers are so complex they can easily

become
unmanageable.