On the Sedimentation and Accreditation of Social Knowledges of Difference: Mass Media, Journalism, and the Reproduction of East/West Alterities in Unified Germany

opossumoozeMechanics

Feb 21, 2014 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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O
n
th
e
Sedimentatio
n
an
d
Accreditatio
n
o
f
Socia
l
Knowledge
s
o
f
Difference
:
Mas
s
Media
,
Journalism
,
an
d
th
e
Reproductio
n
o
f
East/Wes
t
Alteritie
s
i
n
Unifie
d
German
y
Domini
c
C
.
Boye
r
University
of
Chicago
No
,
a
n
identit
y
i
s
neve
r
given
,
receive
d
o
r
attained
;
onl
y
th
e
interminabl
e
an
d
in
-
definitel
y
phantasmati
c
proces
s
o
f
identificatio
n
endures
.
—Jacque
s
Derrida
,
Monolingualism
of
the
Other;
or,
The
Prosthesis
of
Origin
TH
E
MOMEN
T
O
F
TRUT
H
WHE
N
TH
E
MIRRO
R
/
REVEAL
S
TH
E
ENEMY
.
—Heine
r
Miiller
,
Volokolamsk
Highway
M
y
researc
h
o
n
th
e
professiona
l
consequence
s
o
f
th
e
post-198
9
restructurin
g
o
f
th
e
easter
n
Germa
n
medi
a
syste
m
cam
e
t
o
a
n
abrup
t
hal
t
whe
n
I
realize
d
tha
t
m
y
initia
l
assumptio
n
o
f
generalizabl
e
East/Wes
t
difference
s
i
n
professiona
l
cultur
e
wa
s
no
t
bein
g
born
e
ou
t
i
n
m
y
interview
s
an
d
workplac
e
interactions
.
O
f
course
,
ther
e
i
s
nothin
g
unusua
l
abou
t
a
fieldworker'
s
crisi
s
o
f
faith
.
Eth
-
nograph
y
i
s
no
t
a
precis
e
busines
s
lik
e
mathematics
,
w
e
lik
e
t
o
say
,
an
d
man
y
o
f
u
s
tak
e
solac
e
tha
t
ou
r
paradigm
s
ar
e
inevitabl
y
alway
s
work
s
i
n
progress
.
Bu
t
thi
s
discover
y
wa
s
particularl
y
troublin
g
t
o
m
e
becaus
e
East/Wes
t
differ
-
enc
e
ha
d
alway
s
seeme
d
so
certain
t
o
m
e
a
s
a
poin
t
o
f
departur
e
fo
r
under
-
standin
g
th
e
dynamic
s
o
f
contemporar
y
Germa
n
society
.
Afte
r
retracin
g
th
e
step
s
o
f
thi
s
convictio
n
t
o
se
e
wher
e
I
ha
d
gon
e
astray
,
I
becam
e
eve
n
mor
e
un
-
eas
y
whe
n
I
recognize
d
t
o
wha
t
degre
e
m
y
"expert
"
academi
c
judgmen
t
o
f
dif
-
ferenc
e
wa
s
nestle
d
o
n
a
foundatio
n
o
f
commonsensica
l
notion
s
abou
t
Germa
n
cultur
e
an
d
identity
.
I
n
Germany
,
thi
s
commo
n
wisdom
,
wha
t
I
woul
d
ter
m
"in
-
tuitiv
e
publi
c
knowledge,
"
hel
d
an
d
stil
l
hold
s
tha
t
becaus
e
ther
e
ar
e
Germa
n
citizen
s
o
f
easter
n
an
d
wester
n
origin
,
East/Wes
t
i
s
a
meaningfu
l
axi
s
o
f
socia
l
classificatio
n
fro
m
whic
h
on
e
ca
n
infe
r
stabl
e
distinction
s
o
f
culture
,
behavior
,
an
d
character
,
suc
h
a
s
Eas
t
Germa
n
dim-wittednes
s
versu
s
Wes
t
Germa
n
crea
-
tivit
y
o
r
Wes
t
Germa
n
austerit
y
versu
s
Eas
t
Germa
n
humanitarianism.
1
I
wa
s
Cultural
Anthropology
15(4)459-491
.
Copyrigh
t
©
2001
.
America
n
Anthropologica
l
Association
.
46
0
CULTURA
L
ANTHROPOLOG
Y
wittingl
y
imitatin
g
an
d
reproducin
g
thi
s
logi
c
o
f
socia
l
differenc
e
largel
y
be
-
cause
,
i
n
m
y
ow
n
education
,
I
alway
s
ha
d
know
n
ther
e
wer
e
tw
o
oppositiona
l
an
d
inverte
d
Germanys
.
East/Wes
t
differenc
e
wa
s
a
"fact
"
tha
t
ha
d
bee
n
sedi
-
mente
d
int
o
intuitiv
e
certaint
y
firs
t
b
y
countles
s
newspape
r
articles
,
schoo
l
lec
-
tures
,
an
d
informa
l
conversation
s
an
d
late
r
b
y
readin
g
th
e
accredite
d
secondar
y
literatur
e
o
n
Germa
n
societ
y
an
d
throug
h
m
y
firs
t
professiona
l
correspon
-
dence
s
wit
h
Germa
n
academics
.
Thus
,
whe
n
i
t
cam
e
tim
e
t
o
draf
t
m
y
disserta
-
tio
n
researc
h
proposal
,
I
relie
d
o
n
East/Wes
t
differenc
e
lik
e
a
prosthesi
s
fo
r
m
y
methodology
.
I
neve
r
ha
d
t
o
"choose
"
i
t
a
s
a
structurin
g
principl
e
becaus
e
i
t
seeme
d
s
o
perfectl
y
an
d
naturall
y
suite
d
t
o
understandin
g
professionalis
m
i
n
postunificatio
n
Germa
n
society
.
Ho
w
public
,
informal
,
an
d
professiona
l
knowledge
s
o
f
differenc
e
co
-
elaborat
e
on
e
anothe
r
i
s
th
e
genera
l
topi
c
o
f
thi
s
article
.
I
wil
l
engag
e
thi
s
them
e
largel
y
b
y
focusin
g
o
n
Germa
n
identit
y
an
d
it
s
East/Wes
t
alterities
.
I
n
doin
g
so
,
I
wil
l
describ
e
identit
y
formation
s
a
s
dynami
c
settlement
s
o
f
socia
l
knowledg
e
tha
t
mus
t
b
e
sedimente
d
throug
h
multipl
e
recursiv
e
operation
s
o
f
articulation
,
accreditation
,
an
d
disseminatio
n
befor
e
the
y
attai
n
th
e
intuitiv
e
currenc
y
an
d
substanc
e
o
f
a
categor
y
o
f
socia
l
belongin
g
lik
e
"easternness
"
o
r
"westernness,
"
O
f
course
,
identifyin
g
th
e
constructe
d
"facticity
"
o
f
collectiv
e
identit
y
i
s
b
y
n
o
mean
s
a
nove
l
directio
n
fo
r
socia
l
science
.
M
y
recognitio
n
i
n
thi
s
essa
y
tha
t
th
e
typified
,
stabl
e
meaning
s
o
f
"bein
g
Eas
t
German
"
o
r
"bein
g
Wes
t
Ger
-
man
"
requir
e
activel
y
negotiate
d
identit
y
categorie
s
build
s
o
n
th
e
insight
s
o
f
ethnomethodolog
y
an
d
sociolinguistic
s
extendin
g
bac
k
t
o
Harol
d
Garfinke
l
(1967
)
an
d
Harve
y
Sack
s
(1992),
2
A
s
th
e
ethnomethodologist
s
correctl
y
assert
,
investigatin
g
th
e
negotiatio
n
o
f
socia
l
categorie
s
i
n
everyda
y
situation
s
mus
t
procee
d
apac
e
wit
h
discussion
s
o
f
th
e
meaning
s
wit
h
whic
h
actor
s
inves
t
thes
e
categorie
s
(Antak
i
an
d
Widdicomb
e
1998:2-6)
,
I
n
a
semina
l
essay
,
Richar
d
Handle
r
furthe
r
call
s
fo
r
th
e
nee
d
fo
r
a
"destructiv
e
analysis
"
o
f
th
e
commo
n
wisdo
m
o
f
cultura
l
differenc
e
a
s
compose
d
o
f
bounde
d
ethni
c
form
s
an
d
sub
-
stantiv
e
ethni
c
content
s
lik
e
cultura
l
values
,
cultura
l
traits
,
an
d
cultura
l
mean
-
ing
s
(1985:172)
,
Handle
r
observe
s
tha
t
bot
h
academi
c
an
d
indigenou
s
ideolo
-
gie
s
o
f
socia
l
belongin
g
quietl
y
elaborat
e
on
e
anothe
r
b
y
emphasizin
g
th
e
presenc
e
o
f
timeles
s
ethnic-nationa
l
traits
,
thu
s
makin
g
th
e
ques
t
t
o
attribut
e
discret
e
cultura
l
meaning
s
t
o
particula
r
collectiv
e
identitie
s
no
t
a
context
-
boun
d
practic
e
o
f
interpretatio
n
an
d
representatio
n
i
n
it
s
ow
n
righ
t
but
,
rather
,
a
kin
d
o
f
archaeolog
y
o
f
natura
l
distinctions
.
Althoug
h
th
e
cas
e
fo
r
couplin
g
th
e
stud
y
o
f
differentiatio
n
t
o
th
e
stud
y
o
f
differenc
e
ha
s
bee
n
mad
e
convincingly
,
w
e
lac
k
analyse
s
tha
t
ma
p
th
e
ful
l
spectru
m
o
f
socia
l
context
s
an
d
"semiosocial
"
exchange
s
(tha
t
is
,
intersubjec
-
tiv
e
exchang
e
undertake
n
vi
a
significatio
n
o
r
language
)
throug
h
whic
h
particu
-
la
r
scheme
s
o
f
socia
l
differentiatio
n
becom
e
objectifie
d
an
d
accredite
d
a
s
meaningful
,
"natural
"
mode
s
o
f
cultura
l
identification
.
I
n
particular
,
wha
t
i
s
stil
l
largel
y
missin
g
fro
m
contemporar
y
researc
h
o
n
socia
l
identitie
s
an
d
alteritic
s
i
s
focuse
d
ethnographi
c
attentio
n
o
n
th
e
comple
x
o
f
institution
s
an
d
practice
s
KNOWLEDGE
S
O
F
DIFFERENC
E
46
1
tha
t
mediate
s
th
e
cross-fertilizatio
n
o
f
everyda
y
categorie
s
o
f
cultura
l
differ
-
enc
e
an
d
exper
t
knowledg
e
o
f
cultura
l
difference
.
Thi
s
articl
e
offer
s
insigh
t
int
o
ho
w
a
professiona
l
intellectua
l
practic
e
lik
e
journalis
m
selectivel
y
formalize
s
intuitiv
e
an
d
informa
l
scheme
s
o
f
differen
-
tiation
,
factualize
s
th
e
scheme
s
a
s
objectiv
e
knowledge
s
o
f
identit
y
differenc
e
an
d
relationa
l
appurtenanc
e
throug
h
th
e
specialize
d
intellectua
l
skill
s
o
f
"pro
-
fessiona
l
expertise,
"
an
d
the
n
publicize
s
th
e
result
s
o
f
it
s
labor
s
a
s
accredite
d
knowledg
e
o
f
socia
l
sel
f
an
d
othe
r
throug
h
institutiona
l
apparatuse
s
suc
h
a
s
th
e
mas
s
media
.
Th
e
articl
e
thu
s
seek
s
t
o
retriev
e
an
d
t
o
forefron
t
th
e
too-ofte
n
ne
-
glecte
d
socia
l
agenc
y
o
f
knowledg
e
specialist
s
i
n
th
e
negotiation
,
determina
-
tion
,
an
d
circulatio
n
o
f
order
s
o
f
identificatio
n
an
d
classification
.
I
n
thi
s
way
,
th
e
articl
e
point
s
no
t
onl
y
t
o
th
e
artific
e
o
f
factitiou
s
identit
y
difference
s
bu
t
als
o
t
o
th
e
artisanr
y
o
f
ho
w
thos
e
difference
s
com
e
t
o
b
e
refined
,
rationalized
,
an
d
reproduce
d
a
s
objectiv
e
"distinctions-in-nature.
"
Th
e
ethnograph
y
o
f
intel
-
lectua
l
professionals,
3
amon
g
whic
h
w
e
migh
t
includ
e
academics
,
journalists
,
consultants
,
advertisers
,
teachers
,
an
d
writers
,
i
s
therefor
e
vital
,
I
maintain
,
fo
r
understandin
g
th
e
everyda
y
codificatio
n
an
d
sedimentatio
n
o
f
socia
l
knowl
-
edge
s
o
f
difference
.
B
y
explicatin
g
th
e
interna
l
politic
s
o
f
expertis
e
an
d
identificatio
n
withi
n
th
e
professio
n
o
f
journalis
m
i
n
easter
n
Germany
,
on
e
find
s
tha
t
professiona
l
intellectual
s
suc
h
a
s
journalist
s
inde
x
th
e
sam
e
intimat
e
knowledge
s
o
f
differ
-
enc
e
an
d
appurtenanc
e
tha
t
saturat
e
privat
e
an
d
informa
l
context
s
o
f
sociolin
-
guisti
c
interaction
.
Yet
,
i
n
bringin
g
thei
r
intimat
e
knowledg
e
t
o
bea
r
o
n
th
e
ob
-
ject
s
o
f
thei
r
intellectua
l
labors
,
the
y
legitimize
,
rationalize
,
an
d
disseminat
e
mor
e
informa
l
scheme
s
o
f
knowledg
e
a
s
incontrovertibl
e
exper
t
judgment
.
I
n
thi
s
respect
,
I
argu
e
tha
t
professiona
l
intellectua
l
practice
s
shoul
d
b
e
see
n
a
s
crucible
s
o
f
epistemi
c
rationalizatio
n
an
d
objectificatio
n
becaus
e
thei
r
exper
t
knowledg
e
product
s
mask—a
s
Mar
x
criticize
d
th
e
camer
a
obscur
a
o
f
Germa
n
philosophy—th
e
"actua
l
life-process
"
o
f
th
e
artisana
l
intellectua
l
labor
s
tha
t
create
d
the
m
(1978:154)
,
Instea
d
o
f
identifyin
g
knowledg
e
form
s
a
s
th
e
craft
-
wor
k
o
f
knowledg
e
specialist
s
workin
g
i
n
context
,
w
e
ten
d
(i
n
bot
h
ou
r
every
-
da
y
an
d
ou
r
exper
t
lives
)
t
o
occlud
e
thos
e
concret
e
epistemi
c
labor
s
o
n
th
e
ground
s
tha
t
th
e
professiona
l
i
s
simpl
y
indexin
g
o
r
elaboratin
g
absolute
,
objec
-
tive
,
an
d
immutabl
e
standard
s
o
f
distinctio
n
an
d
value
.
I
a
m
arguin
g
tha
t
pro
-
fessiona
l
intellectual
s
creat
e
a
n
accredite
d
formalit
y
fo
r
particula
r
socia
l
knowledge
s
o
f
differenc
e
throug
h
th
e
recursiv
e
element
s
o
f
thei
r
knowledg
e
labors
,
eve
n
i
f
the
y
d
o
not
,
becaus
e
o
f
thei
r
ow
n
socia
l
an
d
situationa
l
exigencies
,
creat
e
thos
e
formalitie
s
exactl
y
a
s
the
y
please
.
Ho
w
individua
l
actor
s
participat
e
i
n
th
e
epistemi
c
"feedbac
k
mechanism
"
(se
e
Figur
e
1
)
demand
s
mor
e
focuse
d
ethno
-
graphi
c
attention
.
Th
e
broade
r
theoretica
l
goa
l
o
f
thi
s
articl
e
i
s
t
o
illuminat
e
thi
s
feedbac
k
mechanis
m
a
s
a
constitutiv
e
but
by
no
means
deterministic
aspec
t
o
f
th
e
socia
l
formatio
n
o
f
knowledge
.
I
a
m
no
t
advancin
g
a
functionalis
t
thesi
s
tha
t
situate
s
th
e
sedimentatio
n
an
d
accreditatio
n
o
f
certai
n
socia
l
knowledge
s
throug
h
pro
-
fessiona
l
intellectua
l
practice
s
a
s
a
necessar
y
functio
n
o
f
politica
l
hegemon
y
o
r
46
2
CULTURA
L
ANTHROPOLOG
Y
immediat
e
an
d
intimat
e
socia
l
knowledg
e
receptio
n
an
d
sedimentatio
n
o
f
publi
c
knowledg
e
a
s
epistemi
c
resourc
e
i
n
everyda
y
lif
e
situation
s
professiona
l
expertis
e
articulation
,
accreditation
,
an
d
disseminatio
n
o
f
publi
c
knowledg
e
<
Figur
e
1
Epistemi
c
"Feedbac
k
Mechanism.
"
o
f
socia
l
cohesion
.
Quit
e
th
e
contrary
,
th
e
kin
d
o
f
feedbac
k
mechanis
m
I
wil
l
explor
e
i
s
highl
y
dynami
c
an
d
highl
y
attenuate
d
t
o
th
e
complexitie
s
o
f
faction
-
alis
m
i
n
publi
c
culture
,
t
o
th
e
politic
s
o
f
institutiona
l
legitimacy
,
an
d
t
o
th
e
idi
-
osyncrasie
s
o
f
individua
l
intellectua
l
engagement
.
Thoroughl
y
contex
t
de
-
pendent
,
th
e
professiona
l
filterin
g
an
d
objectificatio
n
o
f
selecte
d
mode
s
o
f
everyda
y
differentiatio
n
int
o
naturalize
d
publi
c
knowledge
s
o
f
differenc
e
sug
-
ges
t
n
o
mor
e
tha
n
th
e
potentia
l
o
f
a
powerfu
l
syste
m
o
f
cultura
l
reproduction
.
I
t
i
s
onl
y
whe
n
share
d
ideologie
s
o
f
socia
l
belongin
g
an
d
socia
l
difference

crystallize
d
i
n
(1
)
publi
c
cultur
e
an
d
it
s
myria
d
representations
,
(2
)
profes
-
siona
l
standard
s
an
d
practices
,
an
d
(3
)
everyda
y
informa
l
distinction
s
o
f
sel
f
an
d
other—co-elaborat
e
on
e
anothe
r
tha
t
a
fundamenta
l
diversit
y
o
f
individua
l
permutation
s
o
f
broade
r
socia
l
knowledge
s
gravitat
e
aroun
d
preferred
,
domi
-
nan
t
typification
s
o
f
identit
y
an
d
alterity
.
I
n
thi
s
sense
,
wha
t
I
hav
e
i
n
min
d
i
s
a
mor
e
agent-centere
d
versio
n
o
f
Kar
l
Mannheim'
s
sociolog
y
o
f
knowledg
e
whereb
y
th
e
socia
l
"relationality
"
o
f
knowledg
e
formatio
n
return
s
a
s
a
n
explici
t
objec
t
o
f
ethnographi
c
interes
t
an
d
attentio
n
(1955:269-275)
,
Studyin
g
professiona
l
intellectua
l
practice
s
i
n
insti
-
tution
s
lik
e
school
s
an
d
th
e
mas
s
medi
a
a
s
mode
s
o
f
epistemi
c
accreditatio
n
an
d
reproductio
n
offer
s
insight
s
int
o
th
e
comple
x
socia
l
lif
e
an
d
historicit
y
o
f
identitie
s
an
d
alterities
.
Suc
h
a
n
approac
h
demonstrate
s
tha
t
identitie
s
an
d
al
-
teritie
s
ar
e
no
t
free-floatin
g
symbol
s
emanatin
g
fro
m
th
e
essence
s
o
f
socia
l
groups
.
T
o
th
e
contrary
,
i
t
show
s
u
s
tha
t
socia
l
knowledge
s
of
identit
y
an
d
al
-
terit
y
ar
e
th
e
crafte
d
product
s
o
f
cultura
l
specialist
s
whos
e
typifyin
g
symboli
c
form
s
testif
y
t
o
th
e
agency
,
interests
,
an
d
context
s
o
f
thei
r
makers
.
T
o
retur
n
t
o
th
e
ethnographi
c
cas
e
a
t
hand
,
i
n
thi
s
articl
e
I
wil
l
discus
s
thre
e
aspect
s
o
f
th
e
formatio
n
o
f
socia
l
knowledg
e
o
f
East/Wes
t
differenc
e
i
n
postunificatio
n
Germany
.
First
,
I
wil
l
tr
y
t
o
provid
e
som
e
sens
e
o
f
th
e
ubiquit
y
o
f
th
e
signification
s
of
,
an
d
attestation
s
to
,
thes
e
difference
s
i
n
everyda
y
lif
e
b
y
briefl
y
introducin
g
th
e
comple
x
semiotic
s
an
d
interest
s
involve
d
i
n
th
e
cul
-
tivatio
n
o
f
a
popularly
,
professionally
,
an
d
governmentall
y
acknowledge
d
KNOWLEDGE
S
O
F
DIFFHRENC
E
46
3
"Eas
t
Germa
n
identity
"
fixe
d
o
n
forme
r
citizen
s
o
f
th
e
Germa
n
Democrati
c
Republic
,
Second
,
I
wil
l
discus
s
th
e
institutiona
l
politic
s
an
d
phenomenolog
y
o
f
differenc
e
i
n
professiona
l
interaction
s
betwee
n
easter
n
an
d
wester
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
an
d
investigat
e
ho
w
ofte
n
unspoke
n
ye
t
structurall
y
legitimate
d
"facts
"
o
f
easternnes
s
an
d
westernnes
s
rationaliz
e
informa
l
East/Wes
t
differen
-
tiatio
n
int
o
a
putativel
y
objectiv
e
bifurcatio
n
o
f
professiona
l
competence
.
Fi
-
nally
,
t
o
answe
r
th
e
historica
l
questio
n
o
f
ho
w
East/Wes
t
distinction
s
origi
-
nate
d
an
d
hav
e
becom
e
s
o
viscera
l
an
d
widesprea
d
i
n
everyda
y
knowledge
s
o
f
sel
f
an
d
other
,
I
wil
l
explor
e
ho
w
contemporar
y
East/Wes
t
differentiatio
n
i
s
in
-
debte
d
t
o
th
e
Col
d
Wa
r
Germa
n
states
'
epistemi
c
strategie
s
o
f
distinguishin
g
on
e
ethnotypicall
y
positiv
e
Germa
n
rtation
fro
m
a
n
ethnotypicall
y
negativ
e
na
-
tiona
l
mirro
r
image
.
Th
e
articl
e
conclude
s
wit
h
th
e
argumen
t
tha
t
professiona
l
intellectua
l
labor
s
mediat
e
an
d
see
k
t
o
harmoniz
e
intuitiv
e
an
d
public
,
infor
-
ma
l
an
d
forma
l
knowledge
s
o
f
differenc
e
i
n
comple
x
societies
.
Sign
s
an
d
Shifter
s
o
f
East/Wes
t
Identitie
s
an
d
Alteritie
s
i
n
Postunificatio
n
German
y
Commo
n
wisdo
m
i
n
mos
t
socia
l
setting
s
i
n
German
y
hold
s
tha
t
Eas
t
Ger
-
man
s
an
d
Wes
t
German
s
ar
e
culturall
y
differen
t
fro
m
on
e
another
.
Eve
n
thoug
h
on
e
wa
s
hard-presse
d
t
o
fin
d
a
physica
l
remnan
t
o
f
th
e
Wal
l
i
n
late
-
1990
s
Berlin
,
a
perdurin
g
Mauer
im
Kopf
(wal
l
i
n
th
e
head
)
wa
s
sai
d
t
o
exist
.
Th
e
fac
t
o
f
Col
d
Wa
r
divisio
n
ha
d
le
d
t
o
th
e
fac
t
o
f
oppositiona
l
socialization
s
that
,
i
n
turn
,
ha
d
le
d
t
o
th
e
indisputabl
e
efflorescenc
e
o
f
tw
o
substantiv
e
ye
t
in
-
verte
d
"cultures
"
o
f
bein
g
German
.
Fo
r
th
e
visitin
g
ethnographer
,
publi
c
sign
s
an
d
expression
s
o
f
East/Wes
t
differenc
e
wer
e
har
d
t
o
miss
.
On
e
wa
s
literall
y
confronte
d
i
n
th
e
stree
t
wit
h
crim
e
bein
g
blame
d
o
n
"Eas
t
Germa
n
vandals"
o
r
wit
h
socia
l
malais
e
bein
g
impute
d
t
o
"Wes
t
Germa
n
politicians,
"
Whethe
r
indexe
d
i
n
informa
l
discus
-
sion
s
amon
g
friends
,
overhear
d
o
n
subwa
y
cars
,
o
r
encountere
d
i
n
newspape
r
headlines
,
"Eas
t
German
"
an
d
"Wes
t
German
"
identitie
s
an
d
alteritie
s
ar
e
sig
-
nifie
d
ubiquitously
,
an
d
thei
r
validit
y
a
s
a
logi
c
o
f
distinctio
n
i
s
virtuall
y
neve
r
publicl
y
contested
.
T
o
clarify
,
on
e
ma
y
quit
e
freel
y
contes
t
wha
t
i
t
mean
s
t
o
b
e
Eas
t
o
r
Wes
t
Germa
n
bu
t
no
t
th
e
socia
l
categorie
s
o
f
"easternness
"
an
d
"west
-
ernness
"
themselves
,
whic
h
ar
e
take
n
a
s
cardina
l
a
prioris
.
Indeed
,
East/Wes
t
(o
r
wha
t
I
ter
m
"longitudinal"
)
identificatio
n
i
s
a
commo
n
strateg
y
fo
r
th
e
dis
-
tinctio
n
o
f
socia
l
sel
f
fro
m
othe
r
i
n
a
multitud
e
o
f
differen
t
communicativ
e
situations
,
especiall
y
i
n
easter
n
Germany
,
wher
e
mos
t
German
s
repor
t
tha
t
dis
-
tinction
s
o
f
"East
"
an
d
"West
"
appea
r
mor
e
over
t
t
o
the
m
tha
n
i
n
th
e
territor
y
o
f
th
e
forme
r
Federa
l
Republic
.
Amon
g
friends
,
variation
s
o
n
th
e
stereotype
s
o
f
th
e
Jammerossi
(whin
y
Eas
t
German
)
an
d
th
e
Besserwessi
(know-it-al
l
Wes
t
German
)
aros
e
relativel
y
ofte
n
i
n
conversation
.
Fo
r
man
y
o
f
th
e
wester
n
German
s
I
knew
,
easter
n
German
y
remaine
d
th
e
byzantin
e
an
d
ominou
s
domai
n
i
t
ha
d
bee
n
fo
r
the
m
befor
e
1989
,
a
negativ
e
mirro
r
imagin
g
o
f
th
e
conceive
d
relations
,
qualities
,
an
d
standard
s
o
f
th
e
Wes
t
(se
e
als
o
Althau
s
1996)
.
Thus
,
fo
r
an
y
distinctio
n
o
f
selfhood
,
a
negativ
e
46
4
CULTURA
L
ANTHROPOLOG
Y
"Eas
t
German
"
inversio
n
coul
d
b
e
calle
d
int
o
play.
4
Thes
e
wer
e
articulate
d
i
n
mor
e
o
r
les
s
subtl
e
an
d
seriou
s
ways
:
I
t
wa
s
joke
d
tha
t
Eas
t
German
s
wer
e
some
-
wha
t
ape-lik
e
i
n
thei
r
clums
y
imitatio
n
o
f
wester
n
norm
s
or
,
mor
e
seriously
,
tha
t
the
y
wer
e
feminin
e
i
n
thei
r
socia
l
passivity
.
Species
,
racialized
,
an
d
gendere
d
idiom
s
furthe
r
clustere
d
aroun
d
th
e
axi
s
o
f
East/West
,
recallin
g
Sande
r
Gil
-
man'
s
wor
k
o
n
differenc
e
an
d
patholog
y
an
d
th
e
semioti
c
fluidit
y
wit
h
whic
h
al
-
ternativ
e
idiom
s
o
f
socia
l
differenc
e
coordinat
e
on
e
anothe
r
(1985),
5
M
y
easter
n
friend
s
an
d
interlocutor
s
meanwhil
e
routinel
y
indexe
d
th
e
fac
t
o
f
"westernness
"
t
o
contradistinguis
h
positiv
e
trait
s
o
f
selfhoo
d
fro
m
th
e
com
-
petitiv
e
an
d
hyperindividualisti
c
aspect
s
o
f
nationa
l
cultur
e
the
y
attribute
d
t
o
Wes
t
Germa
n
socialization
.
I
ofte
n
hear
d
tha
t
Wes
t
German
s
"wor
e
masks,
"
tha
t
thei
r
"wester
n
life
"
ha
d
mad
e
the
m
"harder
,
mor
e
distant
"
an
d
ha
d
give
n
the
m
"tha
t
awfu
l
qualit
y
o
f
westernness
:
n
o
capacit
y
fo
r
self-doubt,
"
Whe
n
Wes
t
German
s
wer
e
conversationall
y
denie
d
humanity
,
i
t
wa
s
o
n
th
e
basi
s
o
f
thei
r
mechanize
d
habit
s
o
f
accumulatio
n
an
d
consumptio
n
an
d
becaus
e
o
f
thei
r
putativ
e
inabilit
y
t
o
forg
e
genuin
e
empatheti
c
bond
s
wit
h
othe
r
person
s
be
-
caus
e
o
f
compulsiv
e
competitivenes
s
an
d
individuality,
6
Th
e
saturatio
n
o
f
sign
s
o
f
East/Wes
t
identit
y
an
d
alterit
y
i
n
everyda
y
life
,
alongsid
e
th
e
routin
e
relianc
e
o
n
East/Wes
t
distinctio
n
a
s
a
preferre
d
mod
e
fo
r
classifyin
g
an
d
interpretin
g
everyda
y
event
s
an
d
actions
,
woul
d
see
m
a
t
firs
t
glanc
e
t
o
suppor
t
th
e
commo
n
wisdo
m
tha
t
wha
t
i
s
occurrin
g
i
n
contemporar
y
German
y
i
s
th
e
informa
l
symboli
c
negotiatio
n
o
f
underlyin
g
cultura
l
differ
-
ence
s
tha
t
aros
e
fro
m
th
e
divide
d
pat
h
o
f
Col
d
Wa
r
socialization
.
Alon
g
thos
e
lines
,
psychologis
t
Stefa
n
Strohschneide
r
suggest
s
th
e
followin
g
"standard
"
guid
e
t
o
East/Wes
t
difference
.
Eve
n
a
s
thos
e
i
n
th
e
Eas
t
experience
d
th
e
behavio
r
o
f
th
e
Wes
t
German
s
a
s
marke
d
b
y
conquistadoria
l
arrogance
,
inconsiderat
e
destructiv
e
urges
,
an
d
a
n
egotistica
l
cravin
g
fo
r
persona
l
advantage
,
Wes
t
German
s
sa
w
i
n
Eas
t
German
s
a
hypocritica
l
doubl
e
morality
,
cowardl
y
peti
t
bourgeoi
s
dullnes
s
o
r
a
s
Erpenbec
k
an
d
Weinber
g
(1993:32
)
conclude
,
"
a
peculia
r
combinatio
n
o
f
post-authoritaria
n
moroseness
,
unjustifie
d
delusion
s
o
f
entitlemen
t
an
d
flaggin
g
persona
l
initiative.
"
[
1996:32
]
I
n
poin
t
o
f
fact
,
man
y
easter
n
an
d
wester
n
German
s
reflexivel
y
acknowledg
e
tha
t
bein
g
Eas
t
Germa
n
"means
"
something—suc
h
a
s
bein
g
mor
e
communi
-
tarian
,
mor
e
loca
l
minded
,
an
d
les
s
flexibl
e
tha
n
bein
g
Wes
t
German
,
Bu
t
th
e
distinction
s
d
o
no
t
en
d
here
.
Ther
e
i
s
n
o
bounde
d
se
t
o
f
associa-
tion
s
tha
t
define
s
th
e
"essence
"
o
f
easternnes
s
o
r
westernness
.
A
b
y
n
o
mean
s
exhaustiv
e
lis
t
o
f
association
s
I
recorde
d
durin
g
m
y
fiel
d
researc
h
woul
d
als
o
includ
e
th
e
following
:
Eas
t
i
s
t
o
Wes
t
a
s
formulai
c
i
s
t
o
creative
,
a
s
consensu
s
minde
d
i
s
t
o
conflic
t
minded
,
a
s
pessimisti
c
i
s
t
o
optimistic
,
a
s
backwar
d
i
s
t
o
cosmopolitan
,
a
s
deductiv
e
reasonin
g
i
s
t
o
inductiv
e
reasoning
,
a
s
eroti
c
i
s
t
o
unerotic
,
a
s
warmt
h
i
s
t
o
austerity
,
a
s
materna
l
i
s
t
o
paternal
,
a
s
idealis
m
i
s
t
o
pragmatism
.
Indeed
,
ther
e
ar
e
fe
w
othe
r
idiom
s
o
f
differentiatio
n
fo
r
whic
h
a
longitudina
l
homolog
y
canno
t
b
e
discerned
.
Th
e
historica
l
fac
t
o
f
Col
d
Wa
r
divisio
n
ha
s
bee
n
appropriate
d
t
o
organiz
e
a
n
entir
e
cosmolog
y
o
f
intrana
-
tiona
l
distinction
s
i
n
morality
,
behavior
,
an
d
character
.
KNOWLEDGE
S
O
F
DIFFERENC
E
46
5
Ther
e
ar
e
tw
o
point
s
t
o
b
e
mad
e
abou
t
thi
s
cosmolog
y
tha
t
ar
e
relevan
t
t
o
ou
r
discussion
.
Th
e
firs
t
i
s
t
o
emphasiz
e
tha
t
longitudina
l
differentiatio
n
oper
-
ate
s
lik
e
a
referentia
l
inde
x
o
r
"shifter
"
i
n
commo
n
usag
e
(Ga
l
1991:444
;
Sil
-
verstei
n
1976)
,
Tha
t
i
s
t
o
say
,
association
s
o
f
"easternness
"
an
d
"westernness
"
ar
e
primaril
y
indexica
l
rathe
r
tha
n
symbolic
,
an
d
thei
r
meanin
g
i
s
therefor
e
highl
y
dependen
t
o
n
communicativ
e
context
.
Willia
m
Hank
s
describe
s
"indexi
-
cal
"
feature
s
o
f
linguisti
c
significatio
n
a
s
thos
e
tha
t
reflec
t
th
e
heterogeneou
s
"contex
t
embeddedness
"
o
f
language
,
suc
h
a
s
pronoun
s
(we/they
)
an
d
spatia
l
deictic
s
(here/there
)
(1996:176-184).
7
Fo
r
m
y
purpose
,
th
e
genera
l
poin
t
o
f
emphasizin
g
th
e
indexicalit
y
o
f
East/Wes
t
distinctio
n
i
s
t
o
highligh
t
tha
t
neithe
r
"easternness
"
no
r
"westernness
"
predictabl
y
symbolize
s
a
give
n
se
t
o
f
distinc
-
tion
s
i
n
nature
.
Rather
,
thei
r
symboli
c
value
s
an
d
semantico-referentia
l
proper
-
tie
s
(ofte
n
glosse
d
a
s
"meaning"
)
ar
e
significantl
y
mutabl
e
an
d
shif
t
accordin
g
t
o
th
e
communicativ
e
context
s
i
n
whic
h
the
y
ar
e
employed
.
Yet
thi
s
i
s
no
t
ho
w
attribution
s
o
f
"easternness
"
an
d
"westernness
"
appea
r
t
o
socia
l
actor
s
wh
o
see
k
t
o
for
m
meaningfu
l
association
s
i
n
everyda
y
situ
-
ations
.
I
n
an
y
give
n
context
,
EastAVes
t
distinctio
n
appear
s
intrinsicall
y
an
d
generalizabl
y
meaningfu
l
t
o
it
s
articulators
.
Th
e
ideologica
l
fusio
n
o
f
th
e
func
-
tio
n
o
f
languag
e
(a
s
unmediate
d
reflectio
n
o
f
natura
l
reality
)
wit
h
th
e
semanti
c
conten
t
o
f
languag
e
(Eas
t
an
d
Wes
t
Germa
n
identitie
s
ar
e
stabl
e
marker
s
con
-
ditione
d
b
y
distinction
s
i
n
nature
)
occlude
s
th
e
contex
t
embeddednes
s
o
f
EastAVes
t
identitie
s
an
d
alteritie
s
behin
d
stereotypica
l
(an
d
thus
,
b
y
extension
,
metapragmaticall
y
"natural"
)
semanti
c
cluster
s
lik
e
wester
n
arroganc
e
o
r
east
-
er
n
docilit
y
(se
e
Silverstei
n
1979)
,
Therefore
,
th
e
commo
n
wisdo
m
tha
t
Eas
t
Germa
n
an
d
Wes
t
Germa
n
identitie
s
ar
e
symboli
c
expression
s
o
f
socialize
d
be
-
havior
s
o
r
essentia
l
cultura
l
distinctions-in-natur
e
i
s
ideologica
l
mor
e
tha
n
i
t
i
s
empirical
.
Cosmologica
l
knowledg
e
o
f
EastAVes
t
differenc
e
i
s
likewis
e
fore
-
mos
t
a
n
intersubjective
,
socia
l
knowledg
e
(tha
t
is
,
a
context-dependen
t
classi
-
ficator
y
knowledg
e
o
f
self/othe
r
relations)
.
Th
e
secon
d
poin
t
i
s
tha
t
th
e
reflexiv
e
"naturalness
"
o
f
thes
e
informa
l
dis
-
tinction
s
o
f
Eas
t
an
d
Wes
t
mask
s
a
vas
t
fiel
d
o
f
representationa
l
an
d
interpre
-
tiv
e
labor
s
tha
t
bot
h
optimaliz
e
particula
r
typifie
d
meaning
s
an
d
reproduc
e
the
m
i
n
semiosocia
l
practice
.
Again
,
commo
n
wisdo
m
woul
d
hol
d
tha
t
individ
-
ua
l
Germa
n
citizen
s
arriv
e
a
t
th
e
sam
e
kind
s
o
f
EastAVes
t
distinction
s
inde
-
pendentl
y
becaus
e
the
y
ca
n
al
l
recogniz
e
th
e
innat
e
cultura
l
difference
s
o
f
thei
r
brethre
n
fro
m
th
e
hithe
r
sid
e
o
f
th
e
Wall
.
Bu
t
i
t
i
s
m
y
contentio
n
tha
t
th
e
mov
e
t
o
classif
y
everyda
y
experience
s
an
d
relationship
s
i
n
longitudina
l
term
s
i
s
rooted
,
i
n
th
e
firs
t
place
,
i
n
th
e
saturatio
n
o
f
Germa
n
publi
c
cultur
e
wit
h
thes
e
sign
s
o
f
identit
y
an
d
alterity
.
Becaus
e
institution
s
o
f
Germa
n
publi
c
culture—specifically
,
i
n
thi
s
case
,
corporate
,
academic
,
media
,
an
d
governmenta
l
researc
h
an
d
publi
-
cation—issu
e
fort
h
a
continuou
s
strea
m
o
f
representation
s
o
f
everyda
y
lif
e
i
n
whic
h
EastAVes
t
differenc
e
i
s
a
prior
i
knowledge
,
longitudina
l
differentiatio
n
become
s
a
thoroughl
y
publicl
y
saturate
d
an
d
thu
s
ofte
n
intuitiv
e
mod
e
o
f
clas
-
sification
,
inference
,
an
d
judgment
.
46
6
CULTURA
L
ANTHROPOLOG
Y
Thus
,
thes
e
serialize
d
exper
t
representation
s
"fee
d
back,
"
a
s
discusse
d
above
,
int
o
th
e
constitutio
n
o
f
everyda
y
knowledg
e
an
d
judgment
s
o
f
differ
-
ence
,
an
d
vic
e
versa
.
Par
t
o
f
wha
t
make
s
academi
c
researc
h
o
n
East/Wes
t
rela
-
tion
s
an
d
difference
s
i
n
contemporar
y
German
y
suc
h
a
fruitfu
l
industr
y
i
s
th
e
pervasiv
e
an
d
reflexiv
e
natur
e
o
f
East/Wes
t
identification
s
an
d
distinction
s
i
n
setting
s
o
f
everyda
y
lif
e
i
n
Germany
.
I
n
exchange
,
accredite
d
knowledg
e
o
f
so
-
cia
l
differenc
e
produce
d
i
n
publi
c
cultura
l
institution
s
lik
e
universitie
s
an
d
th
e
mas
s
medi
a
b
y
professiona
l
intellectual
s
lik
e
researcher
s
an
d
journalist
s
help
s
stabiliz
e
an
d
prioritiz
e
everyday
longitudina
l
differentiation
,
givin
g
i
t
factua
l
"substance
"
an
d
validity
.
Exper
t
knowledg
e
an
d
everyda
y
knowledg
e
shar
e
a
certaint
y
tha
t
meaningful
,
generalizabl
e
East/Wes
t
cultura
l
differenc
e
i
s
real
.
Th
e
forme
r
grant
s
th
e
latte
r
exper
t
legitimation
,
whil
e
th
e
latte
r
buoy
s
th
e
for
-
me
r
wit
h
intuitiv
e
assumption
.
A
fe
w
concret
e
example
s
wil
l
b
e
helpfu
l
here
.
Th
e
industr
y
o
f
statistica
l
researc
h
o
n
German-Germa
n
difference
s
offer
s
perhap
s
th
e
cleares
t
example
s
o
f
ho
w
corporate
,
academic
,
an
d
governmenta
l
interest
s
hav
e
legitimate
d
a
widesprea
d
publi
c
perceptio
n
o
f
lingerin
g
East/Wes
t
differences
.
Corporat
e
re
-
searc
h
program
s
hav
e
activel
y
sough
t
t
o
objectif
y
"Eas
t
Germans"—i
f
ofte
n
wit
h
onl
y
limite
d
success—a
s
a
nich
e
consume
r
audienc
e
an
d
t
o
targe
t
the
m
wit
h
specia
l
produc
t
brand
s
aime
d
t
o
exploi
t
thei
r
presume
d
nostalgi
a
fo
r
pre
-
198
9
socia
l
relations
.
Wester
n
companie
s
hav
e
revive
d
GDR-er
a
brand
s
suc
h
a
s
Rotkappche
n
champagn
e
becaus
e
o
f
th
e
perceive
d
correlatio
n
betwee
n
th
e
"brand
"
o
f
Eas
t
Germa
n
identit
y
an
d
th
e
brand
s
o
f
GDR-er
a
production
.
Publi
c
polic
y
institute
s
meanwhil
e
hav
e
sough
t
t
o
locat
e
an
d
verif
y
stabl
e
trait
s
o
f
easternnes
s
an
d
westernnes
s
i
n
nearl
y
ever
y
domai
n
o
f
opinio
n
an
d
action,
8
On
e
surve
y
claime
d
t
o
offe
r
evidenc
e
o
f
East/Wes
t
aestheti
c
difference
s
wit
h
dat
a
suc
h
a
s
3
6
percen
t
o
f
Wes
t
German
s
foun
d
"tal
l
ol
d
trees
"
beautifu
l
a
s
op
-
pose
d
t
o
onl
y
2
5
percen
t
o
f
Eas
t
Germans
,
an
d
tha
t
1
8
percen
t
o
f
Eas
t
German
s
judge
d
"neo
n
advertising
"
beautifu
l
compare
d
wit
h
onl
y
6
percen
t
o
f
Wes
t
German
s
(Staa
b
1998:118)
,
Ten-poin
t
gap
s
i
n
surve
y
result
s
ar
e
routinel
y
take
n
a
s
evidenc
e
o
f
broa
d
an
d
significan
t
longitudina
l
difference
s
i
n
behavior
,
character
,
an
d
opinion
.
M
y
concer
n
i
s
no
t
t
o
debun
k
th
e
existenc
e
o
f
suc
h
cor
-
relation
s
o
r
eve
n
th
e
method
s
use
d
t
o
obtai
n
th
e
dat
a
(almos
t
entirel
y
multiple
-
choic
e
surveys)
;
rather
,
m
y
concer
n
i
s
t
o
poin
t
ou
t
tha
t
thi
s
kin
d
o
f
intellectua
l
labo
r
i
s
spinnin
g
golde
n
knowledg
e
o
f
generalizabl
e
differenc
e
an
d
semanti
c
determinance
fro
m
th
e
stra
w
of
,
a
t
best
,
partia
l
an
d
ambiguou
s
associations
.
Anothe
r
stud
y
concluded
,
fo
r
example
,
tha
t
"i
n
th
e
forme
r
GDR
,
th
e
feeling
s
o
f
disorientation
,
senselessness
,
lonelines
s
an
d
anxiet
y
ar
e
mor
e
widesprea
d
tha
n
i
n
th
e
west
"
(Landu
a
1993:102)
,
base
d
o
n
result
s
o
f
a
surve
y
o
f
anxiet
y
symptom
s
suc
h
a
s
1
7
percen
t
o
f
Eas
t
German
s
reportin
g
tha
t
the
y
wer
e
"con
-
stantl
y
keye
d
u
p
an
d
jittery
"
compare
d
wit
h
1
2
percen
t
o
f
Wes
t
Germans
.
I
n
a
mor
e
damnin
g
indictment
,
a
recen
t
social-psychologica
l
stud
y
con
-
cluded
,
base
d
o
n
th
e
result
s
o
f
a
compute
r
diagnostic
,
tha
t
Eas
t
German
s
wer
e
"reactiv
e
minded
"
an
d
"formulaic
"
i
n
thei
r
problem-solvin
g
abilitie
s
i
n
com
-
pariso
n
wit
h
mor
e
creativ
e
Wes
t
Germa
n
proble
m
solver
s
(Strohschneide
r
KNOWLEDGE
S
O
F
DIFFERENC
E
46
7
1996.92-95)
,
Thi
s
stud
y
pointe
d
t
o
difference
s
i
n
"dee
p
consciousnes
s
struc
-
tures
"
betwee
n
Eas
t
an
d
Wes
t
German
s
tha
t
mediate
d
decision-makin
g
action
s
that
,
i
n
turn
,
wer
e
sai
d
t
o
b
e
indebte
d
t
o
stabl
e
difference
s
i
n
Kultur
(culture
)
tha
t
ha
d
cultivate
d
divergen
t
cognitiv
e
paradigm
s
an
d
abilities
.
Likewise
,
mas
s
medi
a
representation
s
o
f
longitudina
l
differenc
e
ar
e
rou
-
tinel
y
wove
n
aroun
d
academi
c
an
d
governmenta
l
finding
s
an
d
provid
e
a
con
-
dui
t
fo
r
thei
r
determination
s
o
f
th
e
factualit
y
o
f
easter
n
differenc
e
t
o
b
e
dis
-
seminate
d
widel
y
an
d
i
n
seria
l
form
.
Th
e
weekl
y
Die
Wochenpost,
whic
h
befor
e
it
s
demis
e
i
n
199
7
advertise
d
itsel
f
a
s
a
periodica
l
specializin
g
i
n
th
e
ex
-
ploratio
n
o
f
EastAVes
t
relations
,
printe
d
a
s
it
s
"Fac
t
o
f
th
e
Week
"
fo
r
Septem
-
be
r
12
,
1996
,
tha
t
"6
6
Percen
t
o
f
al
l
Eas
t
German
s
ar
e
afrai
d
o
f
bein
g
deceived
,
swindled
,
beate
n
o
r
raped
"
(1996:24)
,
On
e
wonders
,
I
s
th
e
reade
r
mean
t
t
o
ex
-
trapolat
e
tha
t
suc
h
anxietie
s
ar
e
pathological
,
tha
t
Wes
t
German
s
neve
r
fea
r
be
-
in
g
beate
n
o
r
raped
,
o
r
both
?
Th
e
circulatio
n
o
f
suc
h
allege
d
statistica
l
truth
s
(i
n
thi
s
case
,
th
e
origi
n
o
f
th
e
dat
a
wa
s
no
t
eve
n
cited
)
i
n
complet
e
absenc
e
o
f
contextua
l
explanatio
n
demonstrate
s
ho
w
fluidl
y
"objectiv
e
reportage
"
aid
s
th
e
objectiticatio
n
an
d
codificatio
n
o
f
intuitiv
e
assumption
.
And
,
beyon
d
statistica
l
distillation
s
o
f
difference
,
qualitativ
e
academi
c
narrative
s
furthe
r
elaborat
e
a
n
epistemi
c
backdro
p
conduciv
e
t
o
generalize
d
assumption
s
o
f
EastAVes
t
identite
s
an
d
alterities
.
Withi
n
th
e
historiograph
y
o
f
Germa
n
unification
,
fo
r
example
,
ther
e
i
s
somethin
g
ver
y
lik
e
a
maste
r
outlin
e
structure
d
aroun
d
a
tid
y
historica
l
teleology.
9
I
n
it
s
firs
t
phase
,
pre-198
9
social
-
izatio
n
i
n
th
e
tw
o
Germany
s
impose
s
differen
t
expectations
,
lifestyles
,
values
,
an
d
identitie
s
o
n
th
e
citizen
s
o
f
eac
h
state
.
I
n
th
e
secon
d
phase
,
th
e
euphori
c
perio
d
durin
g
1989
,
German-Germa
n
"sameness
"
prove
s
itsel
f
t
o
b
e
fleetin
g
a
s
a
n
economi
c
prosperit
y
ga
p
rise
s
betwee
n
Eas
t
an
d
Wes
t
i
n
199
0
that
,
couple
d
wit
h
skyrocketin
g
easter
n
unemployment
,
generate
s
a
n
atmospher
e
o
f
risin
g
alienatio
n
an
d
dissatisfactio
n
withi
n
th
e
easter
n
Germa
n
populace.
1
0
Finally
,
a
s
alienatio
n
intensifies
,
longitudina
l
relation
s
i
n
German
y
ente
r
thei
r
mos
t
recen
t
phase
:
antagonism
.
Anxiou
s
an
d
unemploye
d
forme
r
GD
R
citizen
s
begi
n
t
o
accus
e
thei
r
wester
n
counterpart
s
o
f
duplicit
y
an
d
eve
n
deliberat
e
malfeasanc
e
i
n
thei
r
incapacit
y
t
o
fulfil
l
th
e
gloriou
s
promise
s
o
f
1989
.
Stun
g
b
y
suc
h
insinu
-
ations
,
wester
n
German
s
i
n
tur
n
accus
e
thei
r
easter
n
counterpart
s
o
f
ungrate
-
fulness
,
naiv
e
expectations
,
an
d
a
n
instinctiv
e
longin
g
fo
r
th
e
retur
n
o
f
Stalinism
.
Politica
l
scientis
t
Andrea
s
Staa
b
furthe
r
emphasizes
,
a
s
man
y
socia
l
scientist
s
do
,
tha
t
th
e
GD
R
stat
e
inculcate
d
value
s
o
r
"traits
"
o
f
harmony
,
sub
-
sidy
,
an
d
communalit
y
i
n
it
s
citizen
s
tha
t
stoo
d
profoundl
y
a
t
odd
s
wit
h
th
e
de
-
mand
s
o
f
wha
t
h
e
term
s
th
e
"Wester
n
culture
"
o
f
"individuality
,
performance
,
flexibilit
y
an
d
mobility
"
(1998:156).
1
1
Thus
,
th
e
standar
d
outlin
e
provide
s
a
n
encompassin
g
social-historica
l
ra
-
tional
e
fo
r
an
y
informa
l
knowledg
e
o
f
EastAVes
t
differenc
e
on
e
migh
t
desir
e
t
o
verify
.
Th
e
outlin
e
explain
s
tha
t
compulsiv
e
negotiation
s
o
f
differenc
e
aris
e
naturall
y
a
s
reflection
s
o
f
th
e
unhapp
y
historica
l
juxtapositio
n
o
f
a
n
Eas
t
Germa
n
"culture
"
o
f
socialis
m
int
o
th
e
Wes
t
Germa
n
institutional
,
social
,
an
d
eco
-
nomi
c
"culture
"
o
f
capitalism.
1
2
46
8
CULTURA
L
ANTHROPOLOG
Y
T
o
summarize
,
Germa
n
publi
c
cultura
l
institution
s
hav
e
assiduousl
y
gen
-
erate
d
vas
t
field
s
o
f
cross-reference
d
qualitativ
e
an
d
quantitativ
e
knowledg
e
o
f
East/Wes
t
difference
.
I
n
turn
,
thi
s
knowledg
e
i
s
filtere
d
i
n
seria
l
fashio
n
int
o
othe
r
subsidiar
y
system
s
o
f
circulatio
n
suc
h
a
s
medi
a
reports
,
stat
e
initiative
s
o
f
retrainin
g
an
d
reeducatin
g
easter
n
Germans
,
an
d
corporat
e
advertisin
g
strategie
s
that
,
al
l
take
n
together
,
represen
t
a
powerfu
l
semiosocia
l
resourc
e
fo
r
th
e
reproductio
n
o
f
accredite
d
socia
l
knowledg
e
o
f
East/Wes
t
difference
.
Whe
n
readin
g
statistica
l
analyse
s
o
r
watchin
g
th
e
nightl
y
new
s
continuousl
y
condition
s
th
e
reade
r
o
r
viewe
r
t
o
accep
t
th
e
factualit
y
o
f
East/Wes
t
difference
,
i
t
i
s
perhap
s
no
t
difficul
t
t
o
imagin
e
why
,
i
n
a
n
everyda
y
momen
t
o
f
outrage
,
a
wester
n
citize
n
conjure
s
th
e
epithe
t
o
f
"Eas
t
Germa
n
vandal
"
t
o
integrat
e
hi
s
o
r
he
r
emotion
s
wit
h
th
e
powerfu
l
indexica
l
an
d
semanti
c
potential
s
o
f
th
e
longi
-
tudina
l
idiom
.
I
n
othe
r
words
,
th
e
shee
r
ubiquit
y
o
f
sign
s
o
f
differenc
e
make
s
i
t
difficul
t
bot
h
no
t
t
o
assum
e
tha
t
East/Wes
t
reflect
s
a
natura
l
ontolog
y
o
f
differ
-
enc
e
an
d
no
t
t
o
acknowledg
e
th
e
optimalit
y
o
f
utilizin
g
longitudina
l
distinc
-
tion
s
t
o
situat
e
one'
s
selfhoo
d
i
n
a
meaningfu
l
context
.
Th
e
questio
n
ma
y
b
e
fairl
y
asked
:
Bu
t
i
s
th
e
typificatio
n
o
f
longitudina
l
differenc
e
no
t
simpl
y
a
functio
n
o
f
wester
n
Germa
n
hegemon
y
i
n
th
e
postunifi
-
catio
n
reconstruction
?
I
t
seem
s
clea
r
i
n
man
y
o
f
th
e
example
s
I
hav
e
offere
d
tha
t
th
e
"Eas
t
German
"
i
s
bein
g
positione
d
no
t
onl
y
a
s
differen
t
bu
t
als
o
a
s
de
-
ficien
t
wit
h
respec
t
t
o
th
e
"Wes
t
German/
'
I
n
practice
,
East/Wes
t
differentia
-
tio
n
ha
s
indee
d
helpe
d
legitimat
e
th
e
politic
s
o
f
Germa
n
unificatio
n
a
s
a
west
-
er
n
projec
t
o
f
civilizin
g
th
e
morall
y
an
d
culturall
y
bankrupte
d
East
,
An
d
yet
,
a
s
w
e
als
o
hav
e
seen
,
exper
t
knowledg
e
o
f
German-Germa
n
alteritie
s
mirror
s
strategie
s
o
f
identificatio
n
tha
t
ar
e
alread
y
practice
d
b
y
bot
h
easter
n
an
d
west
-
er
n
German
s
i
n
everyda
y
sociolinguisti
c
interactions
.
Thus
,
th
e
proble
m
i
s
no
t
quit
e
s
o
simpl
e
a
s
th
e
argumen
t
tha
t
wester
n
German
s
mobiliz
e
thei
r
superio
r
acces
s
t
o
institutiona
l
system
s
o
f
socia
l
reproductio
n
lik
e
school
s
an
d
th
e
me
-
di
a
t
o
perpetuat
e
stereotype
s
o
f
Eas
t
Germa
n
inferiorit
y
t
o
maintai
n
thei
r
socia
l
hegemon
y
i
n
easter
n
Germany
.
Tha
t
easter
n
German
s
us
e
thes
e
sam
e
strategie
s
o
f
stereotypificatio
n
t
o
positivel
y
differentiat
e
themselve
s
fro
m
"Wes
t
Germans
"
suggest
s
tha
t
East/Wes
t
differentiatio
n
i
s
mor
e
complexl
y
wove
n
int
o
Germa
n
collectiv
e
identit
y
an
d
it
s
indexica
l
stabilization
s
tha
n
th
e
politica
l
hegemon
y
mode
l
woul
d
lea
d
u
s
t
o
believe
.
I
n
othe
r
words
,
th
e
socia
l
categorie
s
o
f
"Eas
t
German
"
an
d
"Wes
t
German
"
ar
e
comfortabl
y
establishe
d
a
s
natura
l
historica
l
variation
s
i
n
a
mor
e
broadl
y
share
d
intuitio
n
o
f
socia
l
belongin
g
a
s
Kultur—i
n
th
e
sens
e
o
f
"culture
"
understoo
d
a
s
a
bounded
,
reproducing
,
linguisticall
y
sus
-
tained
,
an
d
referentiall
y
conservativ
e
mod
e
o
f
belonging.
1
3
East/Wes
t
differenc
e
i
s
experience
d
a
s
a
natura
l
for
m
o
f
cultura
l
difference
,
no
t
simpl
y
a
s
th
e
produc
t
o
f
wester
n
colonia
l
authority
.
Th
e
Intimat
e
Experienc
e
an
d
Objectificatio
n
o
f
Differenc
e
i
n
th
e
Wor
k
Worl
d
o
f
a
n
Intellectua
l
Professio
n
Ho
w
an
d
wh
y
d
o
informa
l
distinction
s
o
f
selve
s
an
d
other
s
becom
e
for
-
malize
d
int
o
objectiv
e
knowledge
s
o
f
differenc
e
throug
h
professiona
l
intellectua
l
KNOWLEDGE
S
O
F
DIFFERENC
E
46
9
labors
?
A
s
I
hav
e
proposed
,
publi
c
cultura
l
institution
s
suc
h
a
s
mas
s
medi
a
or
-
ganization
s
an
d
universitie
s
ar
e
significantl
y
responsibl
e
fo
r
bot
h
formalizin
g
an
d
accreditin
g
informa
l
knowledge
s
o
f
identit
y
difference
.
No
w
w
e
mus
t
loo
k
mor
e
closel
y
int
o
th
e
dynamic
s
o
f
th
e
professiona
l
intellectua
l
workplac
e
t
o
understan
d
th
e
actua
l
context
s
wherei
n
knowledge
s
o
f
differenc
e
ar
e
rational
-
ize
d
an
d
codifie
d
b
y
socia
l
actor
s
whos
e
ow
n
dail
y
live
s
intersec
t
field
s
o
f
bot
h
professiona
l
expertis
e
an
d
commo
n
wisdom
.
W
e
mus
t
pee
r
behin
d
th
e
man
y
layer
s
o
f
textualit
y
i
n
publi
c
cultur
e
a
t
th
e
professiona
l
relation
s
an
d
intra
-
organizationa
l
dynamic
s
tha
t
conditio
n
ho
w
publi
c
cultura
l
form
s
lik
e
medi
a
report
s
ar
e
composed
,
selected
,
an
d
disseminated
.
Observin
g
th
e
dail
y
interaction
s
o
f
easter
n
an
d
wester
n
Germa
n
journal
-
ist
s
workin
g
sid
e
b
y
sid
e
i
n
Germa
n
medi
a
organizations
,
I
wa
s
ofte
n
struc
k
that
,
contrar
y
t
o
communicativ
e
conventio
n
outsid
e
th
e
newsroom
,
longitudi
-
na
l
differentiatio
n
an
d
identificatio
n
seeme
d
hardl
y
present
.
I
t
i
s
extraordinar
-
il
y
rar
e
t
o
hea
r
a
journalis
t
openl
y
referre
d
t
o
b
y
colleague
s
a
s
bein
g
"Eas
t
Ger
-
man
"
o
r
"Wes
t
German
"
o
r
t
o
hea
r
East/Wes
t
difference
s
discusse
d
audibl
y
i
n
workplac
e
settings
.
Whe
n
bot
h
easter
n
an
d
wester
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
dis
-
cusse
d
th
e
ubiquit
y
o
f
East/Wes
t
stereotypin
g
i
n
Germa
n
societ
y
a
t
large
,
the
y
usuall
y
expresse
d
disdai
n
fo
r
suc
h
crud
e
generalization
s
an
d
argue
d
tha
t
jour
-
nalis
m
i
s
th
e
kin
d
o
f
professio
n
i
n
whic
h
suc
h
obsession
s
wit
h
differenc
e
ar
e
ill-afforded
.
Journalist
s
wor
k
closel
y
togethe
r
i
n
teams
,
unde
r
sever
e
tim
e
con
-
straints
,
and—a
s
I
hear
d
agai
n
an
d
again—ther
e
i
s
n
o
tim
e
an
d
les
s
energ
y
fo
r
talkin
g
abou
t
th
e
past
.
Journalisti
c
professiona
l
standard
s
o
f
achievement
,
i
t
wa
s
said
,
wer
e
no
t
influence
d
b
y
"Col
d
Wa
r
mentality
"
an
d
applie
d
equall
y
t
o
bot
h
easter
n
an
d
wester
n
journalists
.
A
s
on
e
youn
g
journalis
t
pu
t
i
t
t
o
me
,
"Ther
e
aren't
,
i
n
m
y
opinion
,
Eas
t
an
d
Wes
t
Germa
n
journalist
s
an
y
longer
,
onl
y
goo
d
an
d
ba
d
journalists
,
an
d
the
n
i
t
doesn'
t
matte
r
wher
e
the
y
com
e
from.
"
Explicitly
,
withi
n
professiona
l
discours
e
i
n
easter
n
Germa
n
medi
a
institu
-
tions
,
th
e
identit
y
o
f
professiona
l
fraternit
y
i
s
mean
t
t
o
supersed
e
th
e
axi
s
o
f
longi
-
tudina
l
differentiation
.
East/Wes
t
logi
c
i
s
commonl
y
hel
d
t
o
b
e
a
nonprofes
-
sional
,
indeed
,
a
vulgar
,
interpretiv
e
resourc
e
fo
r
classificatio
n
an
d
judgment
.
Ye
t
th
e
socia
l
situatio
n
o
f
easter
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
withi
n
professiona
l
jour
-
nalis
m
sinc
e
199
0
ha
s
no
t
bee
n
a
s
equitabl
e
a
s
thes
e
over
t
description
s
o
f
pro
-
fessiona
l
convivialit
y
purport
.
Th
e
lac
k
o
f
ope
n
significatio
n
o
f
longitudina
l
differenc
e
i
n
th
e
newsroom
s
o
f
easter
n
German
y
ha
s
(1
)
historica
l
contingenc
y
i
n
th
e
unfoldin
g
o
f
th
e
unificatio
n
proces
s
o
f
th
e
tw
o
Germa
n
medi
a
sys
-
tem
s
sinc
e
1990
,
(2
)
institutiona
l
contingenc
y
i
n
th
e
hierarchica
l
socia
l
re
-
lationship
s
betwee
n
easter
n
an
d
wester
n
German
s
i
n
mos
t
medi
a
institutions
,
an
d
(3
)
professiona
l
contingenc
y
i
n
a
naturalize
d
bifurcatio
n
o
f
jurisdictio
n
an
d
expertis
e
alon
g
longitudina
l
lines
.
A
s
on
e
scratche
s
beneat
h
th
e
surfac
e
o
f
professiona
l
collegiality
,
on
e
find
s
a
familia
r
intimat
e
socia
l
knowledg
e
o
f
dif
-
ferenc
e
mute
d
b
y
a
professiona
l
cod
e
o
f
silenc
e
tha
t
police
s
an
y
spoke
n
chal
-
leng
e
t
o
th
e
workplac
e
social-politica
l
statu
s
quo
.
Lik
e
mos
t
forme
r
GD
R
institutions
,
th
e
GD
R
broadcas
t
an
d
prin
t
medi
a
network
s
wer
e
assimilate
d
t
o
wester
n
Germa
n
standard
s
i
n
th
e
firs
t
fe
w
year
s
47
0
CULTURA
L
ANTHROPOLOG
Y
afte
r
Germa
n
unification
.
Th
e
reform
s
tha
t
easter
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
ha
d
themselve
s
initiate
d
throug
h
grassroot
s
uprising
s
i
n
thei
r
institution
s
durin
g
th
e
fal
l
o
f
1989
,
whe
n
th
e
socialis
t
comman
d
apparatu
s
o
f
medi
a
productio
n
wa
s
rapidl
y
dismantled
,
wer
e
largel
y
tertiar
y
t
o
th
e
unificatio
n
proces
s
o
f
th
e
GD
R
an
d
FR
G
medi
a
systems
.
Ther
e
wa
s
littl
e
questio
n
o
f
a
n
easter
n
Germa
n
"thir
d
way
"
o
f
socialis
t
journalis
m
bein
g
seriousl
y
countenanced
.
Instead
,
a
complet
e
transpositio
n
o
f
th
e
GD
R
medi
a
t
o
wester
n
Germa
n
institutiona
l
an
d
professiona
l
styles
,
standards
,
an
d
system
s
wa
s
undertake
n
(se
e
Sandfor
d
1995)
.
GD
R
televisio
n
an
d
radi
o
station
s
wer
e
full
y
integrate
d
int
o
th
e
FR
G
publi
c
radi
o
syste
m
a
s
o
f
Januar
y
1
,
1993
,
an
d
mos
t
forme
r
GD
R
stat
e
an
d
part
y
prin
t
medi
a
organization
s
entere
d
int
o
partnershi
p
agreement
s
wit
h
FRG
-
base
d
medi
a
conglomerates
,
som
e
o
f
the
m
a
s
earl
y
a
s
th
e
firs
t
hal
f
o
f
1990
.
Af
-
te
r
unification
,
al
l
GD
R
stat
e
property
,
includin
g
medi
a
institutions
,
wa
s
trans
-
ferre
d
int
o
a
n
enormou
s
holdin
g
company
,
th
e
Treuhand
,
whic
h
wa
s
responsibl
e
fo
r
matchin
g
easter
n
investmen
t
opportunitie
s
wit
h
responsibl
e
wester
n
investors
.
Th
e
politic
s
o
f
th
e
Treuhan
d
i
s
a
n
articl
e
i
n
itself
,
bu
t
i
n
th
e
prin
t
medi
a
domai
n
ther
e
i
s
significan
t
evidence
,
includin
g
off-the-recor
d
tes
-
timon
y
I
wa
s
give
n
b
y
wester
n
Germa
n
medi
a
consultants
,
tha
t
th
e
majo
r
west
-
er
n
Germa
n
medi
a
conglomerate
s
quietl
y
agree
d
t
o
divid
e
u
p
th
e
regiona
l
newspape
r
marke
t
o
f
th
e
forme
r
GD
R
s
o
a
s
t
o
rewar
d
themselve
s
wit
h
lucra
-
tiv
e
newspape
r
monopolies,
1
4
Wha
t
followe
d
th
e
buyout
s
o
f
th
e
easter
n
prin
t
medi
a
an
d
th
e
governmen
-
ta
l
takeove
r
o
f
th
e
easter
n
broadcastin
g
medi
a
wa
s
a
n
intensiv
e
perio
d
o
f
pro
-
fessiona
l
Umerziehung
(reeducation
)
i
n
whic
h
wester
n
Germa
n
manager
s
largel
y
replace
d
easter
n
Germa
n
chie
f
editor
s
an
d
manageria
l
staff
s
an
d
en
-
tere
d
int
o
a
cras
h
cours
e
i
n
reprofessionalizatio
n
t
o
wester
n
standard
s
o
f
prac
-
tice
.
Th
e
wester
n
journalist
s
wh
o
cam
e
Eas
t
afte
r
199
0
mos
t
ofte
n
di
d
s
o
ou
t
o
f
a
genuin
e
commitmen
t
t
o
"th
e
rebuildin
g
o
f
th
e
East
"
wit
h
th
e
hel
p
o
f
thei
r
wester
n
know-how
.
Yet
,
a
s
on
e
easter
n
Germa
n
radi
o
journalis
t
recalle
d
t
o
m
e
i
n
a
n
interview
,
som
e
o
f
th
e
wester
n
journalist
s
"didn'
t
kno
w
wha
t
t
o
expect
.
The
y
though
t
they'
d
fin
d
a
bunc
h
o
f
Stalinis
t
functionarie
s
wh
o
didn'
t
eve
n
kno
w
ho
w
t
o
spea
k
int
o
microphone
s
properly
.
S
o
the
y
initiall
y
ha
d
a
ver
y
ar
-
rogan
t
attitud
e
abou
t
us.
"
Journalist
s
o
f
al
l
origin
s
describe
d
th
e
perio
d
fro
m
roughl
y
199
1
t
o
199
4
a
s
rif
e
wit
h
al
l
manne
r
o
f
professiona
l
an
d
persona
l
ten
-
sion
,
misunderstanding
,
excitement
,
disappointment
,
an
d
conflict
.
Mos
t
senio
r
forme
r
GD
R
journalists
,
especiall
y
thos
e
ove
r
th
e
ag
e
o
f
50
,
wer
e
encourage
d
t
o
retir
e
o
r
wer
e
lai
d
off
.
Overall
,
journalist
s
"wh
o
coul
d
no
t
adjus
t
t
o
th
e
ne
w
system
"
o
r
"wh
o
ha
d
to
o
muc
h
o
f
thei
r
live
s
investe
d
i
n
th
e
ol
d
system,
"
a
s
presentl
y
employe
d
journalist
s
explaine
d
i
t
t
o
me
,
wer
e
graduall
y
le
t
g
o
an
d
re
-
place
d
b
y
wester
n
German
s
o
r
younge
r
easter
n
German
s
wh
o
wer
e
no
t
per
-
ceive
d
t
o
b
e
tainte
d
b
y
a
pre-198
9
professionalizatio
n
a
s
"agitators
,
propagan
-
dists
,
an
d
organizer
s
o
f
th
e
part
y
o
f
th
e
workin
g
class."
1
5
Ther
e
i
s
als
o
evidenc
e
that
,
i
n
som
e
medi
a
organizations
,
questionnaire
s
an
d
review
s
o
f
GDR-er
a
portfolio
s
wer
e
use
d
t
o
determin
e
tha
t
easter
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
wer
e
"to
o
red
"
t
o
b
e
rehabilitate
d
t
o
democrati
c
journalis
m
afte
r
1989.
1
6
KNOWLEDGE
S
O
F
DIFFERENC
E
47
1
Afte
r
1995
,
th
e
structura
l
an
d
institutiona
l
feature
s
o
f
postsocialis
t
transi
-
tio
n
ha
d
stabilize
d
a
t
mos
t
medi
a
organizations
.
Ne
w
capita
l
investment
s
ha
d
bee
n
mad
e
b
y
wester
n
owner
s
t
o
updat
e
newsroo
m
technolog
y
an
d
printin
g
an
d
broadcas
t
facilities
.
Ne
w
editoria
l
team
s
wer
e
i
n
place
;
ne
w
layout
s
ha
d
bee
n
completed—an
d
th
e
easter
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
wh
o
remaine
d
wer
e
a
highl
y
self-selecte
d
grou
p
o
f
individual
s
wh
o
eithe
r
activel
y
encourage
d
th
e
rapi
d
impositio
n
o
f
wester
n
journalisti
c
model
s
o
r
wh
o
a
t
leas
t
di
d
no
t
criticiz
e
i
t
openly
.
I
n
2000,
1
woul
d
estimat
e
tha
t
fewe
r
tha
n
one-thir
d
o
f
th
e
journalist
s
wh
o
hel
d
fixed-contrac
t
position
s
i
n
th
e
GD
R
medi
a
i
n
198
9
(som
e
eigh
t
t
o
te
n
thousan
d
individuals
)
continu
e
t
o
b
e
practicin
g
journalist
s
i
n
an
y
capacity
.
Pre
-
cis
e
employmen
t
statistic
s
ar
e
difficul
t
t
o
determine
,
however
,
becaus
e
o
f
th
e
larg
e
numbe
r
o
f
forme
r
GD
R
journalist
s
wh
o
no
w
wor
k
a
s
freelancers
,
com
-
binin
g
professiona
l
writin
g
wit
h
othe
r
labor
.
Th
e
complet
e
economi
c
contro
l
o
f
wester
n
German
s
ove
r
th
e
managemen
t
o
f
th
e
easter
n
Germa
n
medi
a
ha
s
translate
d
int
o
explici
t
wester
n
Germa
n
socia
l
an
d
institutiona
l
contro
l
ove
r
mos
t
easter
n
Germa
n
medi
a
institutions
,
wit
h
onl
y
a
fe
w
exception
s
i
n
th
e
prin
t
medi
a
domain.
1
7
Wester
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
stil
l
overwhelmingl
y
occup
y
th
e
highe
r
editoria
l
rank
s
(publisher
,
chie
f
editor
,
assistan
t
chie
f
editor
,
departmen
t
head
)
a
t
mos
t
easter
n
Germa
n
medi
a
institu
-
tions
,
eve
n
thoug
h
man
y
openl
y
expresse
d
t
o
m
e
thei
r
feeling
s
o
f
alienatio
n
fro
m
easter
n
value
s
an
d
socia
l
life
.
Thi
s
account
s
i
n
par
t
fo
r
wh
y
wester
n
Ger
-
ma
n
journalist
s
a
t
easter
n
Germa
n
medi
a
institution
s
ofte
n
represen
t
a
semi
-
itineran
t
cast
e
tha
t
maintain
s
household
s
i
n
wester
n
German
y
an
d
the
n
com
-
mute
s
t
o
easter
n
job
s
tha
t
ar
e
ofte
n
severa
l
hour
s
away
.
Wester
n
journalist
s
ten
d
t
o
rotat
e
i
n
an
d
ou
t
o
f
position
s
i
n
easter
n
Germany
,
usuall
y
fo
r
contract
s
o
f
les
s
tha
n
fiv
e
years,
an
d
the
n
retur
n
t
o
othe
r
institution
s
owne
d
b
y
th
e
sam
e
medi
a
group
.
I
n
thi
s
sense
,
easter
n
German
y
i
s
stil
l
identifie
d
a
s
a
"bus
h
post
"
fo
r
man
y
wester
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
wh
o
expec
t
t
o
b
e
compensate
d
fo
r
thei
r
demonstratio
n
o
f
organizationa
l
loyalt
y
an
d
commitment
.
Easter
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
meanwhil
e
experienc
e
a
fa
r
mor
e
limite
d
de
-
gre
e
o
f
jo
b
mobilit
y
an
d
decision-makin
g
authority
.
Althoug
h
certai
n
individu
-
al
s
hav
e
advance
d
a
s
fa
r
a
s
chie
f
editoria
l
o
r
assistan
t
chie
f
editoria
l
post
s
i
n
som
e
medi
a
institutions
,
th
e
majorit
y
o
f
easter
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
ar
e
awar
e
o
f
unspoke
n
glas
s
ceiling
s
(especiall
y
fo
r
olde
r
easter
n
Germa
n
journalists)
.
Thes
e
barrier
s
t
o
vertica
l
mobilit
y
normall
y
limi
t
easter
n
German
s
t
o
lowe
r
statu
s
position
s
suc
h
a
s
departmen
t
head
,
assistan
t
departmen
t
head
,
an
d
jour
-
nalist—no
t
t
o
mentio
n
th
e
abundanc
e
o
f
easter
n
Germa
n
freelanc
e
journalist
s
wh
o
ar
e
pai
d
o
n
a
per-contrac
t
basi
s
an
d
receiv
e
non
e
o
f
th
e
generou
s
benefi
t
package
s
accruin
g
t
o
fixed-contrac
t
journalists
.
A
t
mos
t
easter
n
Germa
n
medi
a
institutions
,
easter
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
hav
e
attaine
d
a
somewha
t
subalter
n
for
m
o
f
jo
b
stabilit
y
i
n
th
e
lat
e
1990s
,
conditione
d
b
y
a
relativel
y
stabl
e
labo
r
marke
t
i
n
th
e
easter
n
media
,
a
consummat
e
lac
k
o
f
acces
s
t
o
wester
n
Germa
n
labo
r
market
s
(wher
e
bein
g
identifie
d
a
s
"a
n
Eas
t
Germa
n
journalist
"
virtuall
y
dismisse
s
an
y
hop
e
o
f
jo
b
opportunities)
,
an
d
glas
s
ceiling
s
t
o
vertica
l
ad
-
vancemen
t
withi
n
hom
e
medi
a
organizations
.
Significantly
,
wester
n
Germa
n
47
2
CULTURA
L
ANTHROPOLOG
Y
journalist
s
ofte
n
attribut
e
stultifie
d
easter
n
Germa
n
career
s
t
o
stereotypica
l
in
-
flexibility
an
d
unwillingnes
s
o
n
th
e
par
t
o
f
locall
y
minde
d
Eas
t
Gennan
s
t
o
tr
y
ne
w
things
,
mov
e
t
o
ne
w
places
,
o
r
tak
e
th
e
requisit
e
professiona
l
risk
s
fo
r
ad
-
vancement
.
Finally
,
mor
e
t
o
th
e
immediat
e
concer
n
o
f
thi
s
article
,
intraprofessiona
l
evaluation
s
o
f
journalisti
c
professionalis
m
i
n
easter
n
German
y
openl
y
con
-
struc
t
"Eas
t
Germa
n
journalists
"
a
s
(sub)professional
s
wit
h
differen
t
perfor
-
manc
e
capabilities
,
attitudes
,
an
d
area
s
o
f
expertis
e
tha
n
"Wes
t
Germa
n
jour
-
nalists.
"
Althoug
h
journalists
,
a
s
discusse
d
above
,
rarel
y
openl
y
differentiat
e
amon
g
on
e
anothe
r
o
n
th
e
basi
s
o
f
origi
n
withi
n
th
e
spatia
l
an
d
tempora
l
boundarie
s
o
f
everyda
y
wor
k
routines
,
al
l
ar
e
wel
l
awar
e
tha
t
virtuall
y
ever
y
post-198
9
treatis
e
o
n
journalis
m
i
n
German
y
make
s
explici
t
referenc
e
t
o
gen
-
era
l
izabl
e
difference
s
i
n
professiona
l
competenc
e
betwee
n
Eas
t
an
d
Wes
t
Ger
-
ma
n
journalists
.
Thi
s
charterin
g
o
f
differentia
l
capabilitie
s
o
f
knowledg
e
an
d
expertis
e
i
s
critica
l
because
,
a
s
Andre
w
Abbot
t
observes
,
"jurisdictio
n
i
s
th
e
definin
g
relatio
n
i
n
professiona
l
life
"
(1988:3)
.
Fo
r
example
,
th
e
essentia
l
handboo
k
t
o
journalisti
c
practic
e
i
n
Germany
,
th
e
ABCs
of
Journalism
(Mas
t
1994)—
a
volum
e
on
e
find
s
place
d
prominentl
y
i
n
nearl
y
ever
y
journalist'
s
of
-
fic
e
i
n
Germany—state
s
definitivel
y
tha
t
Eas
t
Germa
n
journalist
s
differ
,
a
s
a
surve
y
o
f
Easter
n
Germa
n
medi
a
organiza
-
tion
s
ha
s
shown
,
i
n
thei
r
performanc
e
capabilitie
s
fro
m
thei
r
Wes
t
Germa
n
col
-
leagues
.
Ther
e
ar
e
deficit
s
i
n
thei
r
productio
n
o
f
new
s
bulletins
,
i
n
thei
r
researc
h
skills
,
an
d
i
n
thei
r
abilit
y
t
o
thin
k
an
d
ac
t
i
n
a
competitiv
e
fashion
.
Th
e
strength
s
o
f
Eas
t
Germa
n
journalist
s
li
e
i
n
thei
r
superio
r
regiona
l
knowledge
,
a
s
wel
l
a
s
thei
r
familiarit
y
wit
h
th
e
peopl
e
wh
o
liv
e
there
,
an
d
i
n
a
sensitiv
e
approac
h
t
o
thei
r
pub
-
lic
.
I
n
oppositio
n
t
o
th
e
wester
n
journalists
,
wh
o
ar
e
sai
d
t
o
b
e
lon
e
agent
s
an
d
in
-
dividualists
,
easter
n
journalist
s
ar
e
mor
e
compromis
e
oriente
d
an
d
integrat
e
themselve
s
mor
e
easil
y
int
o
teams
.
Journalist
s
fro
m
th
e
west
,
however
,
continu
e
t
o
significantl
y
excee
d
thei
r
Eas
t
Germa
n
colleague
s
i
n
specialize
d
knowledg
e
o
f
functiona
l
mechanism
s
an
d
institution
s
o
f
a
fre
e
politica
l
an
d
economi
c
system
.
Th
e
growin
g
togethe
r
[Zusammenwachsen]
o
f
th
e
tw
o
Germa
n
professiona
l
cul
-
ture
s
i
s
stil
l
a
lon
g
wa
y
off
,
a
s
clea
r
trace
s
o
f
principle
s
o
f
politica
l
affiliatio
n
[Parteilichkeit]
an
d
tractability
,
residu
e
o
f
thei
r
forme
r
socialis
t
propagand
a
work
,
hav
e
bee
n
lef
t
behin
d
i
n
th
e
professiona
l
ranks
.
Moreover
,
th
e
demand
s
o
f
th
e
marke
t
an
d
o
f
a
plura
l
societ
y
hav
e
no
t
ye
t
bee
n
completel
y
internalized
,
[1994:81
,
m
y
translation
]
Th
e
ABCs
of
Journalism
i
s
use
d
an
d
cite
d
widel
y
a
s
a
canonica
l
authorit
y
o
n
bot
h
th
e
theor
y
an
d
th
e
practic
e
o
f
journalis
m
a
s
a
n
intellectua
l
profession
.
Fo
r
"Eas
t
Germa
n
journalists,
"
it
s
positiv
e
classificatio
n
tha
t
the
y
ar
e
mor
e
contex
t
sensitive
,
tea
m
oriented
,
an
d
regionall
y
knowledgeabl
e
sweeten
s
n
o
les
s
sweeping
,
bu
t
mor
e
professionall
y
an
d
intellectuall
y
injurious
,
typifica
-
tions
.
Fo
r
example
,
judgment
s
suc
h
a
s
tha
t
Eas
t
Germa
n
journalist
s
hav
e
no
t
ye
t
internalize
d
th
e
"demand
s
..
,
o
f
a
plura
l
society,
"
ar
e
politicall
y
tractable
,
loath
e
t
o
questio
n
authority
,
an
d
ar
e
unabl
e
t
o
thin
k
creativel
y
o
n
thei
r
ow
n
vir
-
tuall
y
exclud
e
journalist
s
o
f
easter
n
origi
n
from
bein
g
take
n
seriousl
y
a
s
profes
-
siona
l
intellectuals
.
Eve
n
th
e
fain
t
prais
e
o
f
"superio
r
regiona
l
knowledge
"
KNOWLEDGE
S
O
F
DIFFERENC
E
47
3
suggest
s
tha
t
easterner
s
generall
y
lac
k
competenc
e
an
d
expertis
e
i
n
interna
-
tiona
l
issue
s
o
r
eve
n
nationa
l
political
,
social
,
an
d
economi
c
concerns—al
l
area
s
o
f
journalisti
c
knowledg
e
tha
t
ar
e
regarde
d
a
s
elit
e
i
n
German
y
a
s
elsewhere
.
I
t
i
s
no
t
difficul
t
t
o
imagin
e
ho
w
th
e
politic
s
o
f
polarizin
g
expertis
e
local
-
ize
s
th
e
broade
r
longitudina
l
logi
c
tha
t
Eas
t
German
s
experienc
e
th
e
unifie
d
Germa
n
lifeworl
d
accordin
g
t
o
a
differen
t
Kultu
r
fro
m
Wes
t
German
s
a
t
th
e
leve
l
o
f
dail
y
professiona
l
practice
.
TheABCs
of
Journalism
excerp
t
explicitl
y
denote
s
th
e
existenc
e
o
f
tw
o
paralle
l
an
d
distinc
t
professiona
l
Kulturen
(cul
-
tures
)
tha
t
hav
e
bee
n
conditione
d
b
y
differen
t
histories
,
economies
,
an
d
norms
.
Becaus
e
the
y
ar
e
accepte
d
a
s
culturall
y
distinc
t
socia
l
clusters
,
Eas
t
an
d
Wes
t
Germa
n
journalist
s
ar
e
expecte
d
t
o
hav
e
differentia
l
professiona
l
capabilitie
s
owin
g
t
o
divergen
t
socializations
.
O
f
course
,
man
y
easter
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
ar
e
intimatel
y
awar
e
tha
t
th
e
typificatio
n
o
f
people'
s
professiona
l
skill
s
base
d
o
n
plac
e
o
f
origi
n
an
d
educatio
n
disadvantage
s
them
,
especiall
y
whe
n
th
e
pro
-
fession'
s
code
x
o
f
goo
d
professiona
l
practic
e
identifie
s
"th
e
Eas
t
Germa
n
jour
-
nalist
"
wit
h
a
n
underdevelope
d
skil
l
se
t
an
d
margina
l
area
s
o
f
expertise
.
On
e
journalis
t
i
n
he
r
lat
e
twentie
s
describe
d
he
r
dissatisfactio
n
"tha
t
i
t
i
s
s
o
diffi
-
cul
t
t
o
los
e
thi
s
titl
e
o
f
'Eas
t
Germa
n
journalist,
'
eve
n
if
,
fo
r
man
y
o
f
u
s
i
n
th
e
younge
r
generation
,
wh
o
wer
e
scarcel
y
traine
d
i
n
th
e
GDR
,
i
t
doesn'
t
reall
y
mak
e
an
y
sense.
"
Ye
t
th
e
exper
t
documentatio
n
o
f
professiona
l
differenc
e
function
s
a
s
a
kin
d
o
f
structura
l
charte
r
fo
r
professiona
l
routines
.
Suc
h
routine
s
integrat
e
th
e
significatio
n
o
f
differen
t
"cultures
"
o
f
skil
l
an
d
expertis
e
wit
h
congerie
s
o
f
intra
-
institutiona
l
action
s
an
d
division
s
o
f
labo
r
tha
t
inscrib
e
wide
r
assumption
s
o
f
East/Wes
t
differenc
e
i
n
dail
y
professiona
l
practice
.
Indeed
,
th
e
contemporar
y
divisio
n
o
f
labo
r
i
n
mos
t
easter
n
Germa
n
medi
a
institution
s
segregate
s
Eas
t
Germa
n
journalist
s
a
s
subprofessional
s
wit
h
limite
d
loca
l
an
d
regiona
l
exper
-
tise
,
wherea
s
Wes
t
Germa
n
journalist
s
ar
e
expecte
d
t
o
contribut
e
critica
l
an
d
analytica
l
skill
s
an
d
a
muc
h
broade
r
comparativ
e
bas
e
o
f
factua
l
knowledge
.
Bot
h
easter
n
an
d
wester
n
interlocutor
s
confirme
d
tha
t
easter
n
Germa
n
journal
-
ist
s
continu
e
t
o
b
e
assigne
d
storie
s
an
d
researc
h
base
d
o
n
th
e
perceive
d
supe
-
riorit
y
o
f
thei
r
knowledg
e
o
f
loca
l
an
d
regiona
l
issues—wor
k
tha
t
wa
s
con
-
dense
d
unde
r
th
e
rubri
c
o
f
so-calle
d
Ostkompetenz
(easter
n
competence)
.
Meanwhile
,
wester
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
ar
e
fa
r
mor
e
ofte
n
assigne
d
editoria
l
an
d
lea
d
stor
y
wor
k
an
d
ten
d
t
o
repor
t
o
n
nationa
l
issue
s
becaus
e
i
t
i
s
presume
d
a
s
a
matte
r
o
f
implici
t
editoria
l
polic
y
tha
t
"nationa
l
issues
"
ar
e
equivalen
t
t
o
"Wes
t
Germa
n
issues
"
an
d
therefor
e
requir
e
a
n
intimat
e
knowledg
e
o
f
wester
n
politica
l
an
d
socia
l
lif
e
tha
t
Eas
t
German
s
ar
e
neithe
r
expecte
d
or—pu
t
mor
e
cynically—encourage
d
t
o
have.
1
8
O
n
severa
l
occasions
,
easter
n
Germa
n
jour
-
nalist
s
expresse
d
frustratio
n
t
o
m
e
o
f
a
certai
n
"ghettoization
"
o
f
thei
r
talents
.
"
I
don'
t
kno
w
wh
y
i
n
199
7
i
t
matter
s
whethe
r
a
n
Eas
t
Germa
n
o
r
Wes
t
Germa
n
write
s
abou
t
Bon
n
politics
,
bu
t
ther
e
ar
e
stil
l
thes
e
lingerin
g
prejudice
s
o
n
th
e
par
t
o
f
som
e
people.
"
Thi
s
cycl
e
o
f
th
e
expectation
,
experience
,
an
d
elabora
-
tio
n
o
f
professionall
y
prejudicia
l
differentiatio
n
involve
s
wha
t
Sartr
e
migh
t
hav
e
terme
d
th
e
"practico-inert
"
predicatio
n
o
f
easternnes
s
a
s
a
conditio
n
o
f
47
4
CULTURA
L
ANTHROPOLOG
Y
alterit
y
a
prior
i
t
o
al
l
professiona
l
practic
e
an
d
knowledg
e
(1976:318-320
;
se
e
als
o
Goldber
g
1990:309)
.
Becaus
e
easter
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
rarel
y
ar
e
se
-
lecte
d
t
o
writ
e
lea
d
editorials
,
i
t
i
s
presume
d
b
y
thei
r
conspicuou
s
absenc
e
tha
t
the
y
d
o
no
t
hav
e
th
e
requisit
e
skill
s
o
r
knowledg
e
t
o
d
o
so
.
Th
e
iron
y
o
f
th
e
factualit
y
accorde
d
longitudina
l
differenc
e
i
n
profes
-
siona
l
discours
e
i
s
that
,
i
n
practice
,
journalis
t
an
d
ethnographe
r
alik
e
ha
d
t
o
searc
h
fo
r
verificatio
n
o
f
thes
e
prejudices
.
I
ofte
n
encountere
d
a
curiou
s
lacun
a
whe
n
I
encourage
d
easter
n
an
d
wester
n
journalist
s
t
o
tel
l
m
e
wha
t
specificall
y
thei
r
longitudina
l
other
s
di
d
differentl
y
tha
n
the
y
di
d
whe
n
i
t
cam
e
t
o
actua
l
journalisti
c
Praxis.
19
Som
e
wester
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
pointe
d
t
o
deficiencie
s
i
n
th
e
Handwerk
(craft
,
trad
e
skills
)
o
f
easter
n
German
s
becaus
e
o
f
th
e
lac
k
o
f
emphasi
s
o
n
researc
h
i
n
th
e
GD
R
media
.
Other
s
mentione
d
tha
t
Eas
t
Germa
n
journalist
s
ha
d
problem
s
thinkin
g
independentl
y
an
d
criticall
y
becaus
e
the
y
ha
d
bee
n
traine
d
t
o
b
e
obedien
t
t
o
authorit
y
figures
.
But
,
eve
n
then
,
specifi
c
case
s
wer
e
rarel
y
narrate
d
t
o
me
,
an
d
onl
y
a
handfu
l
coul
d
recal
l
a
specifi
c
in
-
stanc
e
tha
t
supporte
d
thei
r
genera
l
intuitio
n
o
f
professiona
l
alterity
.
Thi
s
I
too
k
t
o
b
e
a
cue
,
a
s
wit
h
s
o
muc
h
o
f
East/Wes
t
differentiation
,
tha
t
assignation
s
o
f
differenc
e
primaril
y
reflecte
d
recours
e
t
o
a
longitudina
l
idio
m
t
o
empowe
r
situa
-
tiona
l
determination
s
o
f
selfhoo
d
an
d
alterity
.
Easter
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
als
o
di
d
no
t
commonl
y
identif
y
specifi
c
professiona
l
o
r
expertise-relate
d
weak
-
nesse
s
amon
g
specifi
c
wester
n
Germa
n
colleague
s
but
,
instead
,
tende
d
towar
d
glosse
s
like
,
"Wessi
s
see
m
a
bi
t
to
o
caree
r
oriente
d
sometimes,
"
o
r
"The
y
alway
s
hav
e
t
o
sho
w
thei
r
reader
s
ho
w
cleve
r
the
y
ar
e
instea
d
o
f
tryin
g
t
o
teac
h
the
m
something,
"
I
n
general
,
I
foun
d
wester
n
German
s
mor
e
willin
g
t
o
typif
y
"easternness
"
whil
e
i
n
thei
r
workplace
s
tha
n
easter
n
Germans
,
wh
o
favore
d
allegorica
l
o
r
analogica
l
strategie
s
whe
n
the
y
openl
y
acknowledge
d
differenc
e
a
t
all,
2
0
I
t
wa
s
clea
r
t
o
m
e
tha
t
thi
s
wa
s
no
t
du
e
t
o
intrinsi
c
wester
n
"critica
l
sensibility
"
but
,
rather
,
owe
d
t
o
th
e
relativ
e
critica
l
flexibilit
y
enjoye
d
b
y
th
e
"Wes
t
Germa
n
journalists
"
wh
o
feare
d
n
o
organizationa
l
repercussion
s
fo
r
articulatin
g
wha
t
amounte
d
professionall
y
t
o
commo
n
sense
.
Comin
g
fro
m
a
n
"Eas
t
Germa
n
journalist,
"
however
,
suc
h
critica
l
senti
-
ment
s
immediatel
y
wer
e
interprete
d
b
y
wester
n
journalist
s
a
s
expression
s
o
f
nostalgi
a
fo
r
th
e
socialis
t
comfort
s
o
f
th
e
GDR
.
Severa
l
journalist
s
tol
d
m
e
tha
t
speakin
g
ou
t
"a
s
a
n
Eas
t
German
"
regardles
s
o
f
topi
c
o
r
statemen
t
wa
s
some
-
thin
g
the
y
wer
e
loath
e
t
o
do
.
An
y
recours
e
the
y
mad
e
t
o
a
longitudina
l
identity
,
eve
n
simpl
y
t
o
mak
e
a
comparativ
e
poin
t
o
f
interpretation
,
wa
s
take
n
b
y
thei
r
wester
n
colleague
s
a
s
dissatisfactio
n
wit
h
th
e
"democratization
"
o
f
easter
n
German
y
afte
r
unification
.
A
s
strictl
y
"regiona
l
experts,
"
Eas
t
Germa
n
journal
-
ist
s
wer
e
deeme
d
t
o
b
e
oversteppin
g
thei
r
jurisdictio
n
b
y
pretendin
g
t
o
posses
s
critica
l
expertis
e
o
n
th
e
nationa
l
social-politica
l
statu
s
quo
.
On
e
easter
n
Ger
-
ma
n
journalis
t
i
n
he
r
lat
e
thirtie
s
summarize
d
he
r
experienc
e
wit
h
th
e
censur
e
tha
t
accompanie
d
suc
h
perceive
d
transgression
s
i
n
expertise
:
Th
e
onl
y
tim
e
I
thin
k
bein
g
Kas
t
Germa
n
work
s
negativel
y
agains
t
yo
u
i
s
whe
n
yo
u
expres
s
opinion
s
tha
t
perhap
s
thi
s
bourgeois-democrati
c
syste
m
doe
s
no
t
repre
-
sen
t
th
e
en
d
o
f
history
.
An
d
whe
n
yo
u
sugges
t
tha
t
somethin
g
ma
y
com
e
afte
r
it
.
KNOWLEDGE
S
O
F
DIFFERENC
E
47
5
Because
,
lik
e
an
y
system
,
it'
s
goin
g
t
o
com
e
t
o
a
n
en
d
soone
r
o
r
later
,
mayb
e
i
n
5
0
mayb
e
i
n
10
0
years
,
an
d
the
n
on
e
ha
s
t
o
thin
k
abou
t
wha
t
wil
l
com
e
afte
r
i
t
an
d
wha
t
kin
d
o
f
a
societ
y
tha
t
shoul
d
be
.
Bu
t
that'
s
completel
y
tabo
o
t
o
tal
k
abou
t
th
e
en
d
o
f
thi
s
syste
m
becaus
e
th
e
momen
t
the
y
hea
r
yo
u
sa
y
somethin
g
lik
e
tha
t
the
y
think
,
"Oh
,
sh
e
want
s
th
e
GD
R
back,
"
whic
h
isn'
t
th
e
poin
t
a
t
all
.
.
. .
Th
e
Wes
t
German
s
hav
e
n
o
proble
m
askin
g
u
s
ho
w
w
e
coul
d
hav
e
live
d
i
n
th
e
GDR
,
bu
t
I
don'
t
thin
k
they'v
e
eve
r
though
t
abou
t
ho
w
the
y
woul
d
answe
r
a
n
outsider'
s
ques
-
tio
n
5
0
year
s
fro
m
no
w
wh
o
woul
d
as
k
them
,
"Ho
w
coul
d
yo
u
hav
e
live
d
i
n
th
e
Federa
l
Republi
c
o
f
German
y
wit
h
it
s
unemployment
,
wit
h
hunger
,
wel
l
no
t
muc
h
hunger
,
bu
t
wit
h
homelessnes
s
definitely?
"
Pragmatically
,
suc
h
censur
e
mQan
s
tha
t
easter
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
con
-
tinu
e
t
o
b
e
fundamentall
y
disallowe
d
th
e
kin
d
o
f
creativ
e
critica
l
engagemen
t
i
n
journalisti
c
writin
g
tha
t
wester
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
typifie
d
a
s
th
e
bes
t
genr
e
o
f
wester
n
democrati
c
journalism
.
Th
e
doubl
e
bin
d
o
f
th
e
"Eas
t
Germa
n
journalist
"
ca
n
b
e
capture
d
succinctly
.
Sayin
g
nothin
g
mean
s
on
e
i
s
a
passiv
e
functiona
l
intellec
t
wh
o
stil
l
prefer
s
t
o
b
e
tol
d
wha
t
t
o
think
;
ye
t
criticizin
g
th
e
statu
s
qu
o
i
n
th
e
wa
y
tha
t
wester
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
routinel
y
d
o
mean
s
tha
t
on
e
i
s
dissatisfie
d
wit
h
th
e
rigor
s
o
f
democrati
c
lif
e
an
d
want
s
th
e
GD
R
back
.
Suc
h
ar
e
th
e
paradoxe
s
tha
t
pi
n
easter
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
int
o
th
e
socia
l
cate
-
gor
y
o
f
th
e
"Eas
t
Germa
n
journalist.
"
Th
e
silenc
e
o
f
longitudina
l
differentia
-
tio
n
tha
t
i
s
mean
t
t
o
b
e
bot
h
polit
e
an
d
professiona
l
als
o
protect
s
th
e
pragmati
c
salienc
e
o
f
EastAVes
t
differenc
e
b
y
underminin
g
an
y
attemp
t
i
n
dail
y
commu
-
nicativ
e
practic
e
t
o
challeng
e
it
s
naturalize
d
logic
.
B
y
th
e
lat
e
1990s
,
th
e
grea
t
majorit
y
o
f
employe
d
easter
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
hav
e
acquiesce
d
an
d
com
e
t
o
accep
t
thei
r
regiona
l
rol
e
a
s
a
perfectl
y
norma
l
functio
n
o
f
thei
r
easter
n
subjec
-
tivity
.
On
e
ma
n
i
n
hi
s
lat
e
fortie
s
tol
d
me
,
"I'l
l
neve
r
kno
w
th
e
Wes
t
lik
e
the
y
do—s
o
muc
h
o
f
thei
r
knowledg
e
cam
e
t
o
the
m
i
n
thei
r
mothers
'
milk.
"
Th
e
im
-
ag
e
o
f
sucklin
g
exper
t
knowledg
e
fro
m
th
e
breas
t
o
f
wester
n
socializatio
n
i
s
a
particularl
y
ap
t
metapho
r
fo
r
ho
w
professiona
l
dynamic
s
contribut
e
t
o
th
e
naturalizatio
n
an
d
reproductio
n
o
f
socia
l
knowledg
e
o
f
difference
.
Th
e
divisio
n
o
f
domain
s
o
f
exper
t
knowledg
e
an
d
journalisti
c
task
s
repli
-
cates
,
i
n
th
e
microcos
m
o
f
th
e
newsroom
,
th
e
informa
l
an
d
accredite
d
knowl
-
edge
s
o
f
longitudina
l
differenc
e
tha
t
w
e
alread
y
hav
e
encountered
.
Journalist
s
bot
h
brin
g
informa
l
knowledg
e
o
f
EastAVes
t
differenc
e
t
o
wor
k
wit
h
the
m
an
d
mediat
e
i
t
throug
h
journalisti
c
practice
s
suc
h
a
s
gatherin
g
an
d
selectin
g
statistica
l
data
,
interpretin
g
th
e
dynamic
s
o
f
unifie
d
Germa
n
life
,
editin
g
thei
r
text
s
fo
r
clarit
y
an
d
accuracy
,
an
d
puttin
g
thei
r
representation
s
int
o
circulation
.
Place
d
withi
n
th
e
broade
r
context
s
o
f
professiona
l
discourse
,
however
,
th
e
professiona
l
bifurcatio
n
o
f
expertise
,
eve
n
coordinate
d
an
d
reproduce
d
b
y
di
-
vide
d
professiona
l
routines
,
doe
s
no
t
represen
t
a
perfec
t
hegemony
.
Medi
a
or
-
ganization
s
d
o
a
fairl
y
thoroug
h
jo
b
o
f
policin
g
an
y
audibl
e
o
r
visibl
e
negotia
-
tio
n
o
f
differenc
e
i
n
th
e
workplace
,
an
d
thes
e
absence
s
bot
h
stabiliz
e
an
d
legitimat
e
th
e
socia
l
an
d
economi
c
hierarchie
s
i
n
th
e
easter
n
Germa
n
media
.
Ye
t
bot
h
easter
n
an
d
wester
n
journalist
s
continuousl
y
an
d
openl
y
signifie
d
an
d
debate
d
essentialism
s
an
d
typification
s
o
f
th
e
"character
"
o
f
longitudina
l
dif
-
ferenc
e
t
o
m
e
i
n
othe
r
settings—bars
,
coffe
e
houses
,
an
d
thei
r
homes—a
s
ofte
n
47
6
CULTURA
L
ANTHROPOLOG
Y
a
s
no
t
reinsertin
g
stereotypica
l
figuration
s
i
n
th
e
ver
y
effor
t
o
f
deconstructin
g
them
.
Positiv
e
stereotype
s
o
f
national-cultura
l
belongin
g
emerge
d
agai
n
an
d
again
;
wester
n
German
s
embrace
d
th
e
cosmopolitanis
m
an
d
freedo
m
o
f
though
t
inheren
t
i
n
thei
r
conceptio
n
o
f
wester
n
intellectua
l
selfhood
,
wherea
s
easter
n
German
s
embrace
d
th
e
warmt
h
an
d
humanit
y
o
f
thei
r
intellectua
l
live
s
compare
d
wit
h
wha
t
the
y
sa
w
a
s
th
e
spiritua
l
hollownes
s
o
f
Wes
t
Germans
,
Regardles
s
o
f
origin
,
m
y
interlocutor
s
wer
e
pron
e
t
o
sigh
,
"
I
don'
t
mea
n
t
o
b
e
crude
,
bu
t
the
y
reall
y
ar
e
differen
t
fro
m
us.
"
Wha
t
i
s
difficul
t
fo
r
m
e
t
o
conve
y
i
n
writte
n
for
m
wer
e
th
e
nuance
s
i
n
speec
h
tha
t
accompanie
d
thi
s
motio
n
fro
m
silenc
e
t
o
voice
,
eve
n
outsid
e
o
f
th
e
workplace
.
Ther
e
wer
e
pauses
,
backtracking
,
murmurs
,
an
d
uncomfortabl
e
comportmen
t
a
s
bot
h
easter
n
an
d
wester
n
Ger
-
ma
n
intellectual
s
attempte
d
t
o
articulat
e
thei
r
intimat
e
knowledg
e
o
f
differ
-
ence
.
Thi
s
wa
s
n
o
simpl
e
matte
r
a
s
the
y
sough
t
idiom
s
tha
t
wer
e
no
t
exces
-
sivel
y
vulga
r
o
r
stereotyped
,
ye
t
wer
e
perceive
d
a
s
familia
r
t
o
a
n
America
n
interlocuto
r
an
d
wer
e
stil
l
tru
e
t
o
thei
r
intuitio
n
tha
t
elusiv
e
trait
s
o
f
"easternness
"
an
d
"westernness
"
existe
d
tha
t
coul
d
b
e
pinne
d
dow
n
i
n
interpretatio
n
an
d
ra
-
tionalize
d
b
y
logic
.
Look
,
a
n
Eas
t
German
!
Bodil
y
C(l)ue
s
t
o
th
e
Reproductio
n
o
f
Differenc
e
i
n
Professiona
l
Lif
e
Ther
e
i
s
a
tendenc
y
t
o
approac
h
professiona
l
intellectua
l
lif
e
a
s
thoug
h
it
s
salien
t
dynamic
s
ar
e
limite
d
t
o
ora
l
discours
e
an
d
cognition
.
Yet
,
t
o
completel
y
analyz
e
th
e
contex
t
o
f
th
e
professiona
l
intellectua
l
workplace
,
i
t
i
s
importan
t
t
o
note
,
a
s
Miche
l
Foucaul
t
(1997
)
doe
s
wit
h
hi
s
concep
t
o
f
"governmentality,
"
tha
t
discours
e
resolve
s
itsel
f
t
o
th
e
ethic
s
o
f
th
e
sel
f
i
n
bot
h
corporea
l
an
d
intel
-
lectua
l
dimensions,
2
1
I
n
easter
n
Germa
n
medi
a
organizations
,
spoke
n
an
d
unspo
-
ke
n
knowledge
s
o
f
longitudina
l
differenc
e
wer
e
co-elaborate
d
an
d
codetermine
d
b
y
bodil
y
knowledge
s
o
f
difference
.
A
s
i
s
observe
d
above
,
m
y
interlocutors
'
bodie
s
becam
e
restles
s
whe
n
th
e
subjec
t
o
f
East/Wes
t
differenc
e
aros
e
i
n
conver
-
sation
.
Wit
h
th
e
situationa
l
inhibition
s
t
o
voca
l
challenge
,
th
e
bod
y
becam
e
a
re
-
markabl
e
instrumen
t
fo
r
registerin
g
difference
,
fo
r
expressin
g
uneasines
s
wit
h
th
e
natura
l
distinction
s
covete
d
b
y
socia
l
knowledge
,
and
,
finally
,
fo
r
nevertheles
s
codifyin
g
th
e
semiosocia
l
distinction
s
int
o
a
bodil
y
knowledg
e
o
f
difference
.
Again
,
a
brie
f
exampl
e
wil
l
b
e
helpfu
l
here
.
Once
,
whil
e
a
t
a
newspape
r
offic
e
i
n
Berlin
,
I
provoke
d
a
discussio
n
o
f
ho
w
th
e
experienc
e
o
f
western-styl
e
journalis
m
migh
t
b
e
quit
e
differen
t
fo
r
easter
n
an
d
wester
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
give
n
tha
t
easter
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
hav
e
th
e
comparativ
e
advantag
e
o
f
hav
-
in
g
undergon
e
professionalizatio
n
twic
e
over
.
M
y
ow
n
complicit
y
i
n
objectify
-
in
g
longitudina
l
differenc
e
wa
s
tha
t
a
t
thi
s
stag
e
i
n
m
y
researc
h
I
continue
d
t
o
accep
t
"easternness
"
an
d
"westernness
"
a
s
natura
l
categorie
s
o
f
analysis
.
Th
e
departmenta
l
newsroo
m
wher
e
w
e
sa
t
belonge
d
t
o
a
majo
r
Wes
t
Berli
n
dail
y
newspape
r
tha
t
ha
d
hire
d
a
fe
w
doze
n
easter
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
sinc
e
1990
,
primaril
y
t
o
provid
e
expertis
e
o
n
th
e
histor
y
an
d
nuanc
e
o
n
th
e
lifeworl
d
o
f
th
e
easter
n
hal
f
o
f
th
e
city
.
Desk
s
wer
e
lai
d
ou
t
openly
,
withou
t
dividers
.
Cluttere
d
KNOWLEDGE
S
O
F
DIFFERENC
E
47
7
bookshelve
s
ringe
d
th
e
walls
.
Th
e
settin
g
wa
s
informa
l
an
d
bustlin
g
lik
e
an
y
newsroo
m
i
n
th
e
lat
e
afternoon
.
Andreas
,
a
journalis
t
fro
m
th
e
Rhinelan
d
i
n
hi
s
lat
e
thirties
,
slouche
d
bac
k
i
n
hi
s
des
k
chai
r
considerin
g
m
y
cautiou
s
suggestio
n
tha
t
th
e
virtue
s
o
f
wester
n
journalis
m
migh
t
li
e
somewha
t
i
n
th
e
ey
e
o
f
beholder
.
Afte
r
a
fe
w
moment
s
h
e
said
,
"Yo
u
know
,
I
thin
k
Eas
t
an
d
Wes
t
Germa
n
journalist
s
basicall
y
hav
e
ha
d
th
e
sam
e
experienc
e
o
f
wester
n
journalis
m
becaus
e
i
t
benefit
s
al
l
o
f
u
s
i
n
mostl
y
th
e
sam
e
ways
.
Bu
t
then
,
o
f
course
,
I'
m
a
Wes
t
German
,
s
o
I
reall
y
shouldn'
t
tr
y
t
o
spea
k
fo
r
them.
"
H
e
rocke
d
bac
k
i
n
hi
s
chair
,
pausing
,
an
d
the
n
quickl
y
spu
n
aroun
d
i
n
hi
s
chair
,
callin
g
ou
t
t
o
Matthias
,
als
o
a
journalis
t
i
n
hi
s
thirties
,
wh
o
ha
d
bee
n
hire
d
fro
m
a
forme
r
GD
R
pape
r
an
d
wh
o
wa
s
a
t
jus
t
tha
t
momen
t
openin
g
a
filin
g
cabine
t
som
e
twent
y
fee
t
away
.
"Matthias,
"
Andrea
s
sai
d
affabl
y
bu
t
loudly
,
"You're
a
n
Eas
t
German
,
wh
y
don'
t
yo
u
giv
e
Domini
c
th
e
Eas
t
Germa
n
perspective?
"
Matthia
s
visibl
y
winced
,
an
d
hi
s
eye
s
focuse
d
o
n
a
poin
t
somewher
e
behin
d
me
.
I
fel
t
a
kno
t
i
n
m
y
stomac
h
fo
r
havin
g
pu
t
hi
m
i
n
thi
s
situation
.
Flushed
,
Matthia
s
the
n
looke
d
bac
k
dow
n
int
o
th
e
filin
g
cabine
t
an
d
sai
d
somewha
t
softly
,
"Well
,
yo
u
know
,
I
ca
n
onl
y
spea
k
fo
r
myself
.
Bu
t
I
don'
t
se
e
muc
h
difference.
"
Andrea
s
shrugge
d
nonchalantl
y
an
d
turne
d
bac
k
t
o
m
e
whil
e
Matthia
s
avoide
d
furthe
r
ey
e
contact
.
On
e
explanatio
n
fo
r
Matthias'
s
winc
e
i
s
tha
t
th
e
exchang
e
ha
d
bee
n
a
rar
e
transgressio
n
o
f
th
e
cod
e
o
f
silenc
e
i
n
th
e
professiona
l
workplac
e
an
d
on
e
fo
r
whic
h
Matthia
s
wa
s
no
t
prepared
.
Th
e
othe
r
explanation
,
an
d
th
e
on
e
tha
t
I
fee
l
i
s
mor
e
probable
,
i
s
tha
t
Matthias'
s
moto
r
refle
x
o
f
recoi
l
suggest
s
a
n
intimat
e
familiarit
y
wit
h
th
e
flui
d
parameter
s
o
f
th
e
cod
e
o
f
silence
.
H
e
kne
w
re
-
flexivel
y
tha
t
whethe
r
differenc
e
i
s
spoke
n
o
r
not
,
th
e
factualit
y
o
f
easter
n
al
-
terit
y
i
s
a
constitutiv
e
presence
i
n
th
e
workplace
.
Fo
r
thi
s
reason
,
Matthias'
s
winc
e
a
t
bein
g
interpellate
d
wit
h
th
e
"fact
"
o
f
hi
s
easternnes
s
reminde
d
m
e
im
-
mediatel
y
o
f
Frant
z
Fanon'
s
Black
Skin,
White
Masks,
i
n
whic
h
repeate
d
itera
-
tion
s
o
f
"Look
,
a
Negro!
"
graduall
y
penetrat
e
th
e
narrator'
s
epiderma
l
"signi
-
fier
"
o
f
othernes
s
an
d
creat
e
a
bodil
y
nausea
,
a
somati
c
registratio
n
o
f
hi
s
indexica
l
appurtenanc
e
(1967:111-112)
,
A
s
Fano
n
writes
,
th
e
blac
k
ma
n
dis
-
cover
s
th
e
traditio
n
o
f
hi
s
"ethnicity,
"
inherit
s
th
e
fac
t
an
d
meanin
g
o
f
hi
s
"blackness,
"
a
t
tha
t
momen
t
o
f
alienatio
n
fro
m
hi
s
ow
n
body
,
a
t
th
e
momen
t
tha
t
h
e
physicall
y
recoil
s
fro
m
hi
s
interpellation
.
So
,
followin
g
Fanon
,
i
t
i
s
th
e
gestur
e
o
f
identification
,
th
e
pointe
d
finge
r
an
d
statement
,
"Ther
e
yo
u
are
,
m
y
Eas
t
Germa
n
friend,
"
throug
h
whic
h
"easternness
"
i
s
learne
d
by
,
an
d
anchore
d
to
,
particula
r
bodie
s
i
n
particula
r
place
s
an
d
times
.
I
n
ou
r
case
,
w
e
se
e
ho
w
a
n
easter
n
Germa
n
journalis
t
wince
d
a
t
bein
g
cas
t
a
s
a
subprofessiona
l
"Eas
t
Germa
n
journalist
"
an
d
politel
y
trie
d
t
o
asser
t
hi
s
ow
n
individuality
.
Nevertheless
,
hi
s
fac
e
flushe
d
becaus
e
th
e
damag
e
ha
d
bee
n
done—hi
s
effort
s
t
o
"pass
"
a
s
simpl
y
a
"Germa
n
journalist
"
failed
.
Th
e
west
-
er
n
Germa
n
journalis
t
meanwhile
,
unawar
e
tha
t
hi
s
simpl
e
"statemen
t
o
f
fact
"
coul
d
provok
e
suc
h
feeling
s
o
f
anxiet
y
an
d
hopelessness
,
shrugge
d
an
d
settle
d
comfortabl
y
bac
k
int
o
hi
s
indexica
l
positio
n
a
s
a
critical
,
free-thinking
,
exper
t
"Wes
t
Germa
n
journalist.
"
47
8
CULTURA
L
ANTHROPOLOG
Y
Th
e
professiona
l
intellectual'
s
bod
y
thu
s
collect
s
an
d
cement
s
a
multiplic
-
it
y
o
f
everyda
y
intimation
s
o
f
differenc
e
int
o
a
silen
t
bodil
y
gramma
r
o
f
ges
-
ture
s
tha
t
ultimatel
y
mak
e
th
e
calm
,
confiden
t
"Wes
t
German
"
an
d
th
e
recoil
-
ing
,
retirin
g
"Eas
t
German
"
eve
n
mor
e
easil
y
identifiable
.
On
e
journalis
t
explaine
d
t
o
m
e
tha
t
on
e
coul
d
alway
s
tel
l
a
n
Eas
t
Germa
n
b
y
hi
s
o
r
he
r
uncer
-
tai
n
an
d
slightl
y
stoope
d
posture
.
Muc
h
lik
e
th
e
bod
y
o
f
th
e
Je
w
tha
t
wa
s
de
-
picte
d
i
n
Germa
n
publi
c
cultur
e
no
t
s
o
lon
g
ag
o
a
s
twiste
d
an
d
misshape
n
b
y
th
e
extractio
n
o
f
Germa
n
wealt
h
(Newbor
n
1994)
,
th
e
bod
y
o
f
th
e
Eas
t
Germa
n
bot
h
know
s
it
s
differenc
e
an
d
i
s
know
n
fo
r
it
s
hexis
.
I
t
register
s
a
dee
p
pheno
-
menologica
l
knowledg
e
o
f
alterit
y
eve
n
when
,
fo
r
reason
s
o
f
politenes
s
an
d
professionalism
,
differenc
e
mus
t
remai
n
unspoken
.
Longitudina
l
Schismogenesi
s
an
d
th
e
(Re)Productio
n
o
f
Nationa
l
Cultur
e
I
hav
e
no
w
fleshe
d
ou
t
a
professiona
l
contex
t
withi
n
whic
h
professiona
l
intellectual
s
formalize
,
objectify
,
an
d
accredi
t
knowledg
e
o
f
socia
l
difference
,
I
hav
e
note
d
ho
w
intraorganizationa
l
dynamic
s
i
n
easter
n
Germa
n
newsroom
s
replicat
e
th
e
sam
e
differentia
l
logi
c
presen
t
i
n
bot
h
publi
c
cultur
e
an
d
informa
l
interaction
s
bu
t
i
n
a
discipline
d
professiona
l
register
.
Thi
s
help
s
u
s
t
o
under
-
stan
d
ho
w
journalist
s
workin
g
i
n
medi
a
organization
s
ca
n
reproduc
e
knowl
-
edg
e
o
f
East/Wes
t
differenc
e
a
s
seamlessl
y
an
d
unreflectivel
y
a
s
I
di
d
whe
n
I
scripte
d
m
y
researc
h
fundin
g
proposals
.
Bu
t
th
e
questio
n
o
f
wh
y
EastAVes
t
identitie
s
an
d
alteritie
s
constitut
e
suc
h
a
powerful
,
salient
,
an
d
preferre
d
knowledg
e
o
f
differenc
e
i
n
postunificatio
n
German
y
remains
.
M
y
argumen
t
her
e
i
s
historica
l
an
d
concern
s
th
e
unhapp
y
collisio
n
o
f
col
-
lectiv
e
memor
y
wit
h
knowledg
e
o
f
ethnotypica
l
collectiv
e
belongin
g
(Germa
n
nationa
l
Kultur
)
i
n
postwa
r
Germany
.
A
s
Joh
n
Bornema
n
prescientl
y
identi
-
fie
d
a
t
th
e
tim
e
o
f
Germa
n
unification
,
"durabl
e
form
s
o
f
division
"
alread
y
ha
d
bee
n
buil
t
int
o
th
e
EastAVes
t
distinctio
n
whos
e
semioti
c
purchas
e
woul
d
fa
r
outliv
e
th
e
fusio
n
o
f
th
e
Col
d
Wa
r
Germa
n
state
s
(1992:334)
.
Followin
g
Bor
-
neman'
s
argument
,
th
e
legitimizin
g
root
s
o
f
contemporar
y
longitudina
l
differ
-
entiatio
n
li
e
i
n
th
e
languag
e
eac
h
Col
d
Wa
r
Germa
n
stat
e
develope
d
t
o
defin
e
it
s
other
,
a
n
epistemi
c
systematizatio
n
o
f
intranationa
l
alterit
y
tha
t
wa
s
trans
-
ferre
d
t
o
th
e
consciousnes
s
o
f
it
s
citizens
.
Indeed
,
lookin
g
carefull
y
a
t
eac
h
o
f
th
e
Col
d
Wa
r
Germa
n
state'
s
narrative
s
an
d
publi
c
discours
e
abou
t
th
e
charac
-
te
r
an
d
qualit
y
o
f
th
e
othe
r
Germany
,
on
e
find
s
a
n
exchang
e
syste
m
o
f
accusatio
n
fo
r
th
e
perverte
d
nationa
l
cultur
e
o
f
th
e
Naz
i
state.
2
2
Neithe
r
stat
e
wa
s
abl
e
t
o
rationaliz
e
awa
y
th
e
dilemm
a
that
,
i
n
th
e
logi
c
o
f
timeles
s
"nationa
l
belong
-
ing,
"
eve
n
German
s
wh
o
wer
e
bor
n
afte
r
194
5
wer
e
par
t
o
f
th
e
sam
e
ethnic
-
nationa
l
collectivit
y
responsibl
e
fo
r
th
e
Holocaust
.
Pu
t
anothe
r
way
,
i
f
Ger
-
man
s
wer
e
sai
d
t
o
b
e
to
o
intoleran
t
o
r
to
o
willin
g
t
o
tak
e
order
s
a
s
matter
s
o
f
nationa
l
essence
,
the
n
somethin
g
ha
d
t
o
b
e
don
e
wit
h
thos
e
trait
s
t
o
mak
e
cer
-
tai
n
tha
t
histor
y
woul
d
no
t
repea
t
itself
.
Still
,
eac
h
stat
e
wishe
d
t
o
identif
y
itsel
f
a
s
th
e
historica
l
vehicl
e
o
f
a
col
-
lectiv
e
o
f
civilize
d
an
d
moder
n
German
s
wh
o
wer
e
eithe
r
victim
s
themselve
s
o
r
ha
d
purifie
d
themselve
s
o
f
th
e
dangerou
s
nationa
l
trait
s
tha
t
ha
d
"caused
"
KNOWLEDGE
S
O
F
DIFFERENC
E
47
9
th
e
Holocaust
.
Th
e
ideologie
s
o
f
languag
e
an
d
cultur
e
describe
d
earlie
r
i
n
thi
s
articl
e
serve
d
th
e
Germa
n
state
s
wel
l
a
s
eac
h
use
d
a
currenc
y
o
f
stereotype
s
t
o
determin
e
bot
h
flaw
s
an
d
virtue
s
i
n
Germa
n
nationa
l
characte
r
tha
t
coul
d
the
n
b
e
easil
y
apportione
d
betwee
n
th
e
state'
s
ow
n
citizen
s
an
d
thos
e
o
f
th
e
othe
r
Germany
.
Eac
h
stat
e
indexe
d
an
d
accredite
d
metonymi
c
token
s
o
f
Germa
n
cul
-
tura
l
character—thos
e
bot
h
embarrassin
g
an
d
reassurin
g
"ethnotypes
"
lik
e
"German
s
ar
e
intolerant
"
o
r
"German
s
ar
e
inward"—tha
t
dra
w
o
n
wha
t
Mi
-
chae
l
Herzfel
d
call
s
national-cultura
l
intimac
y
(1997:3
,
26-32)
,
An
d
eac
h
stat
e
activel
y
converte
d
thes
e
token
s
int
o
essentia
l
metaphor
s
o
f
longitudina
l
differ
-
ence
.
Citizen
s
o
f
th
e
Federa
l
Republi
c
wer
e
denote
d
t
o
b
e
"typicall
y
German
"
i
n
thei
r
arrogance
,
revanchism
,
an
d
comfor
t
wit
h
th
e
exploitatio
n
o
f
th
e
wea
k
an
d
poor
.
Citizen
s
o
f
th
e
Germa
n
Democrati
c
Republi
c
wer
e
interprete
d
a
s
"typicall
y
German
"
i
n
thei
r
readines
s
t
o
obe
y
anothe
r
totalitaria
n
strongman
,
marc
h
i
n
yout
h
brigades
,
an
d
sp
y
o
n
on
e
anothe
r
fo
r
th
e
secre
t
police
.
Th
e
con
-
tingenc
y
o
f
bot
h
FR
G
an
d
GD
R
domesti
c
an
d
foreig
n
policie
s
o
n
U,S
.
an
d
Sovie
t
geopolitica
l
influenc
e
wa
s
recognize
d
bu
t
usuall
y
onl
y
accorde
d
th
e
positio
n
o
f
a
mediatin
g
influenc
e
o
n
German
s
bein
g
observe
d
"behavin
g
a
s
German
s
ar
e
pron
e
t
o
behave,
"
I
n
postwa
r
Germany
,
nationa
l
identit
y
therefor
e
develope
d
a
bipola
r
char
-
acter
.
Th
e
goo
d
trait
s
wer
e
cultivate
d
carefull
y
a
t
home
,
whil
e
th
e
nightmaris
h
survival
s
o
f
Naz
i
cultur
e
wer
e
imagine
d
t
o
b
e
perversel
y
exploite
d
o
n
th
e
hithe
r
sid
e
o
f
th
e
Wall
.
Bernhar
d
Giese
n
make
s
th
e
interesting
,
i
f
somewha
t
sweeping
,
poin
t
i
n
hi
s
excellen
t
stud
y
o
f
th
e
socia
l
agenc
y
o
f
intellectual
s
i
n
cultivatin
g
language(s
)
o
f
nationalis
m
tha
t
"th
e
modernizatio
n
o
f
socia
l
rela
-
tion
s
bring
s
th
e
strange
r
int
o
one'
s
ow
n
society
"
(1998:62
)
an
d
tha
t
thi
s
di
-
lemm
a
drive
s
th
e
imaginatio
n
o
f
principle
d
"national
"
(tha
t
is
,
translocal
)
be
-
longing
s
t
o
recalibrat
e
th
e
intimat
e
awarenes
s
o
f
differenc
e
t
o
th
e
necessit
y
o
f
maintainin
g
socia
l
coherence
,
Giesen'
s
observatio
n
tha
t
processe
s
o
f
identit
y
differentiatio
n
ai
m
t
o
cultivat
e
collectiv
e
samenes
s
throug
h
differenc
e
valuabl
y
illuminate
s
th
e
cas
e
o
f
th
e
samenes
s
o
f
Germa
n
nationa
l
identit
y
be
-
in
g
distille
d
throug
h
wha
t
migh
t
b
e
terme
d
"longitudina
l
schismogenesis."
2
3
Sinc
e
1990
,
ther
e
i
s
onl
y
on
e
Germa
n
state
,
on
e
se
t
o
f
institutiona
l
systems
,
and
,
theoretically
,
a
homogeneou
s
se
t
o
f
nationa
l
distinctions
,
values
,
an
d
standards
.
But
,
unsurprisingly
,
tw
o
"cultures
"
o
f
bein
g
Germa
n
ar
e
stil
l
widel
y
recognized
,
on
e
positiv
e
an
d
on
e
negativ
e
dependin
g
o
n
who
m
on
e
happen
s
t
o
b
e
an
d
i
n
wha
t
contex
t
on
e
i
s
speaking
.
Althoug
h
suc
h
generalizatio
n
i
s
alway
s
dangerous
,
i
t
seem
s
tha
t
a
grea
t
dea
l
o
f
EastAVes
t
differentiatio
n
i
n
German
y
sinc
e
unificatio
n
stil
l
ha
s
t
o
d
o
wit
h
th
e
fabricatio
n
o
f
knowledg
e
o
f
nationa
l
samenes
s
throug
h
th
e
broades
t
we/the
y
indexical
s
o
f
"bein
g
German."
2
4
Eve
n
afte
r
th
e
collaps
e
o
f
th
e
Col
d
Wa
r
geopolitica
l
orde
r
tha
t
offere
d
th
e
EastAVes
t
axi
s
a
s
a
n
eas
y
compas
s
t
o
th
e
topograph
y
o
f
Germa
n
nationa
l
character
,
EastAVes
t
differentiatio
n
i
s
stil
l
widel
y
use
d
a
s
a
cardina
l
axi
s
fo
r
definin
g
socia
l
selfhoo
d
i
n
innumerabl
e
everyda
y
encounters
.
An
d
thi
s
fac
t
o
f
EastAVes
t
differ
-
enc
e
allow
s
bot
h
easter
n
an
d
wester
n
German
s
t
o
maintai
n
th
e
ontologie
s
o
f
na
-
tiona
l
histor
y
an
d
nationa
l
cultur
e
preferre
d
b
y
post-Enlightenmen
t
Europea
n
48
0
CULTURA
L
ANTHROPOLOG
Y
ideologie
s
o
f
languag
e
an
d
cultur
e
withou
t
sacrificin
g
thei
r
abilit
y
t
o
distanc
e
themselve
s
culturall
y
fro
m
th
e
horror
s
o
f
th
e
Holocaust
.
S
o
lon
g
a
s
th
e
phantas
-
mati
c
figure
s
o
f
th
e
Jammeross
i
an
d
th
e
Besserwess
i
stal
k
Germa
n
publi
c
culture
,
th
e
"ba
d
Germans
"
wil
l
alway
s
b
e
indexicall
y
elsewhere
.
O
f
course
,
althoug
h
bot
h
easter
n
an
d
wester
n
German
s
participat
e
equall
y
i
n
th
e
cultivatio
n
o
f
selfhoo
d
an
d
alterit
y
throug
h
longitudina
l
differentiation
,
i
t
bear
s
remindin
g
tha
t
th
e
politic
s
o
f
differenc
e
d
o
no
t
reflec
t
a
leve
l
playin
g
field
.
Today
,
i
n
al
l
elit
e
nationa
l
forum
s
o
f
publi
c
knowledge
,
westernnes
s
i
s
th
e
ideal
.
Th
e
fac
t
o
f
a
n
"easter
n
othe
r
within
"
continue
s
t
o
providentiall
y
al
-
lo
w
bot
h
fo
r
th
e
localizatio
n
o
f
symptom
s
o
f
essentia
l
nationa
l
infirmitie
s
i
n
th
e
Eas
t
an
d
fo
r
th
e
resignificatio
n
o
f
th
e
unifie
d
"nationa
l
culture
"
a
s
essen
-
tiall
y
western
,
democratic
,
an
d
cosmopolitan
.
Al
l
thes
e
trait
s
ar
e
imagine
d
t
o
b
e
antithetica
l
t
o
th
e
"Eas
t
German.
"
I
s
i
t
an
y
wonder
,
then
,
tha
t
th
e
"Eas
t
Ger
-
ma
n
journalist
"
i
s
professionall
y
determine
d
t
o
b
e
incapabl
e
o
f
accuratel
y
artic
-
ulatin
g
thes
e
qualitie
s
tha
t
ar
e
believe
d
t
o
b
e
s
o
intrinsicall
y
foreig
n
t
o
hi
m
o
r
her
?
Th
e
perdurin
g
legitimac
y
o
f
socia
l
knowledg
e
o
f
East/Wes
t
differenc
e
re
-
main
s
interwove
n
wit
h
th
e
legitimac
y
o
f
knowledg
e
o
f
Germa
n
nationa
l
char
-
acter
,
nationa
l
culture
,
an
d
nationa
l
history
.
Contrar
y
t
o
th
e
wisdo
m
o
f
th
e
so
-
cializatio
n
mode
l
o
f
longitudina
l
differenc
e
tha
t
East/Wes
t
identitie
s
an
d
alteritie
s
wil
l
mel
t
awa
y
wit
h
th
e
futur
e
socializatio
n
o
f
"unifie
d
Germans,
"
m
y
argumen
t
i
s
tha
t
knowledg
e
o
f
East/Wes
t
differenc
e
wil
l
likel
y
remai
n
a
poten
t
identificatory
,
interpretive
,
an
d
representationa
l
resourc
e
bot
h
insid
e
an
d
outsid
e
o
f
German
y
fo
r
som
e
tim
e
t
o
come
.
Thi
s
i
s
precisel
y
becaus
e
East/Wes
t
differentiatio
n
i
s
no
t
a
symboli
c
outgrowt
h
o
f
socialize
d
difference
s
i
n
behavio
r
an
d
character
;
rather
,
i
t
i
s
a
t
onc
e
a
mor
e
abstrac
t
an
d
intimat
e
semiosocia
l
mean
s
o
f
articulating
,
stabilizing
,
an
d
reproducin
g
th
e
typifyin
g
distinction
s
o
f
Germa
n
nationa
l
culture
.
Conclusion
:
Fro
m
Intuitiv
e
Assumptio
n
t
o
Publi
c
Knowledg
e
an
d
Bac
k
Agai
n
I
t
seem
s
rathe
r
mor
e
tha
n
accidenta
l
tha
t
w
e
hav
e
encountere
d
identica
l
knowledge
s
o
f
East/Wes
t
differenc
e
an
d
simila
r
semiosocia
l
practice
s
o
f
differ
-
entiatio
n
i
n
private
,
professional
,
an
d
publi
c
contexts
.
Indeed
,
th
e
lin
k
betwee
n
th
e
complexitie
s
o
f
publi
c
discours
e
o
n
th
e
characte
r
an
d
fat
e
o
f
th
e
Germa
n
natio
n
an
d
th
e
complexitie
s
o
f
everyda
y
negotiation
s
o
f
identit
y
an
d
alterit
y
throug
h
stereotype
s
i
s
stronge
r
tha
n
oppositiona
l
conception
s
o
f
"objective
"
an
d
"every
-
day
"
knowledge
s
woul
d
hav
e
u
s
believe
.
I
n
thi
s
article
,
I
hav
e
theorize
d
tha
t
professiona
l
context
s
mediat
e
everyda
y
knowledge
s
an
d
publi
c
cultura
l
form
s
i
n
th
e
Germa
n
nation-state
.
M
y
argumen
t
ca
n
b
e
summarize
d
a
s
follows
:
Pro
-
fessiona
l
intellectual
s
occup
y
a
uniqu
e
mediatin
g
positio
n
i
n
th
e
formatio
n
o
f
socia
l
knowledge
s
o
f
differenc
e
becaus
e
thei
r
knowledg
e
labor
s
straddl
e
pri
-
vat
e
an
d
publi
c
knowledge
s
o
f
identit
y
an
d
alterity
.
I
n
praxi
s
an
d
identity
,
pro
-
fessional
s
bridg
e
local
,
national
,
an
d
transnationa
l
sphere
s
o
f
socia
l
belonging
.
Outsid
e
th
e
office
,
a
s
m
y
interlocutor
s
did
,
the
y
inde
x
th
e
vulgat
e
stereotype
s
o
f
alterit
y
tha
t
saturat
e
privat
e
an
d
publi
c
knowledge
s
o
f
socia
l
difference
.
I
n
th
e
KNOWLEDGE
S
O
F
DIFFHRHNC
E
48
1
workplace
,
the
y
engag
e
mor
e
elite
,
nuanced
,
an
d
silen
t
strategie
s
o
f
differen
-
tiation
.
Ye
t
i
t
i
s
precisel
y
throug
h
th
e
currenc
y
o
f
longitudina
l
distinction
s
tha
t
differentiate
d
workplac
e
regimen
s
ar
e
license
d
an
d
throug
h
whic
h
th
e
intimat
e
significanc
e
o
f
th
e
East/Wes
t
idio
m
i
s
reproduce
d
b
y
easter
n
German
s
bein
g
disallowe
d
critica
l
voice
s
and
,
a
s
a
result
,
bein
g
interpellate
d
alway
s
agai
n
wit
h
thei
r
"innate
"
professiona
l
deficiencies
.
Fro
m
withi
n
suc
h
dail
y
practice
s
an
d
workplac
e
dynamics
,
medi
a
representation
s
ar
e
born
.
Quantitativ
e
an
d
qualitativ
e
knowledg
e
o
f
th
e
fact
s
o
f
East/Wes
t
differenc
e
ar
e
read
,
distilled
,
an
d
incorporate
d
b
y
journalist
s
wh
o
intui
t
suc
h
relation
s
surroundin
g
the
m
bot
h
a
t
hom
e
and
,
perhap
s
al
l
th
e
mor
e
strongl
y
throug
h
rigorou
s
silence
,
a
t
th
e
office
.
An
d
so
,
t
o
follo
w
m
y
argument
,
a
n
accredite
d
versio
n
o
f
everyda
y
intui
-
tio
n
become
s
recursivel
y
sedimente
d
int
o
publi
c
knowledge
,
an
d
th
e
semiotic
s
o
f
differenc
e
flourish
.
Thi
s
articl
e
i
s
b
y
n
o
mean
s
intende
d
a
s
a
n
exhaustiv
e
exploratio
n
o
f
ho
w
knowledge
s
o
f
socia
l
differenc
e
ar
e
codifie
d
an
d
accredite
d
throug
h
profes
-
siona
l
intellectua
l
practices
.
I
have
,
fo
r
example
,
no
t
eve
n
scratche
d
th
e
surfac
e
o
f
th
e
variou
s
kind
s
o
f
individua
l
an
d
intersubjectiv
e
"counterknowledges
"
tha
t
resis
t
an
d
deflect
,
t
o
a
greate
r
o
r
lesse
r
extent
,
th
e
dominan
t
epistemi
c
set
-
tlement
s
o
f
differenc
e
tha
t
saturat
e
ou
r
professiona
l
an
d
privat
e
lives
.
Rathe
r
tha
n
delineatin
g
a
typolog
y
o
f
knowledg
e
form
s
an
d
operations
,
thi
s
articl
e
hope
s
t
o
challeng
e
al
l
o
f
u
s
ethnographer
s
o
f
mor
e
o
r
les
s
"complex
"
societie
s
t
o
revisi
t
th
e
proble
m
o
f
th
e
"construction
"
o
f
seemingl
y
natura
l
knowledg
e
formation
s
suc
h
a
s
"nationa
l
character,
"
"wester
n
identity,
"
o
r
"professiona
l
expertise.
"
Yet
,
rathe
r
tha
n
bein
g
satisfie
d
wit
h
exposin
g
th
e
inventednes
s
o
f
thes
e
formations
,
I
woul
d
urg
e
u
s
t
o
tak
e
th
e
nex
t
ste
p
an
d
(re)discove
r
th
e
so
-
cia
l
agenc
y
an
d
intellectua
l
labor
s
embedde
d
i
n
thes
e
"objective
"
knowledge
s
an
d
t
o
stud
y
th
e
socia
l
lif
e
o
f
thos
e
responsibl
e
fo
r
articulatin
g
an
d
calibratin
g
the
m
(se
e
Sun
y
an
d
Kenned
y
1999)
,
A
s
I
hav
e
argue
d
elsewhere
,
Germa
n
na
-
tiona
l
cultur
e
di
d
no
t
sprin
g
fro
m
th
e
earth
,
t
o
paraphras
e
Marx
,
lik
e
a
mush
-
roo
m
but
,
rather
,
develope
d
historicall
y
an
d
t
o
a
grea
t
exten
t
throug
h
th
e
arti
-
sana
l
knowledg
e
labor
s
o
f
a
transloca
l
cultura
l
an
d
professiona
l
elit
e
(Boye
r
2000
;
se
e
Mar
x
1967:122)
,
Likewise
,
i
n
th
e
presen
t
case
,
w
e
hav
e
see
n
tha
t
East/Wes
t
differentiatio
n
i
s
no
t
a
n
instinctiv
e
functio
n
o
f
ethnotypica
l
"Germa
n
intolerance
"
but
,
rather
,
evidenc
e
tha
t
man
y
German
s
dra
w
o
n
a
simila
r
widel
y
circulate
d
an
d
legitimate
d
idio
m
o
f
classificatio
n
an
d
inferenc
e
t
o
"fil
l
th
e
frame[s
]
o
f
everyda
y
socia
l
experienc
e
wit
h
meaning
"
(Fernande
z
1986:45)
.
Explorin
g
th
e
relationalit
y
o
f
socia
l
knowledg
e
formations—tha
t
is
,
th
e
every
-
da
y
practice
s
o
f
knowledg
e
makin
g
tha
t
bridg
e
intimat
e
situationa
l
certaintie
s
wit
h
generalization
s
o
f
collectiv
e
characte
r
an
d
essence—wil
l
hel
p
u
s
t
o
bette
r
understan
d
th
e
historicit
y
o
f
particula
r
knowledge
s
o
f
sel
f
an
d
other
.
B
y
takin
g
seriousl
y
th
e
ide
a
tha
t
thes
e
knowledge
s
ar
e
resource
s
an
d
no
t
determinant
s
o
f
futur
e
semiosocia
l
practic
e
an
d
epistemi
c
order
,
w
e
ma
y
furthe
r
appreciat
e
knowledge-makin
g
practice
s
no
t
simpl
y
a
s
deputize
d
function
s
o
f
politica
l
hegemon
y
o
r
a
s
replicator
s
o
f
cultura
l
order
.
Instead
,
w
e
ma
v
approac
h
th
e
48
2
CULTURA
L
ANTHROPOLOG
Y
socia
l
formatio
n
o
f
knowledg
e
i
n
it
s
ful
l
complexit
y
o
f
contex
t
embeddedness
,
creativity
,
an
d
conservatism
.
Note
s
Acknowledgments.
I
wis
h
t
o
than
k
th
e
Alexande
r
vo
n
Humbold
t
Foundatio
n
i
n
Bon
n
an
d
th
e
Wenner-Gre
n
Foundatio
n
fo
r
Anthropologica
l
Researc
h
fo
r
generousl
y
fundin
g
m
y
fiel
d
researc
h
i
n
easter
n
German
y
durin
g
199
6
an
d
1997
.
Researc
h
wa
s
un
-
dertake
n
concomitantl
y
a
t
severa
l
medi
a
organization
s
i
n
Berlin
,
Leipzig
,
Dresden
,
Gera
,
Chemnitz
,
Cottbus
,
Suhl
,
an
d
Rostock
,
consistin
g
o
f
observatio
n
combine
d
wit
h
a
n
extensiv
e
serie
s
o
f
interview
s
wit
h
bot
h
easter
n
an
d
wester
n
Germa
n
journalists
.
A
shorte
r
versio
n
o
f
thi
s
articl
e
entitle
d
"Longitudina
l
Schismogenesi
s
an
d
th
e
'Fac
t
o
f
Eastern-ness
'
i
n
th
e
Easter
n
Germa
n
Medi
a
sinc
e
1990
"
wa
s
presente
d
a
t
th
e
Societ
y
fo
r
Cultura
l
Anthropolog
y
meeting
s
i
n
Sa
n
Francisc
o
i
n
Ma
y
1999
,
an
d
I
woul
d
lik
e
t
o
than
k
Carolin
e
Humphrey
,
Louis
e
Lamphere
,
an
d
Marth
a
Lamplan
d
especiall
y
fo
r
thei
r
re
-
sponse
s
t
o
tha
t
versio
n
o
f
thi
s
work
.
Fo
r
thei
r
helpfu
l
comment
s
o
n
earlie
r
draft
s
o
f
th
e
longe
r
versio
n
o
f
th
e
essay
,
I
ow
e
a
deb
t
o
f
gratitud
e
t
o
Da
n
Sega
l
an
d
fou
r
anonymou
s
reviewer
s
fo
r
CA,
wh
o
mad
e
a
numbe
r
o
f
insightfu
l
observation
s
a
s
t
o
wha
t
thi
s
articl
e
i
s
"reall
y
about.
"
I
als
o
woul
d
lik
e
t
o
expres
s
thank
s
t
o
th
e
Anthropolog
y
o
f
Europ
e
Worksho
p
a
t
th
e
Universit
y
o
f
Chicag
o
an
d
particularl
y
Davi
d
Altshuler
,
Patric
k
Eisen
-
lohr
,
Krisztin
a
Fehervary
,
Susa
n
Gal
,
Fran
k
Romagosa
,
an
d
Michae
l
Silverstei
n
fo
r
thei
r
hel
p
i
n
definin
g
an
d
framin
g
th
e
proble
m
unde
r
consideratio
n
an
d
t
o
Barbar
a
Boye
r
an
d
Johann
a
Schos
s
fo
r
thei
r
carefu
l
proofreadin
g
o
f
th
e
fina
l
manuscript
.
1
.
I
defin
e
individual
s
a
s
"easter
n
German
"
whe
n
the
y
wer
e
bor
n
i
n
th
e
Germa
n
Democrati
c
Republi
c
an
d
raise
d
t
o
adulthoo
d
there
.
I
mak
e
n
o
furthe
r
assertio
n
abou
t
th
e
influenc
e
o
f
thi
s
socializatio
n
proces
s
o
n
individua
l
value
s
o
r
behavior
.
I
defin
e
an
d
em
-
plo
y
"wester
n
German
"
alon
g
paralle
l
lines
.
I
reserv
e
"Eas
t
German
"
an
d
"Wes
t
Ger
-
man
"
fo
r
mor
e
pointe
d
referenc
e
t
o
stereotypica
l
socia
l
categorization
s
abou
t
longitudina
l
difference
.
I
t
shoul
d
als
o
b
e
mentione
d
tha
t
German
s
mak
e
us
e
o
f
severa
l
substantiv
e
pair
s
fo
r
differentiatin
g
longitudina
l
identitie
s
including
,
i
n
orde
r
o
f
de
-
creasin
g
formality
,
Leute
aus
den
neuen/alten
Bundesldndern
(peopl
e
fro
m
th
e
new/ol
d
federa
l
states)
,
Ostdeutsche/Westdeutsche
(East/Wes
t
Germans)
,
Ostler/Westler
(east
-
erners/westerners)
,
an
d
Ossis/Wessis
(easties/westies)
.
Eac
h
o
f
thes
e
indexica
l
set
s
sug
-
gest
s
a
stabl
e
substantiv
e
distinction
,
whic
h
i
s
anothe
r
reaso
n
wh
y
I
prefe
r
th
e
somewha
t
mor
e
contingen
t
adjectiva
l
connotation
s
o
f
"eastern
"
and/o
r
"western
"
German
.
2
.
I
n
thi
s
lin
e
o
f
inquiry
,
a
compellin
g
argumen
t
ha
s
bee
n
develope
d
(fo
r
example
,
i
n
Antak
i
an
d
Widdicomb
e
1998
;
Moerma
n
1974
;
Schneide
r
1997
;
an
d
Stron
g
an
d
va
n
Winkl
e
1996
)
tha
t
comple
x
politic
s
an
d
poetic
s
o
f
socia
l
differentiatio
n
ar
e
dialecticall
y
relate
d
t
o
th
e
constellation
s
o
f
perdurin
g
socia
l
an
d
cultura
l
"differences
"
tha
t
w
e
navi
-
gat
e
i
n
bot
h
ou
r
professiona
l
an
d
ou
r
everyda
y
lives
.
3
.
B
y
"intellectua
l
professional
"
I
inten
d
t
o
describ
e
individual
s
fo
r
who
m
opera
-
tion
s
(articulation
,
negotiation
,
dissemination
,
criticism
,
etc.
)
o
f
publi
c
knowledg
e
ar
e
a
matte
r
o
f
sociall
y
legitimate
d
jurisdiction
.
I
therefor
e
counterpos
e
thi
s
categor
y
t
o
non
-
professiona
l
intellectua
l
agenc
y
lik
e
stree
t
poetr
y
an
d
likewis
e
distinguis
h
i
t
fro
m
non
-
intellectua
l
professiona
l
agenc
y
lik
e
militar
y
officership
,
medica
l
specialization
,
o
r
lega
l
practice
.
M
y
conceptio
n
o
f
th
e
intellectua
l
a
s
"knowledg
e
specialist
"
remains
,
i
n
general
,
clos
e
t
o
Bourdieu'
s
discussio
n
o
f
th
e
bourgeoi
s
cultura
l
capitalis
t
i
n
HomoAca-
demicus
(1988)
.
Still
,
limitin
g
th
e
analysi
s
o
f
intellectua
l
lif
e
an
d
agenc
y
t
o
th
e
deploy
-
men
t
o
f
form
s
o
f
cultura
l
capita
l
i
n
field
s
o
f
actio
n
seem
s
t
o
unnecessaril
y
reduc
e
and/o
r
KNOWLEDGE
S
O
F
DIFFERENC
E
48
3
universaliz
e
huma
n
creativit
y
t
o
utilitaria
n
motivations
.
Stereotyping
,
a
n
issu
e
I
dea
l
wit
h
a
t
lengt
h
i
n
thi
s
article
,
fo
r
example
,
seem
s
scarcel
y
intelligibl
e
simpl
y
a
s
distinc
-
tio
n
fo
r
individua
l
gain
.
Stereotypin
g
i
s
als
o
abou
t
th
e
indexica
l
figuratio
n
o
f
th
e
sel
f
i
n
contex
t
an
d
th
e
cultivatio
n
o
f
routinize
d
form
s
o
f
socia
l
belongin
g
a
s
end
s
i
n
themselves
.
Thus
,
I
woul
d
encourag
e
acceptin
g
Bourdieu'
s
wor
k
o
n
cultura
l
distinctio
n
(1984
)
a
s
on
e
importan
t
featur
e
o
f
th
e
(self-)constitutio
n
o
f
intellectua
l
live
s
an
d
identities
,
bu
t
I
woul
d
als
o
urg
e
greate
r
reflectio
n
o
n
th
e
diversit
y
o
f
motive
s
an
d
effect
s
o
f
intellectua
l
agenc
y
a
s
wel
l
a
s
greate
r
attentio
n
t
o
th
e
idiosyncrasie
s
o
f
particula
r
local
,
institutional
,
an
d
nationa
l
context
s
o
f
intellectua
l
life
.
4
.
Th
e
mos
t
tota
l
o
f
thes
e
wa
s
th
e
identificatio
n
o
f
th
e
Eas
t
Germa
n
a
s
a
"Zone
-
Zombie,
"
a
socia
l
malefacto
r
sleepwalkin
g
throug
h
th
e
network
s
o
f
th
e
wester
n
Germa
n
lifeworld
,
wh
o
i
s
restles
s
an
d
dissatisfie
d
wit
h
th
e
virtue
s
o
f
democrac
y
an
d
freedo
m
an
d
longs
,
on
e
supposes
,
fo
r
th
e
retur
n
o
f
th
e
corrup
t
totalitaria
n
regim
e
tha
t
birthe
d
hi
m
o
r
her
.
Thi
s
imag
e
ha
d
marginall
y
les
s
popularit
y
durin
g
th
e
perio
d
o
f
m
y
fieldwor
k
tha
n
i
t
ha
d
a
fe
w
year
s
earlie
r
bu
t
wa
s
nonetheles
s
on
e
o
f
th
e
mos
t
tellin
g
an
d
disturbin
g
idiom
s
I
encountered
.
5
.
Judit
h
Butle
r
make
s
a
simila
r
poin
t
i
n
Bodies
that
Matter:
I
t
seem
s
crucia
l
t
o
resis
t
th
e
mode
l
o
f
powe
r
tha
t
woul
d
se
t
u
p
racis
m
an
d
homophobi
a
an
d
mi
-
sogyn
y
a
s
paralle
l
o
r
analogica
l
relations
.
Th
e
assertio
n
o
f
thei
r
abstrac
t
o
r
structura
l
equiva
-
lenc
e
no
t
onl
y
misse
s
th
e
specifi
c
historie
s
o
f
thei
r
constructio
n
an
d
elaboration
,
bu
t
als
o
delay
s
th
e
importan
t
wor
k
o
f
thinkin
g
throug
h
th
e
way
s
i
n
whic
h
thes
e
vector
s
o
f
powe
r
requir
e
an
d
de
-
plo
y
eac
h
othe
r
fo
r
th
e
purpos
e
o
f
thei
r
ow
n
articulation
.
Indeed
,
i
t
ma
y
no
t
b
e
possibl
e
t
o
thin
k
an
y
o
f
thes
e
notion
s
o
r
thei
r
interrelation
s
withou
t
a
substantiall
y
revise
d
conceptio
n
o
f
powe
r
i
n
bot
h
it
s
geopolitica
l
dimension
s
an
d
i
n
th
e
contemporar
y
tributarie
s
o
f
it
s
intersectin
g
circu
-
lation
.
[1993:18
]
Fo
r
furthe
r
evidenc
e
o
f
th
e
tessellatio
n
o
f
"tributary
"
alteritie
s
i
n
differen
t
place
s
an
d
times
,
I
woul
d
recommen
d
Boa
s
1940
,
Comarof
f
an
d
Comarof
f
1991:86-125
,
Finzsc
h
an
d
Schirme
r
1998
,
Goul
d
1996
,
Harawa
y
1989
,
an
d
Stockin
g
1968
.
6
.
Ye
t
easter
n
German
s
als
o
ar
e
intimatel
y
awar
e
tha
t
criticis
m
o
f
th
e
Wes
t
imme
-
diatel
y
harden
s
thei
r
discursiv
e
interpellation
s
a
s
"whin
y
an
d
ungrateful
"
Ossis
,
s
o
man
y
furthe
r
distinguis
h
a
secon
d
negativ
e
indexica
l
categor
y
o
f
"Ossi"-ness
,
situatin
g
them
-
selve
s
i
n
a
positiv
e
middl
e
groun
d
betwee
n
th
e
stereotypica
l
pole
s
o
f
wester
n
arroganc
e
an
d
egotis
m
an
d
easter
n
stubbor
n
inflexibilit
y
(cf
.
Berdah
l
1999:180-181)
.
I
likewis
e
encountere
d
som
e
wester
n
Germa
n
journalists
,
particularl
y
thos
e
wh
o
worke
d
i
n
easter
n
Germa
n
medi
a
institutions
,
wh
o
distinguishe
d
themselve
s
an
d
thei
r
wor
k
throug
h
a
negativ
e
indexica
l
o
f
"Wessi"-nes
s
tha
t
typifie
d
careeris
t
Wes
t
German
s
wh
o
allegedl
y
worke
d
i
n
th
e
Eas
t
solel
y
fo
r
persona
l
advancement
.
Sometime
s
thes
e
individual
s
refere
d
t
o
themselve
s
a
s
Wossis.
I
noticed
,
however
,
tha
t
i
n
bot
h
th
e
easter
n
an
d
th
e
wester
n
cases
,
th
e
"we'r
e
neithe
r
eas
t
no
r
west
"
strateg
y
o
f
counterdistinctio
n
fro
m
one'
s
sup
-
pose
d
longitudina
l
essenc
e
wa
s
quit
e
unstabl
e
an
d
wa
s
ofte
n
abandone
d
halfwa
y
throug
h
a
conversatio
n
becaus
e
m
y
interlocutor
s
seeme
d
t
o
fee
l
i
t
require
d
to
o
man
y
caveat
s
t
o
sustai
n
it
s
relevance
.
I
n
retrospect
.
I
conside
r
suc
h
moment
s
mor
e
a
s
gesture
s
o
f
resis
-
tanc
e
towar
d
a
dominan
t
axi
s
o
f
classificatio
n
tha
n
a
s
stabl
e
strategie
s
lo
r
identit
y
for
-
matio
n
i
n
thei
r
ow
n
right
.
7
.
Thi
s
distinctio
n
betwee
n
"index
"
an
d
"symbol
"
a
s
differen
t
type
s
o
f
sign
s
i
s
roote
d
i
n
th
e
wor
k
o
f
linguis
t
an
d
philosophe
r
Charle
s
S
.
Peirc
e
(1955)
.
Peircc
,
accord
-
in
g
t
o
Michae
l
Silverstein
,
define
d
th
e
inde
x
a
s
"i
n
dynamica
l
(includin
g
spatial
)
connectio
n
bot
h
wit
h
th
e
individua
l
object
,
o
n
th
e
on
e
hand
,
an
d
wit
h
th
e
sens
e
o
f
memor
y
o
f
th
e
perso
n
to
r
who
m
i
t
serve
s
a
s
a
sign
,
o
n
th
e
othe
r
hand,
"
creatin
g
a
"contextua
l
contiguit
y
betwee
n
48
4
CULTURA
L
ANTHROPOLOG
Y
sign-vehicl
e
an
d
entit
y
signaled
"
(Silverstei
n
1976:27)
.
Th
e
symbo
l
meanwhil
e
estab
-
lishe
s
a
n
analogica
l
o
r
metaphorica
l
relationshi
p
betwee
n
"sign-vehicle
"
an
d
object
,
th
e
classi
c
"arbitrary
"
sign
.
I
n
moder
n
Europea
n
languag
e
ideologies
,
symboli
c
feature
s
o
f
languag
e
ar
e
typicall
y
privilege
d
abov
e
indexica
l
feature
s
a
s
th
e
"essence
"
o
f
languag
e
becaus
e
symbol
s
purpor
t
t
o
signif
y
mor
e
stabl
e
an
d
"true
"
semioti
c
correspondence
s
tha
n
indexical
s
tha
t
ar
e
thoroughl
y
embedde
d
i
n
th
e
dynamic
s
o
f
social-cultura
l
contex
t
an
d
therefor
e
semanticall
y
mutabl
e
(Silverstei
n
1979)
.
O
n
th
e
relationshi
p
o
f
indexical
-
it
y
t
o
meaning
,
se
e
als
o
Putna
m
1975
.
8
.
Ther
e
ar
e
ver
y
fe
w
Germa
n
researc
h
institute
s
tha
t
hav
e
no
t
funde
d
som
e
for
m
o
f
East/Wes
t
researc
h
sinc
e
1989
.
Publi
c
an
d
privat
e
secto
r
fundin
g
ha
s
bee
n
abundan
t
fo
r
exploration
s
o
f
th
e
behaviora
l
habits
,
opinions
,
an
d
value
s
tha
t
differentiat
e
Eas
t
an
d
Wes
t
Germans
.
9
.
Thi
s
outlin
e
i
s
profoundl
y
interdisciplinar
y
an
d
ha
s
bee
n
employe
d
widel
y
i
n
academi
c
researc
h
fro
m
economic
s
t
o
sociology
,
t
o
psychology
,
t
o
history
,
t
o
politica
l
science
.
Fo
r
examples
,
se
e
Denni
s
1993
,
Fulbroo
k
1994:214—218
,
Landu
a
1993
,
Maa
z
1990
,
Maie
r
1997:29
8
ff.
,
Rink
e
1995
,
an
d
Wagne
r
1996
.
Th
e
basi
c
interpretatio
n
o
f
event
s
i
s
s
o
commonplac
e
an
d
intuitiv
e
i
n
scholarl
y
an
d
popula
r
literatur
e
tha
t
i
t
i
s
ver
y
difficul
t
no
t
t
o
fin
d
a
n
appea
l
t
o
i
t
i
n
an
y
tex
t
o
n
postunificatio
n
German-Germa
n
rela
-
tions
.
10
.
Se
e
Denni
s
199
3
an
d
Dros
t
199
3
fo
r
dat
a
o
n
th
e
economi
c
collaps
e
i
n
easter
n
German
y
i
n
th
e
earl
y
1990s
.
11
.
Qualitativ
e
narrative
s
als
o
mor
e
pointedl
y
elaborat
e
knowledg
e
o
f
easter
n
dif
-
ferenc
e
an
d
mora
l
appurtenance
.
Excellen
t
example
s
ar
e
th
e
countles
s
medi
a
report
s
i
n
wester
n
Germany
,
i
n
wester
n
Europe
,
an
d
i
n
th
e
Unite
d
State
s
o
n
skinhea
d
violenc
e
i
n
easter
n
Germany
.
Fo
r
recen
t
example
s
o
f
thi
s
medi
a
discourse
,
se
e
Cohe
n
1999
,
Mose
-
le
y
1998
,
Pfeiffe
r
1999
,
an
d
Thoma
s
1998
.
Again
,
a
conventiona
l
interpretiv
e
outlin
e
i
s
rarel
y
challenged
:
unemploye
d
youn
g
easter
n
Germa
n
me
n
wit
h
fe
w
prospects
,
hatre
d
o
f
everythin
g
fo
r
whic
h
th
e
Wes
t
stands
,
an
d
a
n
instinctiv
e
nostalgi
a
fo
r
th
e
stabilit
y
o
f
thei
r
socialis
t
yout
h
ar
e
represente
d
a
s
onl
y
th
e
mos
t
visibl
e
edg
e
o
f
a
genera
l
easter
n
threa
t
t
o
th
e
democrati
c
value
s
o
f
(West
)
German
y
catalyze
d
b
y
economi
c
marginaliza
-
tion
.
Importantly
,
neithe
r
th
e
symmetrica
l
presenc
e
o
f
well-organize
d
right-win
g
move
-
ment
s
i
n
wester
n
German
y
no
r
th
e
involvemen
t
o
f
wester
n
Germa
n
neofascist
s
i
n
th
e
organizatio
n
o
f
easter
n
Germa
n
attack
s
i
s
ofte
n
reported
.
Suc
h
evidenc
e
woul
d
cas
t
doub
t
o
n
th
e
comfortabl
e
associatio
n
o
f
right-wing
activit
y
wit
h
"easternness
"
(tha
t
is
,
wit
h
a
socia
l
categor
y
alread
y
distance
d
fro
m
th
e
semanti
c
cluste
r
o
f
westernness
,
civi
-
lization
,
democracy
,
an
d
s
o
forth)
.
Here
,
i
t
i
s
interestin
g
t
o
compar
e
homologie
s
betwee
n
medi
a
representation
s
an
d
academi
c
debate
.
Medi
a
representation
s
ten
d
t
o
offe
r
mor
e
monochromati
c
interpretation
s
o
f
East/Wes
t
difference
s
i
n
xenophobia
.
The
y
normall
y
poin
t
t
o
disillusionmen
t
wit
h
democrati
c
reform
s
an
d
economi
c
crisi
s
i
n
th
e
Eas
t
a
s
ex
-
plainin
g
wh
y
"Eas
t
Germans
"
ar
e
turnin
g
i
n
larg
e
number
s
t
o
nationalis
t
parties
.
Al
-
thoug
h
Ausldnderfeindlichkeit
(animosit
y
towar
d
foreigners
)
i
n
wester
n
German
y
i
s
als
o
a
fairl
y
commo
n
medi
a
theme
,
th
e
Eas
t
Germa
n
cas
e
i
s
alway
s
portraye
d
a
s
a
mor
e
extrem
e
o
r
pathologica
l
varian
t
o
f
stereotypica
l
Germa
n
"intolerance.
"
Academi
c
re-
searc
h
o
n
right-win
g
activit
y
withi
n
German
y
als
o
clearl
y
situate
s
i
t
a
s
a
proble
m
fo
r
bot
h
easter
n
an
d
wester
n
Germany
.
Ye
t
eve
n
scholarshi
p
tha
t
offer
s
a
comple
x
an
d
nu
-
ance
d
accoun
t
o
f
th
e
contextua
l
factor
s
influencin
g
right-win
g
activity
,
an
d
tha
t
explic
-
itl
y
denie
s
th
e
thesi
s
tha
t
Eas
t
German
s
ar
e
mor
e
likel
y
t
o
b
e
xenophobi
c
tha
n
Wes
t
Germans
,
ofte
n
contain
s
paragraph
s
tha
t
specif
y
ho
w
th
e
combinatio
n
o
f
authoritarian
socializatio
n
an
d
post-198
9
Orientierungsverlust
(los
s
o
f
[social
]
orientation
)
i
n
th
e
forme
r
KNOWLEDGE
S
O
F
DIFFERENC
E
48
5
GD
R
ha
s
contribute
d
especiall
y
t
o
xenophobi
a
an
d
violenc
e
ther
e
(Aschwande
n
1995:196-204
;
Becke
r
e
t
al
.
1992.9
8
ff.
;
Schnabe
l
1994:84-85
;
Sippe
l
1994:72-73)
.
Researcher
s
ofte
n
fee
l
tha
t
thi
s
i
s
a
progressiv
e
messag
e
becaus
e
i
t
stresse
s
ho
w
Eas
t
German
s
ar
e
effectivel
y
victim
s
o
f
thei
r
socializatio
n
rathe
r
tha
n
simpl
y
bor
n
criminal
s
(Pfeiffe
r
1999)
.
12
.
Le
t
m
e
b
e
clea
r
tha
t
I
a
m
no
t
denyin
g
th
e
impac
t
o
f
pre-198
9
socialization
s
o
n
th
e
semiosocia
l
repertoire
s
an
d
socia
l
orientation
s
o
f
Germa
n
citizen
s
afte
r
1989
.
Bu
t
I
a
m
assertin
g
tha
t
i
t
i
s
a
n
ideologica
l
manipulatio
n
o
f
empirica
l
evidenc
e
t
o
continu
e
t
o
us
e
longitud
e
a
s
a
n
independen
t
variabl
e
o
f
generalizabl
e
cultura
l
differenc
e
te
n
year
s
afte
r
unification
.
Daphn
e
Berdah
l
ha
s
recounte
d
initia
l
difference
s
i
n
practice—pattern
s
o
f
consumption
,
fo
r
exampl
e
(1999:122-
4
35)—tha
t
identifie
d
easter
n
German
s
a
s
lack
-
in
g
a
flui
d
engagemen
t
wit
h
th
e
societa
l
norm
s
o
f
th
e
FR
G
i
n
th
e
month
s
afte
r
th
e
Wal
l
cam
e
down
.
Bu
t
Berdah
l
likewis
e
observes
,
a
s
I
encountere
d
a
s
well
,
tha
t
difference
s
i
n
actua
l
practice
s
wer
e
rapidl
y
overtake
n
b
y
practice
s
o
f
differentiatio
n
tha
t
thrive
d
o
n
a
n
ideolog
y
o
f
th
e
existenc
e
o
f
fixed
,
differentia
l
trait
s
an
d
habit
s
i
n
th
e
Alltagskulturen
(culture
s
o
f
everyda
y
life
)
o
f
Eas
t
an
d
Wes
t
German
s
(1999:137,173-175)
.
Informa
l
so
-
cia
l
knowledg
e
nevertheles
s
ha
s
insiste
d
tha
t
essentia
l
feature
s
o
f
socia
l
an
d
cultura
l
dif
-
ferenc
e
hav
e
persiste
d
despit
e
th
e
decreasin
g
utilit
y
o
f
longitud
e
a
s
a
principl
e
o
f
classificatio
n
fro
m
whic
h
on
e
coul
d
mak
e
accurat
e
empirica
l
prediction
s
abou
t
th
e
be
-
havio
r
o
r
value
s
o
f
a
n
individua
l
socia
l
actor
.
13
.
Kultu
r
i
s
th
e
classi
c
shifte
r
o
f
Germa
n
nationa
l
belonging
.
Followin
g
Loui
s
Dumon
t
(1994
)
an
d
Norber
t
Elia
s
(1994)
,
w
e
coul
d
sa
y
tha
t
i
t
i
s
typifie
d
b
y
pietisti
c
trait
s
o
f
inne
r
virtu
e
an
d
mora
l
purit
y
tha
t
ar
e
commonl
y
oppose
d
t
o
profan
e
materialit
y
an
d
th
e
exercis
e
o
f
power
.
A
s
Elia
s
correctl
y
observe
s
(1994:3-28)
,
th
e
secre
t
o
f
Kul
-
tur
'
s
significanc
e
fo
r
th
e
moder
n
Germa
n
nation-stat
e
i
s
tha
t
i
t
wa
s
mad
e
t
o
emblematiz
e
al
l
th
e
positiv
e
trait
s
o
f
th
e
Germa
n
cultura
l
bourgeoisie
,
th
e
Bildungsbiirgertum,
a
s
the
y
sough
t
t
o
distinguis
h
thei
r
socia
l
identit
y
i
n
th
e
lat
e
18t
h
an
d
earl
y
19t
h
centurie
s
fro
m
th
e
qualitie
s
the
y
impute
d
t
o
th
e
Germa
n
aristocrac
y
an
d
t
o
th
e
Germa
n
industrial
,
arti
-
sanal
,
an
d
workin
g
classes
.
A
s
I
discus
s
elsewhere
,
Kultu
r
stabilize
s
a
conceptio
n
o
f
positiv
e
huma
n
socialit
y
a
s
a
harmoniou
s
systematicit
y
o
f
inne
r
spirit
s
(Geister)
tha
t
i
s
externall
y
(socially
)
mediate
d
b
y
a
syste
m
o
f
ideall
y
pur
e
linguisti
c
referentialit
y
(Boye
r
2000)
.
Kultur
,
althoug
h
no
t
quit
e
th
e
Kultu
r
o
f
th
e
19t
h
century
,
stil
l
occupie
s
thi
s
cen
-
tra
l
positio
n
a
s
th
e
tote
m
o
f
th
e
corporat
e
identit
y
o
f
th
e
Germa
n
natio
n
roote
d
i
n
lan
-
guage
,
bloodline
,
an
d
territory
.
14
.
O
n
th
e
Treuhand,
se
e
Jiirg
s
1997
.
Fo
r
mor
e
controversia
l
an
d
critica
l
insight
s
int
o
th
e
mechanic
s
o
f
th
e
unificatio
n
proces
s
i
n
differen
t
domain
s
o
f
Germa
n
society
,
se
e
Dumck
e
an
d
Vilma
r
1996
.
15
.
Th
e
GD
R
pursue
d
a
n
explicitl
y
Leninis
t
mode
l
o
f
th
e
mas
s
medi
a
a
s
a
too
l
fo
r
cultivatin
g
a
revolutionar
y
consciousnes
s
withi
n
it
s
citizenr
y
(se
e
Leni
n
1961:22)
.
Th
e
Socialis
t
Part
y
understoo
d
journalist
s
a
s
privilege
d
mediator
s
wh
o
harmonize
d
th
e
idea
s
o
f
individual
s
wit
h
th
e
ideolog
y
o
f
th
e
state
.
Journalists
,
t
o
a
larg
e
extent
,
accepte
d
thi
s
rol
e
an
d
believe
d
i
n
th
e
virtu
e
o
f
a
socialis
t
alternativ
e
t
o
Wes
t
Germany
.
O
n
th
e
othe
r
hand
,
man
y
fel
t
ver
y
ambivalentl
y
abou
t
thei
r
actua
l
dail
y
practic
e
becaus
e
the
y
wer
e
ex
-
pecte
d
t
o
endur
e
heav
y
censorshi
p
an
d
self-censorshi
p
(se
e
Blau
m
1985
;
Steu
l
1996)
.
16
.
On
e
progressiv
e
employmen
t
tren
d
i
n
th
e
easter
n
Germa
n
medi
a
sinc
e
198
9
ha
s
bee
n
th
e
consciou
s
effor
t
o
n
th
e
par
t
o
f
man
y
wester
n
Germa
n
owner
s
t
o
recrui
t
an
d
rehabilitat
e
easter
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
wh
o
ha
d
receive
d
so-calle
d
Berufsverbote
(ex
-
clusion
s
fro
m
professiona
l
practice
)
durin
e
th
e
Honecke
r
48
6
CULTURA
L
ANTHROPOLOG
Y
17
,
Ther
e
ar
e
stil
l
a
fe
w
smal
l
prin
t
periodical
s
lik
e
Neues
Deutschland,
Freitag,
an
d
Junge
Welt
tha
t
remai
n
almos
t
entirel
y
fre
e
o
f
wester
n
Germa
n
corporat
e
influence
.
Thi
s
shoul
d
b
e
see
n
les
s
a
s
a
heroi
c
defens
e
o
f
socialis
t
heritag
e
tha
n
a
s
a
profoun
d
lac
k
o
f
interes
t
o
n
th
e
par
t
o
f
wester
n
Germa
n
corporat
e
interest
s
fo
r
investin
g
mone
y
i
n
wha
t
the
y
perceiv
e
t
o
b
e
scarcel
y
solvent
,
fring
e
publications
.
A
s
th
e
editor-in-chie
f
o
f
Neues
Deutschland
sai
d
t
o
m
e
o
n
mor
e
tha
n
on
e
occasion
,
"Yo
u
know
,
I'
d
b
e
thrille
d
t
o
publis
h
a
n
advertisemen
t
b
y
Mercedes-Benz
,
Ideolog
y
isn
'
t
th
e
reaso
n
wh
y
w
e
don'
t
hav
e
adver
-
tisement
s
i
n
ou
r
newspaper
.
W
e
don'
t
hav
e
advertisement
s
i
n
ou
r
newspape
r
becaus
e
Mercedes-Ben
z
ha
s
n
o
interes
t
placin
g
ad
s
i
n
a
newspape
r
that'
s
critica
l
o
f
capitalism,
"
18
,
Th
e
structura
l
oppositio
n
o
f
Meinungsjournalismus
(opinion-oriente
d
journal
-
ism
)
t
o
Nachrichtenjournalismus
(news-oriente
d
journalism
)
ha
s
bee
n
a
statu
s
distinc
-
tio
n
i
n
Germa
n
journalis
m
sinc
e
th
e
18t
h
centur
y
(se
e
Requat
e
1995)
,
Durin
g
m
y
research
,
I
wa
s
tol
d
severa
l
storie
s
b
y
easter
n
Germa
n
journalist
s
abou
t
thei
r
struggle
s
t
o
b
e
allowe
d
t
o
writ
e
op-e
d
piece
s
fo
r
thei
r
newspapers
.
On
e
stor
y
i
n
particula
r
involve
d
a
n
informa
l
politica
l
examinatio
n
i
n
whic
h
a
n
easter
n
Germa
n
journalis
t
wh
o
ha
d
for
-
mall
y
bee
n
a
n
editor-in-chie
f
a
t
anothe
r
pape
r
wa
s
aske
d
a
numbe
r
o
f
question
s
alon
g
th
e
line
s
o
f
"D
o
yo
u
kno
w
wha
t
democrac
y
means?
"
H
e
recollected
,
"I
t
wa
s
s
o
clearl
y
a
n
embarrassmen
t
tha
t
th
e
editor-in-chie
f
himsel
f
cam
e
u
p
late
r
an
d
apologize
d
t
o
me.
"
Th
e
happ
y
endin
g
t
o
thi
s
stor
y
wa
s
tha
t
th
e
journalis
t
i
n
questio
n
passe
d
hi
s
examinatio
n
an
d
becam
e
th
e
edito
r
i
n
charg
e
o
f
th
e
opinion/editoria
l
pag
e
fo
r
a
year—evidenc
e
that
,
in
-
deed
,
professiona
l
decision
s
ar
e
no
t
universall
y
dictate
d
b
y
longitudina
l
logic
,
19
,
Praxis,
i
n
th
e
contex
t
o
f
Germa
n
professiona
l
discourse
,
denote
s
bot
h
"prac
-
tice
"
i
n
it
s
standar
d
Englis
h
usag
e
an
d
th
e
experiential
,
habitua
l
knowledg
e
tha
t
a
profes
-
siona
l
gain
s
throug
h
th
e
actua
l
practic
e
o
f
hi
s
o
r
he
r
profession
,
20
,
Onc
e
a
journalis
t
responde
d
t
o
m
y
direc
t
question
s
abou
t
workplac
e
relation
s
betwee
n
Eas
t
an
d
Wes
t
Germa
n
colleague
s
i
n
subtl
e
allegorie
s
o
f
he
r
son'
s
transitio
n
t
o
schoo
l
i
n
Wes
t
Berli
n
an
d
th
e
tension
s
h
e
initiall
y
ha
d
wit
h
teacher
s
an
d
classmates
,
21
,
Foucaul
t
define
s
governmentality
a
s
th
e
"encounte
r
betwee
n
th
e
technologie
s
o
f
dominatio
n
o
f
other
s
an
d
thos
e
o
f
th
e
sel
f
tha
t
link
s
discours
e
t
o
ethic
s
(1997:225)
,
22
,
Th
e
dialogica
l
relationshi
p
betwee
n
th
e
Col
d
Wa
r
Germa
n
states
,
thei
r
conviv
-
ia
l
politic
s
o
f
identit
y
an
d
memory
,
an
d
thei
r
strategie
s
o
f
contradistinctio
n
an
d
negativ
e
stereotypin
g
ar
e
al
l
discusse
d
a
t
greate
r
lengt
h
i
n
Bornema
n
1992
,
Boye
r
2000
,
an
d
Her
f
1997
,
23
,
I
borro
w
th
e
ter
m
schismogenesis
fro
m
Gregor
y
Bateson'
s
(1935
)
expansio
n
o
f
th
e
analysi
s
o
f
situation
s
o
f
"cultur
e
contact
"
t
o
includ
e
equilibrate
d
an
d
disequilibrate
d
relation
s
betwee
n
group
s
i
n
th
e
sam
e
society
.
Th
e
reciproca
l
strategie
s
o
f
oppositio
n
tha
t
Bateso
n
term
s
"symmetrica
l
schismogenesis
"
(1935:181-182
)
illuminat
e
ho
w
semiosocia
l
practice
s
o
f
longitudina
l
differentiatio
n
create
,
a
t
once
,
vision
s
o
f
bot
h
timeles
s
cultura
l
samenes
s
an
d
historica
l
cultura
l
differenc
e
(se
e
als
o
Sahlin
s
1999:410)
.
24
,
Thi
s
perpetua
l
projec
t
o
f
cultivatin
g
an
d
distillin
g
essentia
l
principle
s
o
f
na
-
tiona
l
identificatio
n
ha
s
bee
n
unde
r
wa
y
i
n
on
e
mod
e
o
r
anothe
r
sinc
e
th
e
Germa
n
bour
-
geoi
s
intelligentsi
a
cam
e
t
o
differentiat
e
itsel
f
a
s
a
distinc
t
enlightene
d
cast
e
i
n
th
e
lat
e
18t
h
centur
y
(Boye
r
2000)
,
Th
e
Germa
n
nation-state
,
lon
g
th
e
political-institutiona
l
em
-
bodimen
t
i
n
whic
h
th
e
Germa
n
intelligentsi
a
sough
t
t
o
hous
e
th
e
spiritua
l
systematicit
y
o
f
it
s
Kultur
,
ha
s
likewis
e
bee
n
par
t
o
f
th
e
discours
e
o
n
Germa
n
intellectua
l
identit
y
fo
r
centuries
.
Afte
r
1990,
1
believ
e
w
e
hav
e
see
n
a
n
indexica
l
modificatio
n
withi
n
a
long
-
standin
g
discours
e
o
n
th
e
cultivatio
n
o
f
mor
e
perfec
t
intellectua
l
an
d
nationa
l
belongin
g
tha
t
ha
s
no
w
elevate
d
East/Wes
t
t
o
a
primar
y
idio
m
o
f
differentiatio
n
i
n
which
,
t
o
selec
t
well-know
n
examples
,
th
e
opposition
s
o
f
Germa
n
an
d
Je
w
o
r
Germa
n
an
d
Sla
v
use
d
t
o
KNOWLEDGE
S
O
F
DIFFERENC
E
48
7
b
e
fa
r
mor
e
abundan
t
i
n
popula
r
an
d
publi
c
discours
e
(se
e
Gerhar
d
199
8
fo
r
a
n
excellen
t
discursiv
e
analysi
s
o
f
Germa
n
nationa
l
identification)
.
Reference
s
Cite
d
Abbott
,
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w
198
8
Th
e
Syste
m
o
f
Professions
:
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n
Essa
y
o
n
th
e
Divisio
n
o
f
Exper
t
Labor
.
Chicago
:
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y
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f
Chicag
o
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Althaus
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Hans-Joachim
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ed
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199
6
Auslandsleute
:
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n
iibe
r
Ostdeutschland
.
Tubingen
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r
Vereinigun
g
fu
r
VolkskunSe
.
Antaki
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Charles
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Identitie
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199
5
Jugendliche
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s
gesamtdeutsche
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Bateson
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Cultur
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Zwische
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t
un
d
Aufbruch
:
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s
Lebensgefiih
l
de
r
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i
n
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d
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t
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Identit
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i
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d
i
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r
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n
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g
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n
th
e
Tw
o
Berlins
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State
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Nation
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Cambridge
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-
sit
y
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,
Pierr
e
198
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Distinction
:
A
Socia
l
Critiqu
e
o
f
th
e
Judgemen
t
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f
Taste
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Richar
d
Nice
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MA
:
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d
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y
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198
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o
Academicus
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r
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:
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d
Universit
y
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,
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t
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d
System
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s
Media
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m
an
d
th
e
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s
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f
Moder
n
Germa
n
Intellectua
l
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.
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t
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f
Anthropology
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y
o
f
Chicago
.
Butler
,
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h
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s
tha
t
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w
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:
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,
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r
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Right-Win
g
Marc
h
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s
Disenchanted
.
Th
e
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w
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k
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,
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:
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Comaroff
,
Jean
,
an
d
Joh
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f
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d
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d
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-
nes
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i
n
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h
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.
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y
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f
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o
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48
8
CULTURA
L
ANTHROPOLOG
Y
Dennis
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e
199
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Socia
l
an
d
Economi
c
Modernizatio
n
i
n
Easter
n
German
y
fro
m
Honecke
r
t
o
Kohl
.
Ne
w
York
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.
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s
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e
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t
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n
de
r
Woche
.
Di
e
Wochenpost
,
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r
12
:
24
.
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,
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r
199
3
Th
e
Grea
t
Depressio
n
i
n
Eas
t
Germany
:
Th
e
Effect
s
o
f
Unificatio
n
o
n
Eas
t
Germany'
s
Economy
.
Eas
t
Europea
n
Politic
s
an
d
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s
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.
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,
Wolfgang
,
an
d
Frit
z
Vilma
r
199
6
Kolonialisierun
g
de
r
DDR
:
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e
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n
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d
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n
de
s
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a
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Dumont
,
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s
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n
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:
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m
Franc
e
t
o
German
y
an
d
Back
.
Chicago
:
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y
o
f
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o
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.
Elias
,
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t
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e
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g
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,
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.
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e
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o
f
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.
Edmun
d
Jephcott
,
trans
.
Oxford
:
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l
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.
Erpenbeck
,
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,
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s
Weinber
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un
d
Menschenbildung
:
Bildungstheoretisch
e
Konsequenze
n
de
r
unterschiedliche
n
Menschenbilde
r
i
n
de
r
ehemalige
n
DD
R
un
d
i
n
de
r
heutige
n
Bundesrepublik
.
Munster
:
Waxmann
.
Fanon
,
Frant
z
196
7
Blac
k
Skin
,
Whit
e
Masks
.
Ne
w
York
:
Grov
e
Press
.
Fernandez
,
Jame
s
W
.
198
6
Persuasion
s
an
d
Performances
:
Th
e
Pla
y
o
f
Trope
s
i
n
Culture
.
Bloomington
:
Indian
a
Universit
y
Press
.
Finzsch
,
Norbert
,
an
d
Dietma
r
Schirmer
,
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.
199
8
Identit
y
an
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