Study Guide Test 5 – Molecular Genetics

onwardhaggardBiotechnology

Dec 12, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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Bio J
Study Guide
-

Molecular Genetics


Discoveries:

-

K
now

(recognize)
a BRIEF descrip
tion of the experiments done by the following scientists
and the “take home message”

o

Griffith

o

Avery and McLeod

o

Hershey and Chase

o

Watson and Crick


Structure of DNA

-

know
the parts of a DNA nucleotide including

o

specific name of the sugar

o

Which bases are pyrimadines and which are purines

o

What does anti
-
parallel mean?

-

Know the parts and what bonds make up the backbone

-

Understand base pairing

o

Chargaff’s rule

o

Which bases bind t
o which bases

o

What type of bonds form between bases


Replication

-

Where does it happen
? When does it need to happen?

-

what does semi
-
conservative mean? What was the alternative?

(see your book!)

-

What is the primary advantage of semi
-
conservative replicat
ion?

-

Describe what happens in each step and which enzymes do what

-

What are replication bubbles? How do they help speed up replication?


Transcription

-

where does it happen
? When does it need to happen?

-

What are the differences between RNA and DNA?

-

what
are the steps and what enzyme is involved

-

what do we mean by “copy the DNA into RNA”

-

What are the three types of RNA and what is their role?

-

What are introns and exons and how do they play a role in one gene producing several
different proteins?


Translati
on

-

where does it occur?

When does it occur?

-

What are the steps?

-

What are codons? What is the 1
st

amino acid of every protein? What are stop codons
?

-

How many bases need to code for one amino acid? Why?

-

What kind of bonding process occurs to link togethe
r individual amino acids into a
polypeptide?


Putting it all together

-

If given a DNA sequence, make sure you are able to transcribe it into an mRNA sequence
and then translate it (using a decoder) into a polypeptide sequence.



Mutations:

-

What is the
primary difference between chromosomal and point mutations and which have
more of an effect on the organism
?

-

In order for an
organism

to express a mutation in every cell, the mutation must occur in
which type of cells (somatic or gametic)?

-

know the differe
nce between each of the following mutations

o

insertion, deletion, substitution

-

Describe what occurs when we have
frameshift, silent and nonsense

mutation results
. Which
of the point mutations typically result in each?

-

understand
the effect each type of muta
tion has on an amino acid sequence

-

Are mutations always bad????? Why not????



Genetic Engineering:

-

Define the following

o

Recombinant DNA

o

Human genome project

o

Transgenic Organism

-

be able to describe the proc
ess by which a transgenic organism

is made. APP
LY this
process
(ie: if I say “how would I make a corn plant express a bacterial toxin?
)

-

Be able to describe the steps to making a clone

-

Understand restriction enzymes, what they do, where they come from, how they are used in
the process of genetic enginee
ring

-

Understand electrophoresis, how it works and what it can be used for

-

Understand DNA fingerprinting, how it combines the above two techniques and what it can
be used for

-

Explain how we can use a bacteria to produce a human hormone like insulin or HGH



Study activities:
For full credit on your spot check you must have TWO

of these done by
_________________________________
.


1.

Flashcards of all
vocab

words above (plus any others you think you need) with
descriptions in YOUR words. Remember, a definition
is not enough.

a.

Example: on a flash card for tRNA you might write ALL of the fo
llowing: folded
up piece of RNA
; contains the anti
-
codon; carries the amino acid to the ribosome;
attaches to mRNA in ribosome;

2.

Outline of all of the above sections complete
with diagrams where necessary

3.

Comparison charts: compare the three processes (rep. transc. Tranl.) Compare the
different types of mutations; compare the three different molecules (RNA, DNA, Protein)

4.

Concept Map: CLEARLY linking at least 25 terms or concept
s from this study guide
along with a clear description of the link between each.

5.


Other technique that you have thought of and GOTTEN APPROVED