Quiz Prep: Chp 13
Frontiers of Genetics
What is DNA technology? Explain 3 ways scientists study or manipulate DNA.
Manipulating genomes of organisms at the molecular level in order to use the organisms to perform
tasks for humans.
Sequencing genomes of rice to make it a more nutritious food source
Apply research on genes in simpler organisms to humans when genes are similar (learn how a gene
works by studying its counterpart in another organism)
inserting desired gene into a bacterial plasmid and using bacteria as a means of copying
the DNA every time they replicate
adding genes to an organism to create a desired trait, such as fish that grow larger or plants
that can tolerate colde
What is a restriction enzyme? Why would different restriction enzymes cut the same DNA molecule into
different numbers of fragments?
cut DNA at a specific restriction site. Each restriction enzyme cuts at a diff
restriction site, so different restriction enzymes will cut a given piece of DNA at different places and may also cut
a different amount of times.
In the space below, draw two sketches. Show what happens when a restriction enzyme leaves “blunt ends”
and show what happens when a restriction enzyme leaves sticky ends. Label the restriction sites in each
sketch and identify which situation is preferab
le for genetic engineering and why.
No unpaired bases
Unpaired bases = sticky ends
Sticky ends are necessary for genetic engineering because they provide an
attachment site for gene being added.
What does gel
electrophoresis allow scientists to do? How does the process work?
Technique that sorts molecules or fragments of molecules by length.
DNA is cleaved into fragments with
restriction enzymes and added t
o wells of agarose gel.
Gel is submerged in a buff
er fluid and exposed to electrical current.
Since DNA has a negative charge, it will be repelled from the negative end of the gel and attacted to
The fragments will move through pores in the gel, with the smallest fragments moving fastest an
therefore traveling farthest.
What is PCR (polymerase chain reaction)? How does it work (very general).
A method of
copying a specific DNA segment
without using living organisms, using a series of heating &
Needed materials: DNA sample to copy,
DNA polymerase & nucleotides
sample is heated to separate
then cooled to build complementary strands. The process
can be repeated over and over to generate a large supply of a DNA
sequence in a relatively short period of time.
What is genetic engineering? How are recombinant DNA and plasmids related?
replaces selective breeding to create desired traits in organisms through recombinant DNA technology.
organism itself may be the desired result (more nutritious crop) or a protein product created by the organism may be
desired (insulin or human growth hormone)
The desired gene is placed into a bacterial plasmid, forming recombinant
DNA (combined DNA from
two sources). The
used as a vector (transporter) to add genes to plant or animal cells being targeted.
What does it mean to say a cell is differentiated? How are stem cells related?
A differentiated cell has taken on a specific role and only has the genes relevant to its role “on”. Cells that are not
differentiated are called stem cells.
How do operons regulate gene expression in prokaryotic cells?
Operons control whether or no
t genes are expressed using repressor proteins. If a repressor protein is bound to
the operator in front of genes, the genes will not be transcribed. Presence or absence of given substance (such as
lactose) dictates whether a gene will be transcribed and
a protein will be translated. This prevents unnecessary
protein production to conserve cellular energy/resources.
What are Homeotic genes?
“master switches” that direct the development of body parts
in an embryo. (Makes sure each body part is
the appropriate location
What is a GM
O? Give two examples of GMOs.
Genetically modified organism or a transgenic organism
has acquired one or more genes by artificial means.
Salmon to grow larger
Melons that ripen
Crops that resist bacterial or fungal infections
What is epigenetics? Identify the two epigenetic tags discussed and explain how they affect gene
Epigenetics studies how factors aside from DNA sequence affect our traits by influence gene expression (protein
production. The main epigenetic tags are methyl groups and acetyl groups. When a gene is
marks) methyl groups,
they DNA will be more tightly wrapped around histones, harder to transcribe,
and therefore less active. When a gene is has minimal methyl groups or has acetyl groups attached, the DNA will
be coiled less tightly around the histones, allowing transcription
to occur more easily and more often, making a
gene more active.