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HSA Review

Genetics

Biology HSA Review Spring 2006

1

a.

genetics

f. gamete

b.

trait


g. probability

c.

hybrid


h. P
unnett square

d.

gene


i. haploid

e.

allele


j. meiosis

GENETICS: BIOLOGY HSA REVIEW


A.

Matching
: On the lines provided, write the letter of the definition of each term.








1.

likelihood that something will happen

_________2.

process of reduction division


_________
3.

specific characteristic

_________4.

offspring of crosses between parents with different traits

_________5.

containing a single set of
chromosomes

_________
6.

sex cell

___

____

_
7.

factor that determines traits

_________8.

diagram showing possible gene combination

___

_

____
9.

the scientific study of heredity

___

_____
10.

form of a gene


B.

Punnett Squares:
On the lines provided
,

answer the following questions about

P
unnett square
s.


1.

How do geneticists use Punnett squares?
___________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

HSA Review

Genetics

Biology HSA Review Spring 2006

2

C.

Rea
ding

Passage:
Use the
information below

answer
Numbers

1 through
3
.































1.


If a
homozygous

German Shepherd with
brown

e
yes is bred with a
h
eterozygous


German Shepherd with
blue
eyes
,
is it possible to have puppies with
brown

eyes?

a.

Yes, and a
ll
potential
offspring
will

be
carr
iers of

the allele for blue eyes
.

b.

Yes;
50% of the offspring would be heterozygous for blue eyes, and 50% of
the offspring would
ha
ve

brown eyes
.

c.

Yes;
25% of the offspring
will

have brown eyes
.

d.

No; none

of the offspring
will

have

brown eyes.





2.

Based on the
information above
, dogs were the first
animals
to be domesticated

by humans.

S
cientist
s
most likely

domesticated dogs by

a.

clo
ning a member of a population of genetically identical cells taken from
wolves

b.

inducing mutations to increase

the genet
ic variation in the population

c.

selectively breeding the dogs in order to pass

on the desired traits to the next
generation of offspring.

d.

i
nbreeding the dogs to maintain the desired or similar characteristics

WHERE DID THE DOG COME FROM
?

The canine group began evolving about 30 million years ago from
a tiny tree climbing animal,
Miacis.
The dog appears to be the
first animal domesticated by

humans. DNA evidence indicates
that dogs were initially domesticated from wolves about 100,000
years ago. Tribes used dogs for help with hunting, for protection
at night, and for companionship.


After dogs were domesticated, they were selectively bred f
or
particular characteristics. Just as other domesticated animals
have been bred, dogs were bred so that they had the
characteristics most desired by humans. In different parts of the
world, the choice of desirable characteristics varied, resulting in
th
e diversity we see today.


As dogs continued to live as human companions, many new
breeds were developed for specific tasks, such as hunting,
guarding, working, and companionship.


The basic principles of dog breeding are those that apply to any
animal. Breeding pairs are selected for the desirable genes they
will pass on. Some characteristics involve single
-
gene inheritance.
A cross between two heterozygous parents can produce a
puppy
with brown eyes even though both parents have blue eyes.
NOTE: In German Shepherds, the allele

for
brown eyes
is

recessive
.




HSA Review

Genetics

Biology HSA Review Spring 2006

3

D.

True/False:

Indicate
if

the statement is true or false.
If true, mark T. If false,
change

the word or phrase to make the statement true.


__


_
1.

The replication of a DNA molecule results in
four

copies of the same gene.

___


__
2
.

If a nucleic acid contains uracil, it is
DNA
.

____

____
3
.

During DNA sequencing, if all the bands on an electrophoresis gel are the
same color, the single
-
stranded DN
A sample consisted of one kind of
fragment
.

________
4
.

Exposing a population of plants to radiation or certain chemicals can
increase the
frequency

of

mutations that occur
s

within the population.




5
.

An organism with a dominant allele for a particular form of a trait will
sometimes

exhibit that trait.

________
6
.

Blood type

in
humans
is determined by a single gene that has
multiple

alleles
.

E.

Compare/Contrast Table:

Complete the table below u
sing informa
tion from the
textbook.



Mitosis

Meiosis

Function

Growth; regeneration of new
cells
; repair of tissues




Location in Body

All body cells




Number of Daughter Cells


Four


Number of Phases

Four




Change in Chromosome
Number in Parent &
Daughter
Cell






Number of Cell Divisions

One




Difference in DNA

Between Parent Cell and
Daughter Cells


Homologous chromosomes
sort independently, so each
gamete has a unique
combination of alleles






HSA Review

Genetics

Biology HSA Review Spring 2006

4

F.

Mendelian Genetics:
On the lines provided, complete
the following sentences
, by
using the word bank below
.







Alleles
are
matching genes that control contrasting characteristics of a trait, such as dark

or
light hair color
.
If two similar alleles for a characteristic are present, the offspring

exhibits that characteristic. What happens when the offspring receives two
different


alleles? When this happens, the (
1
)
__________
allele is expressed. The othe
r

characteristic, the (
2
)
__________
allele, is not expressed. Recessive alleles are

expressed only when no dominant alleles are present.
An organism that has two

dominant or two recessive alleles for a trait is said be (
3
)
___________
. An organism

is

called (
4
)
___________
if it has one dominant and one recessive allele for a trait.

The alleles that an organism inherits from its parent make up the organism’s

(
5
)
__________
.

The form of the trait the organism displays is its (
6
)
_____________
.






















dominant


homozygous

recessive


heterozygous

genotype


P
unnett square

phenotype


probability


HSA Review

Genetics

Biology HSA Review Spring 2006

5

G.

Matching:

Examine the pedigree
chart below. Then, a
nswer the questions that follow
by matching

t
he
parts identified as a, b, c, and d.

S
ome
will

be used more than once.


_____ 1. a person who expresses the trait


______ 4. represents a
marriage

_____ 2. a male





______ 5. a female

_____ 3. a person who does not express the trait

______ 6. connects parents to their children










































PEDIG
REE

HSA Review

Genetics

Biology HSA Review Spring 2006

6


H.

B
CR


Hemoglobin, a protein found in re
d blood cells, carries oxygen.
A
bnormal

hemoglobin
cannot carry as much oxygen as normal hemoglobin. The sequences

below show
sections of the DNA sequence that produce both the normal and abnormal types of
hemoglobin
.








MESSENGER RNA CODON TABL
E


Codon

Amino
Acid

GUG

Valine

CAC

Histidine

CUC

Leucine

ACU

Threonine

CCU

Proline

GAG

Glutamic acid




Write the messenger RNA sequences that
will

be produced from the normal
a
nd
abnormal DNA sequences shown above.



Using the Messenger RNA Codon Table,
write
the
amino acid sequences
assembled

from the DNA for normal and abnormal hemoglobin.



Beginning with DNA, describe the process that forms proteins such as
hemoglobin.


Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper.

SECTION OF GENE FOR HEMOGLOBIN


Normal DNA sequences:


GGA

CTC

CTC

Abnormal DNA sequences:

GGA

CAC

CTC

HSA Review

Genetics

Biology HSA Review Spring 2006

7

I.

L
abeling Diagrams:
Use the words listed
below to label the diagram.






J.

Matching:

In the space provided, write the letter of the definition that best matches
each term.









27.

c
hart that shows the relationships within a family




28.

f
ailure of homologous chromosomes to separate in meiosis

__________
29.

p
icture of chromosomes arrang
ed in pairs

__________
30.

t
est used to identify individuals by analyzing sections of DNA

____


_____
31.

c
hromosomes that determine an individual’s sex

__________
32.

g
ene located on the X or Y chromosome

__________
33.

c
hromosomes that do not determine sex



autosome

sex chromosome

karyotype

a.

karyotype


e. pedigree

b.

sex chromosome

f. sex
-
linked gene

c.

autosome


g. nondisjunction

d.

DNA

fingerprinting


HSA Review

Genetics

Biology HSA Review Spring 2006

8


K.

Cloning:
Answer the
following
questions in complete sentences.


1.

What is a clone?
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________


2.

What kinds of mammals have been
cloned in recent years?
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________


L.

Complete the sentences

in the diagram bel
ow to show the steps involved in
c
loning

a
sheep.






a.

ce
ll


c. nucleus

b.

divide


d. embryo

HSA Review

Genetics

Biology HSA Review Spring 2006

9

M
.


Gel

Electrophoresis:

Answer the following questions as they relate to genetic

engineering.


1.

What is genetic engineering?
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________


2.

Is the following sentence true or false? Making chan
ges to the DNA code is similar
to changing the code of a computer program. ____________


3.

Scienti
sts use their knowledge of the
(
structure or function
)
of DNA and its
(
chemical or molecular
)

properties to study and change DNA molecules.


4.

List four steps hat

molecular biologists use to study and change DNA molecules.


a.

_______________________

b.

_______________________

c.

______________
_________

d.

_______________________




5.

Explain how biologists get DNA out of a cell.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________


6.

Biologist
s

use
(
DNA extraction or
restriction enzymes
)
to cut DNA molecules at a
specific sequence of nucleotides to make smaller fragments.


7.

Circle the letter of the process by which DNA fragments are separated and
analyzed.

a.

gel electrophoresis

c. transformation

b.

extraction



d. restrictio
n


8.

In
the
diagram below
,

label the positive and negative ends of the gel and identify
the location of longer and shorter fragments.




1.

Cut DNA into smaller pieces

2.

Identify the sequence of bases in
a DNA molecule

3.

Extract DNA from cells

4.

Make unlimited copies of DNA

HSA Review

Genetics

Biology HSA Review Spring 2006

10

N.

Flowchart/Order:

Using the information from the
textbook
, complete the flowchart

for
DNA
replication by arranging the events listed below in the order they occur.














































O.

DNA Fingerprinting:
Using the data taken from the crime scene, analyze the DNA


sequence for each case and answer the questions.


a.


DNA polymerase joins individuals nucleotides to produce a new strand

b.


DNA molecule “unzips” and the two strands unwind

c.


DNA polymerase proofreads the new strands

d.


Unwound strands of DNA serve as templates for new DNA



1

2

3

4

HSA Review

Genetics

Biology HSA Review Spring 2006

11


1.

For C
ase 1, compare the DNA fingerprint patterns of the suspects with patterns from suspects
and



patterns from samples at the scene of the crime. Do any of

the patterns match?


Name any matching patterns.

__________________________________________________
____________
______________
__

____________________________________________________________
______________
____


2.

Based on the evidence, were any of the suspects involved in the murder?

Explain your reasoning.

___________________________________________________________
_______________
____

_____________________________________________________________
_______________
__

_________________________________________________________
_______________
______


3.

For C
ase 2, compar
e the DNA fingerprint patterns of the suspects with patterns

from samples at the


scene of the crime. Do any of the patterns match? Name

any matching patterns.


______________________________________________
________________________________

_________________________________________________________________
___
____
______


4.

Based on the evidence, were any of the suspects involved in the bank robbery?

Explain your reasoning.
______________________
_________________________________
__________________
_____

___________________________________
_____________
______________________________


_______________________________________________________________
_____________
__

5.

Do you think that DNA fingerprinting is totally reliable? Explain why or why not?

_______
________________________________________
________________
________
_
______


___________________________________________________
____________
_______
_
_______


_____________________________________________________________
_____________
____