Genetic Engineering

onwardhaggardBiotechnology

Dec 12, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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Name

______________________________

Class

___________________

Date

__________________


Original conten
t Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the inst
ructor.

Modern Biology

55

Genetic Engineering

CHAPTER 13 ACTIVE READING WORKSHEETS

GENE TECHNOLOGY

Section 13
-
3: Genetic Engineering

Read the passage below, which covers topics from your textbook. Answer the
questions that follow.

Many viral diseases, such as influenza, smallpox, and polio, cannot be
treated
effectively by existing drugs. Instead, many viral diseases are combated by
prevention, using vaccines. A vaccine is a substance that contains a harmless
version of a virus or a bacterium. Traditionally, vaccines have been made of
disease
-
causing a
gents

also called pathogens

that have been treated
(chemically or physically) so that they can no longer cause disease. Vaccines
can also be produced using active pathogens that carry surface proteins that are
the same as or very similar to a more harmful
pathogen. When a person
contracts the disease or receives a vaccine, his or her body recognizes the
pathogen’s surface proteins and makes antibodies against the pathogen. In the
future, if the same pathogen enters the body, the body is prepared to combat i
t
quickly and to prevent or weaken the pathogen’s effects.

On rare occasions a vaccine may cause the disease it is intended to protect
people against. Genetic engineering can be used to produce
DNA vaccines
,
which may be safer than some traditionally prepa
red vaccines. The genes for a
disease
-
causing virus’s surface proteins can be inserted into a harmless virus.
The transplanted genes cause the harmless virus to produce the surface
proteins that alert the body to the presence of the disease
-
causing virus.
Genetic engineering can also be used to alter the genome of a pathogen so that
it no longer causes a disease. The altered pathogens can then be used as a
vaccine against unaltered forms of the pathogen.

Fill in the blank to complete each sentence.

SKILL:

C
ompleting Sentences

One reading skill is the ability to complete an incomplete sentence by
logically determining what will complete the unfinished thought.


1.

Three examples of viral diseases are

________________________________

.

Name

______________________________

Class

___________________

Date

__________________


Original conten
t Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the inst
ructor.

Modern Biology

56

Genetic Engineering


2.

Many viral diseases are combated by prevention thro
ugh

________________

.


3.

A vaccine is a substance that contains a harmless version of a

____________

.


4.

Another name for a disease
-
causing agent is

__________________________

.


5.

A pathogen can be chemically or physically treated to eliminate its ability to

________________________________
____________________________

.


6.

If a pathogen enters the body of a pers
on who has been vaccinated for that
particular virus, the body will recognize the

__________________________

.


7.

Sometimes, a vaccine causes the disease

_____________________________

.


8.

One method of producing effective DNA vaccines that are safer than vaccines
that are produced by traditional methods is
through

____________________

.


9.

Through genetic engineering, genes for a disease
-
causing virus’s surface
proteins are inserted into a

________________________________
________

.

10.

Genetic engineering can be used to alter the

__________________________

.

11.

Pathogens that have been altered so that they no longer cause a disease can be

used as a vaccine against

________________________________
_________

.

Read the question and write your answer in the space provided.

SKILL:

Vocabulary Development

12.

What is the meaning of the term
prevention

in the second sentence of the
passage?


________________________________
_______________________________


Circle the letter of the phrase that best co
mpletes the statement.

13.

A body that recognizes a pathogen’s surface proteins has likely

a.

received a vaccination for the disease.

b.

had the disease at an earlier time.

c.

been altered genetically.

d.

Both (a) and (b)