CHE 321 – BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING 1 - University of Ilorin

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Dec 12, 2012 (4 years and 11 months ago)

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C
ourse:
CHE 321


BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING 1

(2 credits /Compulsory).

Course duration
: 15 weeks (30
hrs)

as taught in 2011/2012 session

Lecturers:

1
Eletta O.A.A.

Ph.D. Chemistry (Ilorin), M.Sc. Chemical Engineering (Lagos), B.Sc. Chemical Engineering,
(Lagos)


Email:
modeletta@unilorin.edu.ng

Consultation hours: Tuesday 2
-
3 pm


2
Ajala, O.E.


M.Sc.
Chemical Engineering (Ile
-
Ife)
,
B.Tech.

Chemical Engineering (Ogbomoso)
.


Email:
ajala.oe@unilorin.edu.ng

Consultation hours: Wednesday 2
-
3 pm


Location

1: Room 6: Chemical Engineering Building

2
: Room
1
: Chemical Engineering Building


Course Content



Fundamental of Biochemical
Engineering



Introduction to Microbiology



Chemicals of life



Kinetics of enzyme
,
Kinetics of substrate utilization
,

Product yield and biomass production in cell cultures



Molecular genetics and control systems



Transport phenomena in microbial systems.



30h

(T) PR: CHM201 C

Course Description

The course is designed to introduce students in the Department of Chemical Engineering to
Biochemical Engineering principles and operations. Biochemical Engineering is the processing of
materials to useful products using biological agents such as microorga
nisms, plant and animal cells
and enzymes.
Microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast, fungi, or actinomycete have manufactured
amino acids, nucleic acids, enzymes, organic acids, alcohols and physiologically active
substances on an industrial scale.
The organ
ism must also synthesize all the chemicals needed to
operate, maintain, and reproduce the cell. In this course, we shall discuss the application of microbes.
In fermentation processes, the objective is either to produce metabolite or biomass, this course a
lso
describes how product forms and production of biomass in cell culture. The emphasis of the course is
also placed on the underlying principles of transport processes in microbial systems.




Course Justification:

The rapid development of biochemical e
ngineering has impacted diverse sectors of the
economy over the last several years. The industries most affected are the agricultural, fine
chemical, food processing, marine, and pharmaceutical. In order for current biochemical
engineering research to cont
inue revolutionizing industries, new processes must be developed
to transform current research into viable market products. Specifically, attention must be
directed toward the industrial processes of cultivation of cells, tissues, and microorganisms.
The “
New Biotechnology” is making it increasingly possible to use recombinant DNA
techniques to produce many kinds of physiologically active substances such as interferons,
insulin, and salmon growth hormone which now only exist in small amounts in plants and
a
nimals
. The theoretical and practical knowledge acquired from this course will enable the
students to develop onto more detailed and advanced courses in biochemical and chemical
engineering.

Course Objectives:

The general objective of the course as an integral part of the B.Sc. requirements in Chemical
Engineering is
for the student
to
be able to
understand the
applications of biological agents to produce
more valuable products

and for the students to translate
laboratory procedures of biochemical
processes to industrial large scale production.

Course Requirements:

This is a compulsory course for all
Chemical
Engineering

students
.

In view of this, students
are expected to have minimum of 75% attendance to be abl
e to write the final examination.


Methods of G
rading:


No

Item

Score %

1

CA (Quiz, Assignment, Test etc)

30

2

Examination

70

3

Total

100


Course Delivery Strategies:


The lecture will be delive
red through face
-
to
-
face method. The students will be required to
read around the topics.






LECTURES

Week 1:
Fundamental of Biochemical Engineering

Objective:
To introduce students to

biochemical engineering principles and scope
.


Description
:

Introduction:
the course outline, relevant textbooks

and

mode of
lecture
delivery
.
Who biochemical engineer

is
, related area of discipline and areas of specialization

of biochemical engineering.

Study Questions

1.

Wh
o is a biochemical engineer?

2.

Mention ten
other related discipline to biochemical engineering

3.

List six areas of biochemical engineering specialisation

4.

Di
scuss five scope of biochemical engineering

5.

Mention ten products of biochemical engineering process

Reading list

1.

Richardson
&

Coulson

(2007).
Chemical Engineering, Vol 3, 3
rd

Ed., Elsevier
Publication, pp. 277


278.

2.

Bailey
J.E
&

Ollis
D.F
(1986). Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals, Mc Graw &
Hills Publication, pp. 1
-

10.

3.

Doran, P.M. (1994). Bioprocess Engineering Principles.
Academic Press,
Harcourt
Brace and Company, Publishers, London.
pp.
257


288.

4.

James M. Lee (2009). Biochemical Engineering
,

Published by Prentice
-
Hall Inc.
5
-

33


Week
2

-
3
:
Introduction to Microbiology

Objective:

To

instruct

students

on

the
various classes of microbes

that is available
,
classifications and applications of the microbes.

Description:

Organisms could be broadly classified as Eukaryotes a
nd Prokaryotes with each
having various types of organism.

Each class is
distinguished with distinct feature that
classify them as
Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
.

This classification is also base on several
factors which include morphology, mode of respiration, temperature of growth etc.
Virus as
infectious agent
that is

too small
to be seen with a light microscope

has two part which
consists nucleic acid and protein coat.


Study Questions

1.

Define Microbiology

2.

Highlight the distinguish features of prokaryotes

3.

Discuss three factors that can be used to classify bacteria

4.

Compare and
contrast protozoa and algae

5.

With the aid of diagram,
explain the kingdom of protists.

Reading list

1.

Dutta R., Fundamentals of Biochemical Engineering, 2008 ed.
pp.
1


6

2.

Richardson and Coulson, Chemical Engineering, Vol 3, 3
rd

Ed., Elsevier Publication,
2007,
pp.
277


278.

3.

J E Bailey and D F Ollis; Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals, Mc Graw & Hills
Publication, 1
986, pp. 1
-

22
.

Week 4

-

5
:
Chemicals of life

Objective:
To

teach students the four main classes of polymeric
cell compounds

which are
carbohydrates, lipids, protein and
minerals
.

Description:

Carbohydrates are organic compounds that could be classified into
monosaccharide, di
saccharide and polysaccharides. It has general formula of (CH
2
O)
n
. Lipids
are biological compounds which are soluble in non polar solvents and insoluble in water.
Chemically, proteins are unbranched polymers of amino acids linked head to tail, from
carboxyl group to amino group, through formation of covalent
peptide bon
ds.

Mineral is an
organic substance which is required in trace amount for normal cell function.



Study Questions:

1.

What are hormones?

2.

Explain the following:

a.

Carbohydrates

b.

Protein

c.

Lipids

d.

Minerals

3.

Show the structural formula of

glucose


Reading list

1.

Dutta

R., Fundamentals of Biochemical Engineering, 2008 ed. 1


6

2.

Richardson and Coulson, Chemical Engineering, Vol 3, 3
rd

Ed.,

Elsevier Publication,
2007, 271



278.

3.

J E Bailey and D F Ollis; Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals, Mc G
raw & Hills
Publication, 1
986, 27

-

76
.

Week 6

-

10
:
Kinetics of enzyme
, Kinetics of substrate utilization, Product yield and biomass
production in cell cultures

Objective:
To teach students the concept of enzyme technology and give detail application of
enzyme in a biological
process. To explain how to derive the available model
s

of enzyme
kinetics with necessary assumption
.

To teach the students the rate at which organism
utilization the substrate and the corresponding yield of the product

Description:

Enzymes are biological
catalysts that are protein molecules in nature. They are
produced by living cells (animal, plant, and microorganism) and are absolutely essential as
catalysts in biochemical reactions.

Enzyme kinetics deals with the rate of enzyme reaction
and how it is af
fected by various chemical and physical conditions. Kinetic studies of
enzymatic reactions provide information about the basic mechanism of the enzyme reaction
and other parameters that characterize the properties of the enzyme In order to understand the
e
ffectiveness and characteristics of an enzyme reaction, it is important to know how the
reaction rate is influenced by reaction conditions such as substrate, product, and enzyme
concentrations.



Study Questions:

1.

List four factors that influences enzyme
activity

2.

Derive the rate equation by employing Michealis M.

3.

Explain how to determine the parameters Vs, Vp, Ks and Kp using experimental
measurements and Lineweaver Burk plots. The Kinetics is

Kp
P
Ks
S
p
Kp
Vp
s
Ks
Vs
dt
dp
dt
ds




















1

4.

A continuous culture process is
operated at steady state, and at a dilution rate of half

of the maximum specific growth rate of the microbe of

μ max=0.5
hr

1,

D
=0.25
hr

1.

The glucose concentration in the reactor is 0.05 g/l. The feed glucose is at 2 g/l. A
Monod model describes the growth
. Write down the Monod expression of growth for
this microbe. (Give the numerical values).

Reading list

1.

Dutta R., Fundamentals of Biochemical Engineering, 2008 ed.
pp.
8


69

2.

Richardson and Coulson, Chemical Engineering, Vol 3, 3
rd

Ed., Elsevier
Publication, 2007,
pp.
279



2
95
.

3.

J
.E Bailey and D.
F Ollis

(1986).

Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals, Mc

Graw & Hills Publication, pp.
373

-

441
.

4.

M
.
Pazouki, G
.
Najafpour and M
.

R
.

Hosseini

(2008). Kinetic models of cell
growth, substrate

utilization and bio
-
decolorization of distillery wastewater by
Aspergillus fumigatus
UB260,
African Journal of Biotechnology
, Vol. 7 (9),

1369
-
1376,

5.

Doran, P.M. (1994). Bioprocess Engineering Principles.
Academic Press,
Harcourt Brace and Company, Publishers, London.
pp.
257


288.

6.

James M. Lee (2009). Biochemical Engineering
,

Published by Prentice
-
Hall Inc.
5
-

33


Week
11
: Mid Semester Test


Week
12

-

1
3
:
Molecular genetics and control systems

Objective:

To teach

the
students the cell genetics and expression of genetic information at
the molecular level.

Description:

DNA contains a complete set of information determining the structure and
function of a living organism, be it a bacterium, a plant or a
human being. DNA constitutes
the genes, which in turn are found in the chromosomes in the cell nucleus.

When a cell
reproduces, each of the offspring must receive a complete set of genetic data in the form of
DNA.
Transformation is a process of genetic tra
nsfer by free DNA. A double stranded DNA
fragment enters recipient cells which are competent to take up external DNA.



Study Questions:

1.

Define the following;

a)

Gene

b)

Mutation

c)

Translation

d)

Transformation

2.

List the sequence of steps required to clone a gene

3.

A
good cloning vehicle must generally have a number of features, what are those
features?

4.

Differentiate between RNA and DNA


5.

What is ligation?
Name t
he enzyme use

in ligation.

Reading List:

1.

J.E Bailey and D.F Ollis

(1986). Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals, Mc Graw &
Hills Publication, pp.
307
-

370
.

2.

Coulson and Richardson’s (2006). Chemical Engineering, Elsevier Publication, Vol 3,
pp
. 315


325.


Week
1
4

-

15
:
Transport phenomena in microbial systems.

Objective:
To
teach students to
understand the process of oxygen transfer

in microbial
processes, its applications and development of relevant mathematical equation for the
microbial systems.


Description:

Transformation of renewable resources
(
such as
starch,
cellulosic,
hemicellulosic, and lignin fractions
)

as fermentation feed stocks
to
produce desire products
typically involve rate processes limited by available particulate substrate surface areas and
solute diffusion rate
.

In product recovery and pu
rification, subject of liquid
-
solid mass
transfer

has significant role
in
process modelling of the microbial systems
. This
also has
application in mo
u
ld pellets or beads and biofilms containing immobilized cells.

Study Questions:

1.

At 35
o
C and 1 atmosphere
of oxygen, the solubility of oxygen in water is
1.09milimole/liter. Find C* of oxygen transfer from an air containing 21% oxygen at
35
o
C.

Reading Lis
t:


1.

H.J. Noorman, (2005). Biochemical
Engineering

principles, M. Berovic and A.W.
Nienow
, Published by Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of
Ljubljana, Slovenia, 67


83.

2.

J.E Bailey and D.F Ollis (1986). Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals, Mc Graw &
Hills Publication, pp.
457
-

529
.


Week 15: R
evision a
nd E
xamination