Vidya_Nov2010_Theme 4x - CES (IISc)

onioneyedtoiletBiotechnology

Feb 20, 2013 (4 years and 6 months ago)

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Theme 4
:
Conservation, restoration and management of ecosystem


T4_Oral_01




EX
-
SITU CONSERVATION OF
LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA

USING
IN VITRO

TECHINQUES


Leelavathi D


M.E.S College, Malleswaram, Bangalore
-
560003


Lavandula angustifolia
L. is a perennial shrub belonging to the family Lamiaceae. It is in great demand
for the lavender oil it yields which is used in perfumery, cosmetics, flavouring and pharmaceutical
industries. In order to meet the growing demand of lavender oil,
in vitro

t
echniques are being used as
alternative method for large scale multiplication and ex
-
situ conservation. In the present investigation,
in
vitro

axillary bud explants of
Lavandula angustifolia

were cultured on MS basal medium supplemented
with BAP 8.88µM and NAA 2.68µM to induce multiple shoots. Further, these shoots were subculture
d

on
the same medium to produce more number of multiple shoots. Well developed multiple shoots were
cultured on MS

basal medium fortified with BAP 8.88µM, IBA 4.92µM and NAA 2.68µM for root
formation. The hardened regenerated plant
s

were acclimatized
-

and

were transferred to soil with 90%
survival frequency.

The
in vitro

axillary buds were used for synthetic seed pro
duction using Sodium alginate and Calcium
chloride as matrix and complexing agent for encapsulation of axillary buds of

Lavandula angustifolia.

Keywords:
Lavandula angustifolia L
.,
in vitro

propagation, hardening and encapsulation
.









T4_Oral_02



MYC
ORHIZOREMEDIATION OF HEAVY METALS FOR RESTORATION
OF ECOSYSTEM


Anamika Singh and M.H.Fulekar*


Research

Scholar, Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory,

*Corresponding Author
-

Professor of Environmental Biotechnology

Department of Life Sciences, University of Mumbai, Santacruz (E), Mumbai
-

400 098, India

Email: mhfulekar@yahoo.com


Heavy metal contaminants are commonly found in terrestrial and aquatic environment from various
sources. The remediation of heavy metals by

phytoremediation is an advanced biological approach for
decontamination of metals from the environment. In the present research, the phytotoxicity study of the
selected heavy metals, viz. Cadmium, lead and zinc has been done at various concentrations rang
ing from
0,5,10, 20, 50, 75 and 100 ppm using
Medicago sativa
as a potential candidate. During the experiment the
growth of the plant was observed for a period of 15 days and morphological characteristic
s

-

were

assessed in terms of plant growth by determi
ning the length of root and shoot for each metal exposure.
The results showed that the higher concentrations, i.e. 75 and 100 ppm was toxic to the plants
and found
inhibitory for plant growth and survival. Therefore the heavy metal concentrations ranging f
rom 0, 5, 10,
20 and 50 ppm were taken for phytoremediation experiment in a developed mycorrhizal soil by pot
culture technique. The seeds of
M. sativa
were grown in heavy metals amended mycorrhizal soil for a
period of two and half months for phytoremedia
tion. The bio
-
accumulation of metals was found increased
with increasing concentrations of respective metals. Metals studied were found
having
higher
-

concentration in roots as compared to the shoots. The study of lipid peroxidation shows the tissue damage

with increasing exposure of metals, whereas the antioxidative enzyme activities, such as superoxide

dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) were also
increased with increasing period of phytoremediation. T
he release of enzymes shows the detoxification of
metals by plants. Chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were found decreased with increasing period of
phytoremediation. The mechanism of phytoremediation

highlights that the heavy metals can be
remediated w
ithin a range of 5, 10, 20, 50 ppm. The higher concentration would be toxic to the plants
-

M.
sativa

to remediate the metals. Phytoremediation of heavy metals in mycorrhizosphere has been
found
enhanced as compared to non mycorrhizal

soil due to symbiotic associations of bacteria, fungi and
Actinomycetes in rhizosphere. The present research
-

phytoremediation of heavy metals in mycorrhizal
soil has been proved effective, low
-
cost and eco
-
friendly technique to remediate heavy metals fro
m
contaminated terrestrial environment. This Mycorhizoremediation technique would be directly applicable
for the restoration of ecosystem.


Keywords:

Phytoremediation, heavy metals, mycorrhizosphere, antioxidative
enzyme, Medicago sativa


T4_Oral_03



REMEDIATION OF HAZARDOUS COMPOUND
-
BENZENE USING PACKED
BED BIOREACTOR TO DEVELOP A TECHNOLOGY FOR RESTORING
ECOSYSTEM


M H Fulekar**, Tanvi Godambe*, Darshana Nair*, Hansa Boricha


*Research Scholar, Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory

**Professor of E
nvironmental Biotechnology, Department of Life Sciences,

University of Mumbai, Santacruz (E), Mumbai
-
400098, India

Email:mhfulekar@yahoo.com


The Petrochemical Industry generates the hazardous waste comprising organic and inorganic compounds.
The present t
reatment methods include physico
-
chemical and biological measures. Inspite of such
methods being used, the waste discharged is found to contain complex organic compounds and heavy
metals which cause an impact on the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. The t
reatment strategy needs to be
developed for remediation of hazardous compounds persisting in environment.

In the present research, Packed Bed Bioreactor has been developed wherein solid activated charcoal
packed for interaction with the pollutant. The mic
robial culture developed from the animal waste (cow
dung) has been characterized using 16SrDNA technology and used as novel source of biomass for
remediation of selected organic compound viz. Benzene as case study. Benzene is taken in the first
reactor wit
h microbial culture for primary treatment and passed through Packed Bed Bioreactor using a
peristaltic pump. Benzene interacted with activated charcoal and remediated under the influence of
microbial consortium in the PBR. The remediated compound is then c
ollected in the third reactor and
analysed for the biodegradation. Benzene was found biodegraded into its intermediate catechols and
converted finally into environmental friendly compounds.

This research has developed a technique to reduce the impact of ha
zardous compound like Benzene which
would be applicable to treat the hazardous wastes to restore the ecosystem.


T4_Oral_04



CONSERVATION STATUS OF KANJLI WETLAND, KAPURTHALA,
PUNJAB


Gitanjali Kanwar

Reserach Personnel

Wildlife Institute of India,
Dehradun

Email: gitanjalikanwar@gmail.com


Social Impact Assessment of local communities on wetland. To assess the quality of wetland
ecosystem t
o
suggest mitigatory measures if wetland is deteriorating.

Methodology:
-

Sampling was done at two levels
;

At v
illage level: Questionnaire survey to know
Socio
-
economic status of people .Resource use pattern
-
Their attitude towards the conservation
of the wetland
-
at

forest level
-
Transects were la
id out to know:
-

Flora & Fauna
.

Hu
man Impact
Assessment Results:
-
Com
munities living around the wetland are socio
-

economically well.

Their
dependence on wetland resources is minimal.

Major anthropogenic pressure on Kanjli wetland is
on the land under wetland reserve, because of the agrarian community around wetland. People

are not involved in the management or any conservation effort for wetland but have got positive
approach towards wetland conservation or any other conservation related activity.

Weed
species
form the major ground cover along wetland which is a threat to t
he natural wetland ecosystem.
Minimal cases of cutting or lopping of trees by humans were recorded.

No migratory bird
sighting.

Pesticide load is exceedi
ng whereas Lead and Zinc levels
have fallen significantly in
comparison to previous years.

BOD & DO has

also fallen down significantly.






T4_Oral_05



POTENTIAL OF CHROMIUM RESISTANT PLANT GROWTH
-
PROMOTING
BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM AN ELECTROPLATING INDUSTRY
POLLUTED SOILS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF INDOLE ACETIC ACID IN
THE PRESENCE OF TRYPTOPHAN



B.
Hemambika
*

and V. Rajesh Kannan


Rhizosphere Biology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology,

Bharathidasan University, Tiruchchirappalli


620 024, Tamil Nadu, India

*
E
-
mail: hemajan11@gmail.com


In this study, the chromium resistant
-
plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) of
Pseudomonas

sp. was isolated from an electroplating industry soil samples at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India,
that tolerated chromium concentrations up to 500 mg Cr
6+
/L in Luria
-
Bertani medium (LB) and
their ability for the production of IAA was assessed. IAA production by PGPB was believed to
play an important role in plant
-
bacterial interactions and further, it promotes root growth by
directly stimulating the plant cell elongati
on or cell division and may indirectly promote metal
accumulation by increasing the plant biomass in metal contaminated soils. The growth of
chromium resistant
Pseudomonas

sp. in Dworkin and Foster (DF) salts minimal medium
supplemented with (NH
4
)
2
SO
4

to p
rovide N source revealed the intrinsic ability of the strain for
plant growth promoting activities. Production of IAA by
Pseudomonas

sp. was estimated in LB
medium amended with tryptophan at definite time intervals. The growth and IAA production
increased
simultaneously and a maximum IAA production was 105.7 µg/mL at 120 h. Thus, the
innate capability of this chromium resistant
Pseudomonas

sp. for the production of IAA could be
exploited as a bacterial inoculum for the improvement of plant growth in metal c
ontaminated
soils for the management of environmental problems.

Keywords:
PGPB, Chromium, IAA, Tryptophan,
Pseudomonas
, Plant growth promotion



T4_Oral_06



CARBON SEQESTRATION POTENTIAL OF THE SOIL OF GIR FOREST,
GUJARAT


Vishal Patil*, Bhumika Vaghela
*, Nainesh Modi and Nilesh Mulia


*Department of Climate Change and Impacts Management,

Gujarat University, Ahmedabad

Department of Botany, M. G. Science Institute, Ahmedabad

Email: nrmodi@rediffmail.com

nileshmulia@gmail.com


Gujarat is a western state of India which enjoys a tropical climate. The major concentration of
forests is found all along the eastern border of the state and the hilly portion of Saurashtra. Gir is
the jewel of Saurashtra. Spread over 1412 sq. km., of und
ulating land with dry deciduous forest,
Gir is best known as the last


respite for

the Asiatic lion (
Pathera leo persica
) in the wild. Gir

has a topography made up of succession of rugged ridges, isolated hills, plateaus and valleys.
Besides, being the l
ast abode of Asiatic lions, Gir also forms a unique habitat for leopard, rusty
spotted cat, pangolin, ruddy mongoose, civets, paradise flycatcher etc. This work deals with the
analysis of soil samples collected from different areas of Gir forest. Stratifie
d Random Sampling
was employed to collect soil samples from surface as well as 10, 20 and 30 cm depths. The
collected samples were analysed for macronutrients, micronutrients,, organic carbon and organic
matter. The amount of carbon sequestered was also ca
lculated. Significant variations were seen
in organic carbon content among samples collected from different places as well as from
different depths. The micronutrients also showed marked variations at different places and
depths. The average organic carbon

content in % was 0.63 kg/hac. The average pH content of the
soil samples was 6.5 to 7.5. The average phosphorus content was less than 1 ppm and average
potash content was 15 to 25 ppm.






T4_
Poster
_07


WATER CONSERVATION TECHNIQUES


Anup Arjun S M


Dept. of Bio Technology, Shridevi Institute of Engineering & Technology,

Sira road, Tumkur 06, Karnataka, India.

Contact No.: 9742921405 Email Id.:
anuparjunsm@gmail.com


Today, people are becoming more aware of the importance
-

of

drinking water, with tha
t
awareness comes the concern about the quality of water they are drinking

for

water that looks
drinkable can contain harmful substances that may cause illness if ingested. Communities get
their water from rivers and lakes (surface water), from springs and

wells (groundwater) or from
surface and ground
.

T
hese sources of fresh water makes up less than 1% of the total water
resources on earth. About 97% of the water on earth is found in the oceans. Most of the rest is
frozen in the polar ice caps and in glaci
ers.

Water can also extend the life of our septic system by reducing soil saturation, and reducing any
pollution due to leaks. Overloading municipal sewer systems can also cause untreated sewage to
flow to lakes and rivers. The smaller the amount of water
flowing through these systems, the
lower the likelihood of pollution. In some communities, costly sewage system expansion has
been avoided by communitywide household water conservation.

Now the concept of Conservation gains more

weightage
. So we are here t
o discuss the water
conservation techniques
-

for betterment of human race

-

-
,
-












T4_Poster_08


Captive breeding: A potential method for conservation of species


Ashitha Suresh, Seema Raman and Disha Dinesh

and

Shubhakara.G



Christ Junior
College,Hosur Road, Bangalore
-

29


Captive breeding is the process of breeding animals in environments controlled by humans with restricted
settings such as wildlife preserves, zoos and other conservation facilities
.

S
ometimes the process is
construed to
include release of individual organisms to the wild, when there is sufficient natural habitat to
support new individuals or when the threat to the species in the wild is lessened.

Simplifying that, it is a process where the animal is brought in and raised
under human supervision,
taught to fend for itself and released back into the wild to breed and increase its number.

As we can see, captive breeding is more of an emergency tactic than a real solution to correct the mistake
we have made in destroying the h
abitat. In this paper we are exploring the significance of captive
breeding, its uses, advantages and disadvantages.

Key words:

Captive breeding, Conservation of species


T4_
Oral
_0
9


EX
-
SITU

CONSERVATION OF BIOD
IVERSITY BY USING SO
DIC LANDS
UNDER ESTABLIS
HMENT OF GANGETIC TR
EE SPECIES GENE BANK


N. N
andini Gautam, Kripal Singh, Bajrang Singh


National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, UP, India

The present status of this experiment includes valuable results of a decade of study on
ex
-
situ

conservation of tree species. During the climatic and demographic changes we need to protect
those species which are not coming in the que of RET (Red data list/Endangered/Threatened) but
are most essential to maintain our ecosystem structure and function
. They mediate flows of
energy which are associated with the diversity of processes which include primary productivity
of ecosystems, optimum levels of pollutants, global changes in increase and decrease of CO
2

&
Oxygen, biogeochemical cycles, soil nutrien
t richness, erosion control, and spread of pest &
diseases.
Ex
-

situ

conservation of species provides the flexibility to respond the unforeseen
environment changes and consequent impacts on habitat conservation & utilization of wild plant
species. The esta
blishment of experimental design is a crucial step because collection of wild
species from different forests is quite difficult due to unavailability of seeds, seedlings or
vegetative germplasm in altering seasons. The collections consist of 64 tree specie
s from their
original habitat. To avoid the prolonged germination process we used the small seedlings of
plants and after acclimatization upto certain stage of growth we planted them on barren sodic
lands (pH 8.5 to 9.6) in set of 5 / 10 / >10 in randomiz
ed blocks. Mortality caused in many
species due to high level of sodium salts and failure of adaptation to specific Electrical
conductivity and pH conditions
w
hile regeneration of some species through sexual or asexual
reproduction also takes place. The tot
al number of trees is currently 365 in which 3 species
showed complete failure for
ex
-
situ

conservation. The species with high number of plants
representing new germplasm for adaptation to new ecoclimatic conditions. And through the use
of such highly sod
ic lands we can emerge a new horizon for conservation of wild Phytodiversity
simultaneously improving soil health.

Keywords:

Biodiversity conservation
,
Tree species
,

Sodic lands


T4_
Poster
_
10

RESPONSIBLE FISHING IN CHILKA LAGOON FOR CONSERVATION OF
BIODIVERSITY


M.P. Remesan*, P.Pravin and B. Meenakumari**


Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Matsyapuri
-
P.O, Cochin
-
29, Kerala

*mpremesan@gmail.com

**DDG(Fy), Indian Council of Agricultural Research KAB II, Pusa, New Delhi


110012


“Chilka” is

a Rajasthani word which means “shining”
.

It
is the largest brackish water lagoon in
Asia located in the Puri, Khurda and Ganjam districts in Orissa. The area of the lagoon varies
between 1165 and 906 sq. km during the monsoon and summer, respectively. The

rich
biodiversity of the lagoon comprise
s

about 2200 flora and fauna which come under 19 groups.
There are about 300 species of fish and shellfishes in the lagoon which support the livelihood

of
more than 2,00,000 fisherfolk
. Based on its rich biodiversity and socio
-
economic importance,
Chilika lagoon was designated as a Ramsar site in 1981 and it is also included in the list of
Wetlands selected for intensive conservation and management by the Ministry of Environment
and For
ests, Government of India. Looking at the catch statistics of the lagoon from 1985 the
maximum production was in 2003
-
04 (about 14,053t) which reduced
to
10,702t in 2008
-
09.
There may be multiple reasons for declining the catch which has to be addressed pr
operly to
have a sustainable yield. The original mouth of the lagoon was closed due to littoral shift which
would have affected the biodiversity drastically. There are several fixed bag nets and long leader
walls of prawn traps near the new mouth which wou
ld adversely affect the migration of fishes
into the lagoon. Prawn seed collection for aquaculture in the lagoon will affect the capture
of
fishery. Proper input
-

output control should be implemented and all other steps suggested to
check the habitat degra
dation should be followed to have sustainable fisheries as well as to
conserve the biodiversity of the lagoon. Responsible fishing methods and nets with
appropriate
mesh sizes to facilitate
the
escape of juveniles can help in conservation of the biodiversi
ty in the
long run.