Gram Positive Bacteria - DanM and JessicaJ

onioneyedtoiletBiotechnology

Feb 20, 2013 (4 years and 6 months ago)

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Dead Hit List




Jessica Johnson

BIO 204
-

310 Microbiology


August 4, 2009
















2


Table of Contents

Gram Positive Bacteria

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3

Gram Negative Bacteria

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6

Special Bacteria Slides

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10

Protists

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12

Fungi

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16

Helminths

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19

Cyanobacteria

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23

Bibliography

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24

Dead Hit List Time log

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29

Appendix A

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30




3


Gram Positive Bacteria



Microbe:

Bacillus anthracis








Morphology: Rod shaped








Arrangement:
Chains, palisades








Gran stain: Positive









Total Magni
fication:

1000x



1.

Bacillus anthracis

was the first organism used in Koch’s postulate, where it could be isolated
from the diseased animal, grow
n

in a laboratory, and then used to infect another healthy
animal.

2.

This organism has
remained

the most
intriguing

pathogenic bacter
ia for microbiologists to study.

3.

The virulence of the organism is due to two toxic virulence plasmids. These toxins target host
functions, which suppress the immune responses and eventually death by disrupted systems.



Microbe:
Clostridium
botulinum








Morphology:

Rod Shaped









Arrangement: Clustered








Gran stain: Positive









Total Magnificat
ion:

1000x



1.

Anaerobic, spore
-
forming rod that produces a potent neurotoxin.

2.

Spores are heat resistant and can survive in foods that are incorrectly or minimally processed.

3.

Four types of botulism

a.

Foodborne

b.

Infant

c.

Wound

d.

Classification undetermine
d.

Chai
n
s

Clusters

4




Microbe
:

Lactobacillus acidophilus









Morphol
ogy
:

Rod Shaped










Arrangement
: Singles,
diplococci
, chained,









clustered, and palisades.












Gran stain
:

Positive









Total Magnification
: 1000x


1.

Live in the small
intestine and vagina.

2.

It is beneficial because it produces vitamin K, lactase, and anti
-
microbial substances.

3.

Used to help treat bacterial vaginosis.




Microbe:

Staphylococcus aureus









Morphology:

Sphere shaped









Arrangement:

Singles,
diplococci
, clusters









Gran stain: Positive








Total Magnification:

1000x




1.


Staphylococcus aureus

is hugely associated to MRSA, (methicillin
-
resist
ant
Staphylococcus
aureus)
which is a type of bacteria that is resistant to certain antibiotics.

2.

Staph infections, including MRSA, occur most frequently among persons in hospitals and
healthcare facilities who have weakened immune systems.

3.

MRSA infections

that occur in otherwise healthy people who have not been recently
hospitalized or had a medical procedure are known as community associated (CA)
-
MRSA
infections.



Palisades

Diplococci

5




Microbe:

Streptococcus pneumoniae









Morphology: Sphere shaped








Arrangement:

Clusters, chains,
diplococci
, singles,









cubical packets.









Gran stain: Positive









Total Magnific
ation:

1000x



1.

Streptococcus pneumonia
e usually lives in the human upper respiratory tract.

2.

The bacterium causes pneumonia, sinusitis, or meningitis.

3.

It is the leading cause of invasive bacterial disease in children and elderly.

4.

Streptococcus pneumonia

gr
ows the best in carbon dioxide and is a fastidious bacterium.





Microbe:

Streptococcus pyogenes









Morphology:

Sphere shaped








Arrangement:

Chains and clusters









Gran stain:

Positive








Total Magnification:

1000x



1.

Most frequent pathogens in humans.

2.

Causes Scarlet fever, puerperal fever, pharyngitis, and less common disease erysipelas.

3.

It is a major concern because in

the cases seen today, it is a rapidly progressive disease.


Cubical packets

Chain

6


Gram Negative Bacteria



Microbe:
Escherichia coli








Morphology: Rod shaped








Arrangement
: Single, palisades, diplobacilli








Gran stain: Negative









Total Magnification:

1000x



1.

Large and diverse group of bacteria.

2.

There are a lot of strands of E.
coli

that are harmless, but the ones that aren’t can make one
really sick.

3.

It can cause

diarrhea, uri
nary tract infections, respiratory illness, and pneumonia to say a few.




Microbe:

Helicobacter pylori









Morphology:

Short curved rods









Arrangement:

Palisades, chains










Gran stain: Negative









Total Magnification:

1000x



1.


Helicobacter pylori

are usually found to live in the stomach and the duodenum.

2.

Commo
n cause of ulcers,

gastritis and gastric cancer.

3.

Common in the United States
.


4.

Found mostly amongst lower income groups and

older adults.

5.

Symptoms of infected people barely exist and only
a small percentage
will develop

disease.


Diplobaccilli

Chain

7





Microbe:

Neisseria gonorrheae









Morphology: Sphere shaped, Cocci








Arrangement:

Diplococcus, c
lusters, chains









Gran stain:

Negative









Total Magnification:

1000x



1.

Cause the bacterial infection gonorrhea.

2.

Direct contact, normally sexual
,

is the cause of transmission.

3.

There are over 400,000
reported cases a year of gonorrhea. Making it the leading sexually
transmitted infection in the United States.

4.

Found in the cervix and urethra of women and

the

prostate and epididymis in men.

5.

Neisseria gonorrheae
’s survival ability outside the host is ver
y limited.




Microbe:

Salmonella typhi









Morphology: Rod shaped








Arrangement:

Palisades and clusters








Gran stain: Negative









Total Magnification: 1000x


1.

Salmonel
la typhi

is the cause of typhoid fever which is life threatening.

2.

People acquire this disease by traveling internationally.

3.

S. t
yphi

only lives in humans.

4.

Typhoid fever is more common in areas of the world where hand washing is less frequent and
where the
water is contaminated with sewage.


Diplococcus

Cluster

8




Microbe:

Shigella dysenteriae









Morphology: Rod shaped








Arrangement:

Singles and chains








Gran stain: Negative









Total Magnification:

1000x



1.

Infectious disease, Shigellosis
.

2.

Causes bloody diarrhea
, nausea, fever and stomach cramps.

3.

Shigella

was

discovered by Japanese micro
biologist, Shiga over 100 years ago.




Microbe:

Spirillum volutans









Morphology:

Sp
irill
um








Arrangemen
t:
Singles








Gran stain:
Negative









Total Magnification:

1000x



1.

They have
crescent
-
shaped

bipolar fascicles of flagella that help them move at their fast speeds.

2.

Volutans means are granules
composed of poly beta hydroxybutyrate rather than
polyphosphate.

3.

The metabolism is of a respiratory type and they are microaerophilic
. Microaerophilic means
they need a 1 to 9% of oxygen to grow.




Single

Spirillum

llium

9





Microbe:

Treponema pallidum









Morphology: Spirillum








A
rrangement: Clusters








Gran stain: Negative









Total Magnification:

1000x



1.

Treponema pallidum

is the bacterium that cause
s

the well known sexually transmitted disease
of syphilis.

2.

Sor
es occur in the vaginal are
a, penis, anus, in the rectum, and on the lips or in the mouth.

3.

Diagnosis of syphilis is examined by using a dark field microscope. If the syphilis bacterium is
present in the sore, then the person is infected with syphilis.




Microbe:

Vibrio
cholerae









Morphology: Rod shaped








Arrangement:
Palisades
and chains








Gran stain: Negative









To
tal Magnification: 400x



1.

Vibrio
cholerae
, causes an infection of the intestine commonly known as cholera.

2.

Common transmission is through food or water that has been contaminated with the cholera
bacterium.

3.

Successfully treated by immediate replacement of the fluid and salts into t
he body that was lost
through diarrhea.


Spirillum

Palisades

10


Special Bacteria Slides



Microbe:

Bacterial capsules










Morphology:

Rod shaped








Arrangement:


Singles and palisade









Total Magnification:

1000x




1.

Some bacteria are enclosed with a capsule.

2.

Protects bacteria and helps prevent the cell from being killed.

3.

Encapsulated bacteria grow as ‘smooth’ colonies, compared to bacteria who have lost their
capsules are ‘rough’ colonies.

4.

Rough colonies generally do

not cause disease.




Microbe:

Bacterial flagella combination









Morphology: Rod shaped with amphitrichous flagella








Arrangement:

Singles









Total Magnification:
1000x




1.

The filament is fil
led with the protein flagellin which acts like a rotary engine that drives the
flagella.

2.

Bacterial flagella are helical, and have a bend just outside the outer membrane called a hook so
it can point away from the cell.

3.

The components of flagella are capabl
e of self assembly

in which the proteins associate
spontaneously without the help of enzymes or other factors.


Single

Amphitrichous Flagella

11





Microbe:

Bacterial spores









Morphology:

Rod shaped with occasional spore








Arrangement
: Chains









Total Magnification:




1.

Highly resistant, resting phase displayed by some types of bacteria.

2.

Sporing bacteria are the cause of numerous serious diseases in humans.

3.

Diseases caused by anaerobic sp
oring bacteria are

a.

Clostridium botulinum

(botulism)

b.

Clostridium tetani

(tetanus)

c.

Clostridium perfringens

(acute food poisoning)

d.

Bacillus anthracis

(anthrax)













Spore

12


Protists



Microbe:

Amoeba proteus









Morphology: Single
celled, irregular shape, nucleus








observed.









Total Magnification:

100x




1.

They can change shape really easily
and are hard to find because they are so transparent.

2.

Other than containing a nucleus, the cell may contain water vesicl
es and inclusions (digested
food), and some species of amoeba contain small crystals.

3.

The cytoplasm inside the cell can change into different states like fluid or solid.



Microbe:

Chlamydomonas









Morphology:

Round shaped wit
h nucleus observed









Total Magnification:
400x





1.


Genus of unicellular green algae (Chlorophyta).

2.

These algae are found all over the world, in soil, fresh water, mountain tops, and oceans.

3.

There are more than 500 different types of
Chlamydomonas

that have been described.

4.

Chlamydomonas

is used as a model system for research on fundamental questions in cell and
molecular biology: how do cells move? How do they respond to environmental stimul
i such as
light? How does photosynthesis work?



Nucleus

Nucleus

13






Microbe:

Diatoms
comparison









Morphology:

Oval shaped, rod shaped with nucleus










Total Magnification:

400x




1.

Photosynthesizing algae.

2.

Siliceous skeleton and can be found in almost every water environment, from lakes to oceans,
soils and moist places.

3.

Non
-
motile.





Microbe:

Euglena








Morphology:

Oval shaped with nucleus









Total Magnification:

100x





1.

Fr
eshwater single celled organisms.

2.

Green like a plant and carries out photosynthesis, but moves, which associates it with animals,
not plants.

3.

Does not have cellulose cell wall.




Nucleus

Nucleus

14




Microbe:

Paramecium species









Morphology:

Oval shaped with nucleus









Total Magni
fication: 100x





1.

Small one celled (unicellular) living organism that moves, digests food, and reproduces.

2.

Predator
-
prey relationship with
Didinium
.

3.

Avoidance behavior. If it encounters a negative stimu
lus, it can rotate 360 degrees to find an
escape route.



Microbe:

Plasmodium vivax

, blood smear








Morpho
logy: Round and hallow shaped









Total Magnification:

1000x




1.




1.

Plasmodium vivax

is most commonly known as Malaria.

2.

Prevalent in many regions of the world and accounts for more than half of the malaria cases.

3.

Pathologic feature of severe malaria contain mature forms of the parasite in the deep vascular
beds of vital organs.





Nucleus

Cytoplasm

15





Microbe:

Trichomonas vaginalis









Morphology:

Round shaped with nucleus








Total Magnification: 100x





1.

Common sexually transmitted disease that can happen in both men and women.

2.

Most
common curable STD in women with use of prescription drugs.

3.

In women, the vagina is the main site for infection and the urethra is the main site of infection in
men.



Microbe:

Ulothrix









Morphology: Square shaped









Total Magnification:

100x





1.

Green algae found in marine and fresh waters.

2.

Each cell has a distinct nucleus.

3.

Ulothrix

reproduce vegetatively by fragmentation and asexually.




Nucleus

Square shape body

16


Fungi



Microbe:

Aspergillus
, conidiophores









Morphology:

Round shaped head with single branch








stem, similar to a cherry with occasional sporing.









Total Magnifica
tion: 100x




1.

Common group of
filamentous fungi that live various environments.

2.

Numerous enzymes like catalase, amylase, lipase, lactase and hemicellulase.

3.

Opportunistic invaders that cause different diseases in individuals that weaken the immune
system.




Microbe:

Candida
albicans









Morphology: Oval shaped with nucleus with








occasional stemming.









Total Magnification:

1000x




1.

Candida albicans

is a fungus that is present on the skin and in mucous membranes in the vagi
na,
mouth, or rectum.

2.

It can travel through the blood stream and affect the throat, intestines, and heart valves.

3.

They grow out of control and become an infectious agent when there is a change in the body’s
environment that will allow it to grow.


Nucleus

Con
idia

17






Microbe:

Morchella









Morphology
: Oval shaped chains









Total Magnification:

100x





1.

They are not true mushrooms but belong to the Ascomycota,

which means they produce their
spores in sacs.

2.

Morchella

comes from the word morel, and they are found as a favorite food around the world.

3.

They are only found in certain environments like decaying elms, and old apple orchards.





Microbe:

Penic
illium









Morpholo
gy: Finger like projections coming off








stems. It is similar to a skeletal hand or broom.









Total Magnification:

400x




1.

Common contaminants on various

substances.

2.

Some produce mycotoxins.

3.

Grow rapidly.

4.

Yeast like phase induced by temperature.


Spores

Metulae
e

18




Microbe:

Rhiozopus
, sporangia









Morphology:

Cylindrical rods with occasional sporing









Total
Magnification: 1
00x





1.

It is a fungus found in soil, decaying fruit and vegetables, animal feces, and old bread.

2.

Common contaminants but can also cause cases of serious and fatal infections in humans.

3.

One example of a group of infections it can cause is zygomyco
sis which is an angiotropic (blood
vessel
-
invading) infection.




Microbe:

Saccharomyces
, budding cells









Morpholo
gy: Groups of round shaped cells









Total

Magnificat
ion: 1000x





1.

Saccharomyces
is unicellular and i
s
yeast and

closely related to
Candida albicans.

2.

It is used in food industry in production of various foods, wines, and
beers
.

3.

To protect itself from acid
-
mediated
cell death it goes into acid stress adaption.



Sporangiophore

Round
-
shaped
cell

19


Helminths



Microbe:

Ascaris lumbricoides









Morphology:

Round eggs








Total Magnification: 100x





1.

Ascaris

is a worm that lives in the small intestine

2.

Ascaris

eggs are found in human feces

3.

Infection can occur after touching your mouth with
hands that have been contaminated with
eggs from soil or contaminated food.

4.

Infection is not transmitted from person to person.




Microbe:
Clonorchis sinensis








Mo
rphology:
Oval shaped eggs









Total Magnification:

400x





1.

Clonorchis sinensis

is Chinese or oriental liver fluke.

2.

More than 100 species of snails that can serve as intermediate hosts.

3.

Infection of humans occurs by
undercooked, salted, pickled, or smoked freshwater fishes.



Round Egg

Egg

20





Microbe:

Enterobius vermicularis









Morphology:

Oval shaped eggs








Total Magnification: 100x





1.

Also called human pinworm.

2.

Humans are the only host.

3.

Person to person transmission happens handling infected clothes or bed linen.

4.

More frequent in preschool children and in crowded populations, more common in temperature
than in tropical countries.




Microbe:

Schistosoma
japonicum









Morphology: Long body with visible gynecophoric








groove, male.









Total Magnification:

100x




1.

This is caused by digenetic blood trematodes.

2.

Human contact with water is the necessary factor for infecti
on by
Schistosoma.

3.

Parasitize birds and mammals are two types of species of
Schistosoma
, which can cause cercarial
dermatitis in humans.


Egg

Hook

Gynecophoric Groove

21




Microbe:

Taenia saginata









Morphology:

Round eggs in grouping
s








Total Magnification: 100x





1.

Taenia saginata

is a tape that can be dangerous to people when meat is undercooked.

2.

Symptoms of infected humans are very treatable and can include stomach problems and
nausea.

3.

When one eats
the undercooked meat, the beef carries the larval stage of the tapeworm.
Tapeworms cannot be passed from person to person or spread between cattle.




Microbe:

Taenia sol
i
um
, scolex








Morphology: Enlarged head with visible hooks and








long body.









Total Magnification:

100x




1.

A pork tapeworm, contracted from eating undercooked pork.

2.

It causes two diseases, taeniasis and cysticercosis.

3.

Taeniasis happens when the adult worm infests the intesti
ne and the host becomes a source of
taenia eggs in the feces which can contaminate food.

4.

Cysticercosis is when people or pigs eat food contaminated with taenia eggs.



Round Eggs


Enlarged head

22




Microbe:

Fasciolopsis buski









Morphology:

Oval shaped eggs








Total Magnification:

100x





1.

Fasciolopsis buski

is the largest intestinal fluke of humans.

2.

It is common in pigs and humans.

3.

Adults produce over 25,000 eggs every day.

























Oval shaped egg

23


Cyanobacteria



Microbe:

Anabaena









Morphology:

Round cells in curved chains









Total Magnification:

400x





1.

They are nitrogen fixing blue green algae with beadlike cells
and enlarged spores.

2.

Found in moist soil and shallow water
.

3.

Both solitary and colonial forms.




Microbe:

Oscillatoria









Morphology:

Straight squared shaped bod
ies








Total Magnification: 400x





1.

It’s named for the rotating, gliding motion of the filamen
t around it
s axis.

2.

Does not have a true sheath.

3.

In Latin, it means “something that swings.”




Curved
chain

Square shaped body

24


Bibliography

(As seen i
n order)


Gram Positive Bacteria

Bacillus anthracis genomes
. (2004) Retrieved July 20, 2009, from National Center for Biotechnology


Information.
Website:

<
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomes/MICROBES/anthracis.html
>.

(9)

Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and Natural Toxins Handbook.
Clostridium botulinum.
(2009)

Retrieved July 20, 2009, from FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Website:

<

http://www.fda.gov/default.htm
>. (10)

Lactobacillus acidophilus
. (2008)
.

Retrieved July 20, 2009
. Website:

<
http://www.mayoclinic.org
>.

(9)

Healthcare
-
Associated Methicillin Resistant
Staphylococcus aureus

(HA
-
MRSA)
. (2009) Retrieved July 20,


2009, from the

Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Website:


<

http://w
ww.cdc.gov/index.htm
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(10)

Todar, Kenneth PhD. (2008).
Streptococcus pneumoniae
. Retrieved July 20, 2009, from Textbook of


Bacteriology. Website: <
http://textbookofbacteriology.net
>.

(8)

Todar, Kenneth PhD. (2008).
Streptococcus pyogenes

and Streptococ
cal Disease. Retrieved July 20,


2009, from Textbook of Bacteriology. Website: <
http://
www.
textbookofbacteriology.net
>.

(8)


Gram Negative Bacteria

Division of Foodborne, Bacterial and Mycotic Disease.
Escherichia coli.
(2008)
.

Retrieved July 20, 200
9,


from the Center

of Disease Control

(CDC). Website: <http://www.cdc.gov/index.htm>. (10)

Helicobacter pylori
. (2009). Retrieved July 20, 2009. Website:

<http://
www.medicinenet.com/helicobacter_pylori/article.htm
>. (8)

Miller, Michael J. (2009).
Neisseria g
onorrheae
: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved


July 20, 2009, from American Society for Microbiology. Website:

<http://www.microbelibrary.org>. (10)

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(
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(10)

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Retri
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Protists

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<
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26


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<http://www.chlamy.org/info.html>. (6)


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(10)

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(10)


Fungi

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l
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Aspergillus

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(6)

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29



Dead Hit List Time log




30


Appendix A

This appendix will contain the dead hit list hand written notes.