Pes planovalgus – from Infancy to Adolescence - University of ...

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Pes planovalgus


f
rom Infancy to Adolescence


AAOS Annual Meeting ICL# 223, March 20, 2013

Vincent S. Mosca, M.D.

Professor of Orthopedics, University of Washington School of Medicine,

Pediatric Orthopedic Surgeon
, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA



I.

FLATFOOT

A.

No universally accepted clinical or radiographic definitions of the average height,
or the normal range of heights, of the longitudinal arch


B.

Flexible flatfoot (FFF) is the "normal contour of a strong and stable foot…of little
consequence as a
cause of disability"
-

Harris and Beath:
JBJS

30A:116, 1948


C.

Flatfoot is present in 23% of adults
-

Harris and Beath:
Army Foot Survey
, 1947

1.

FFF
-

64% of total
-

rarely

causes pain or disability

2.

FFF with short tendo
-
Achilles (FFF
-
STA)
-

27% of total
-


of
ten

causes disability

3.

rigid flatfoot (peroneal spastic flatfoot )
-

9% of total
-


causes disability 20
-
24% of the time


Leonard:
JBJS
56B:520, 1974


D.

Most babies are flatfooted

1.

the average arch height is lower in the child than in the adult

2.

the height o
f the longitudinal arch increases spontaneously during the first
decade of life in most children

3.

there is a wide range of normal arch heights at all ages

4.

"corrective shoes" and orthotics do not alter the natural history of spontaneous
development of the ar
ch


E.

Flatfoot is determined by the shapes of the bones and the laxity of the ligaments,
not the muscles



II.

TREATMENT

A.

A
SYMPTOMATIC FLEXIBLE FLATFOOT

1.

Education

NOTES:










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B.

SYMPTOMATIC FLEXIBLE FLATFOOT

1.

Confirm the diagnosis

2.

Orthoses (FO, UCBL) will freque
ntly relieve symptoms and extend the useful
life of shoes


C.

SYMPTOMATIC FLEXIBLE FLATFOOT w SHORT TENDO
-
ACHILLES

1.

Heelcord stretching by exercise or serial casting

2.

There is little role for orthoses



may increase symptoms

3.

Many operative procedures have been

proposed during the past century with
undefined indications, often good short
-
term results, and poor long
-
term
results.

a.

Soft tissue plications/procedures



fail

b.

Tendon transfers



fail

c.

Bone excisions



destructive

d.

Arthrodesis of 1, 2, or all 3 joints of the s
ubtalar complex



loss of shock absorber of foot



DJD at adjacent joints

e.

Arthroereisis of the subtalar joint with bone block



fail

f.

Arthroereisis of the subtalar joint with synthetic implant



foreign body reaction



infection



pain



incomplete deformity correction

when severe



damage to articular cartilage of subtalar joint

g.

Limited medial midtarsal fusions (Hoke, Miller, Durham, Giannestrus,
others)



WRONG JOINT!



incomplete deformity correction when severe



recurrence of pain and deformity



DJD at adjacent joints

h.

Post
erior calcaneal wedge osteotomy (Dwyer)



does not correct
external rotational or
translational deformity

i.

Posterior calcaneal displacement osteotomy (Koutsogiannis)



“Chiari osteotomy” of the
acetabulum pedis



compensatory osteotomy to “correct” hindfoot valgu
s



does not correct external rotation deformity in the subtalar complex



does not correct malalignment at talonavicular joint



non
-
arthrodesing

NOTES:




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j.

Calcaneal lengthening osteotomy (Evans
/Mosca
)



“Salter osteotomy” of the
acetabulum pedis



corrects all co
mponents of even severe valgus deformity of the
hindfoot at the site of deformity



restores function of the subtalar complex



relieves symptoms



theoretically, protects the ankle and midtarsal joints from early DJD by
avoiding arthrodesis



best intermediate
-
lo
ng term results of any procedure used to correct
flatfoot


Phillips:
JBJS

65B:15, 1983


4.

Arthrodesis of any joint in the foot of a child leads to early degenerative
changes at adjacent joints


5.

THE FOOT IS NOT A JOINT!

A flatfoot has 2 deformities in oppos
ite directions


as if the foot was wrung
out. And a symptomatic flatfoot has a 3
rd

deformity


equinus. Each needs to
be addressed individually.

a.

Valgus

deformity (eversion, pronation) of the hindfoot


b.

Supination

deformity of the forefoot in relation to t
he hindfoot


c.

Equinus

deformity of the ankle due to contracture of the Achilles tendon,
or the gastrocnemius



6.

INDICATION FOR SURGERY:

when prolonged attempts at non
-
operative
treatment have failed to relieve the pain and the excessive callus under the
hea
d of the plantar flexed talus.



III.

CALCANEAL LENGTHENING OSTEOTOMY

A.

ADVANTAGES

1.

corrects all components of even severe valgus deformity of the hindfoot at
the site of deformity

2.

relieves symptoms

3.

restores function of the subtalar complex

4.

avoids arthrodesis

5.

pre
serves calcaneal growth

NOTES:







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B.

INDICATIONS

1.

extreme valgus deformity of the hindfoot with plantar flexion of the talus
with

2.

failure of prolonged non
-
operative treatment to relieve: pain , callus, or
ulceration under the head of the talus

3.

age range no
t known


C.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.

incompetent plantar fascia

2.

subfibular impingement secondary to lateral translation of the calcaneus



usually seen in overcorrected clubfeet



D.

TECHNIQUE

Ref:

1.
MOSCA
VS
: Calcaneal lengthening for valgus deformity of the hindfoo
t: Results in
children who had severe, symptomatic flatfoot and skewfoot.
J Bone Joint Surg

1995;77A:500
-
512.


2.
MOSCA VS
: Calcaneal lengthening osteotomy for valgus deformity of the hindfoot.
In: Skaggs DL and Tolo VT, editors.
Master Techniques in Orth
opaedic Surgery:
Pediatrics.

Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008;263
-
276.



3.
MOSCA VS
. Calcaneal lengthening osteotomy for the treatment of hindfoot valgus
deformity. In: Wiesel S, editor.
Operative Techniques in Orthopaedic Surgery.

Philadelphia: Lippin
cott Williams & Wilkins, 2010:1608
-
1618.



1.

Mosca’s
modifications

from Evans

a.

strict indications for surgery

b.

skin incision

c.

location and direction of the osteotomy

d.

shape of the graft

e.

management of the soft tissues, laterally and medially

f.

use of internal fixa
tion to stabilize calcaneocuboid joint

g.

importance of Achilles or gastrocnemius contracture and need for
lengthening

h.

management of the forefoot supination deformity

2.

patient is supine with folded towel under ipsilateral buttock

3.

modified Ollier incision in La
nger skin line

4.

protect superficial peroneal and sural nerves

5.

elevate soft tissues in sinus tarsi

6.

release peroneal tendon sheaths

7.

z
-
lengthen peroneus brevis, NOT peroneus longus

8.

divide aponeurosis of abductor digiti minimi

9.

avoid injury to capsule of calcan
eocuboid jt.


NOTES:



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10.

place curved Joker elevator/retractors in interval between anterior and
middle facets of subtalar jt.

11.

oblique osteotomy of calcaneus using osteotome or sagittal saw

a.

from proximal
-
lateral to distal
-
medial

b.

start approx 2 cm prox to ca
lcaneocuboid joint (at lowest point of
calcaneus proximal to beak)

c.

exit between anterior and middle facets


complete through the medial
cortex

12.

cut plantar periosteum and long plantar ligament if necessary


NOT
plantar fascia

13.

Steinmann pins as joy sticks

a.

insert lateral to medial both proximal and distal to the osteotomy

14.

retrograde longitudinal Steinmann pin across calcaneocuboid jt.
before

osteotomy is distracted/graft inserted


stop at osteotomy

15.

trapezoid
-
shaped graft

a.

lengthening distraction
-
wedge osteo
tomy

b.

use the largest graft that will fit, determined by distracting the
osteotomy with a laminar spreader

c.

usually 10
-
14 mm laterally and 4 mm medially

d.

tricortical or bicortical iliac crest graft

e.

allograft or autograft

16.

distract osteotomy with Steinmann pi
n joy sticks

a.

distal pin moves distal/plantar and supinates pes acetabulum and
forefoot

17.

impact graft with bone tamp

18.

advance longitudinal Steinmann pin retrograde through graft and into
proximal calcaneal fragment

19.

bend pin at dorsal insertion site and cut
long for retrieval in clinic

20.

repair lengthened peroneus brevis

21.

plicate talonavicular jt. capsule and tibialis posterior tendon through
medial longitudinal incision


22.

lengthen Achilles tendon

through posteromedial ankle incision or
gastrocnemius

through
po
stero
-
medial mid
-
calf incision
-

based on
Silverskiold test


NOTES:










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23.

correct forefoot supination

deformity, if present,
after

hindfoot is corrected

a.

flexible, mild deformity may correct spontaneously due to effective
shortening of peroneus longus

cr
eated by lateral column lengthening

b.

osteotomy of medial cuneiform for rigid deformity



plantar
-
based

closing wedge if forefoot is also slightly abducted or
neutral


fix with plantar
-
to
-
dorsal

staple



dorsal opening wedge if forefoot is also adducted



osteo
tomy
starts half way between the proximal and distal ends of
the medial cuneiform and
exits at level of middle cuneiform
-
2
nd

MT joint


24.

postoperative management

a.

non
-
weightbearing in short leg cast for 8 wks.

b.

cast change with pin removal at 6 wks.

c.

simulated

standing AP and lateral radiographs at 6 and 8 weeks

d.

over
-
the
-
counter arch support indefinitely

NOTES:









REFERENCES:


1.

Adelaar RS, Dannelly EA, Meunier PA, Stelling FH, Goldner JL, Colvard DF:

A
long term study of triple arthrodesis in children.
Orth
o Clin North Am

1976;7:895
-
908.

2.

Anderson AF, Fowler SB:

Anterior calcaneal osteotomy for symptomatic juvenile
pes planus.
Foot Ankle

1984;4:274
-
283.

3.

Angus PD, Cowell HR:

Triple arthrodesis. A critical long
-
term review.
J Bone Joint
Surg

1986;68B:260
-
265.

4.

A
rmstrong G, Carruthers CC:

Evans elongation of lateral column of the foot for
valgus deformity.
J Bone Joint Surg

1975;57B:530.

5.

Butte FL:

Navicular
-
cuneiform arthrodesis for flatfoot: an end
-
result study.
J Bone
Joint Surg

1937;19:496
-
502.

6.

Caldwell GD:

Sur
gical correction of relaxed flat foot by the Durham flat foot plasty.
Clin Orthop

1953;2:221
-
226.

7.

Crego CH, Ford LT:

An end
-
result study of various operative procedures for
correcting flat feet in children.
J Bone Joint Surg

1952;34A:183
-
195.

8.

Drew AJ:

The
late results of arthrodesis of the foot.
J Bone Joint Surg

1951;33B:496
-
502.

9.

Duncan JW, Lovell WW:

Modified Hoke
-
Miller flatfoot procedure.
Clin Orthop

1983;181:24
-
27.

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7

10.

Dwyer FC:

Osteotomy of the calcaneum for pes cavus.
J Bone Joint Surg

1959;41B:80
-
86.

11.

Ev
ans D:

Calcaneo
-
valgus deformity.
J Bone Joint Surg

1975;57B:270
-
278.

12.

Giannestrus NJ:

Flexible valgus flatfoot resulting from naviculocuneiform and
talonavicular sag. Surgical correction in the adolescent, in Bateman JE (ed):
Foot
Science
. Philadelphia, WB

Saunders Co, 1976, pp 67
-
105.

13.

Gould N, Moreland M, Alvarez R, Trevino S, Fenwick J:

Development of the
child's arch.
Foot Ankle

1989;9:241
-
245.

14.

Harris RI, Beath T:

Army Foot Survey. An investigation of foot ailments in
Canadian soldiers.

National Research

Council of Canada, Ottawa, 1947, Vol 1.

15.

Harris RI, Beath T:

Hypermobile flat
-
foot with short tendo Achilles.
J Bone Joint
Surg

1948;30A:116
-
138.

16.

Hoke M:

An operation for the correction of extremely relaxed flatfeet.
J Bone Joint
Surg

1931;13:773
-
783.

17.

Jac
k EA:

Naviculo
-
cuneiform fusion in the treatment of flat foot.
J Bone Joint Surg

1953;35B:75
-
82.

18.

Koutsogiannis E:

Treatment of mobile flat foot by displacement osteotomy of the
calcaneus.
J Bone Joint Surg

1971;53B:96
-
100.

19.

Miller OL:

A plastic flat foot op
eration.
J Bone Joint Surg

1927;9:84
-
91.

20.

Mosca VS:

Flexible flatfoot and skewfoot, in Drennan JC (ed):
The Child's Foot and
Ankle
. New York, Raven Press, 1992, pp 355
-
376.

21.

Mosca VS:

Calcaneal lengthening for valgus deformity of the hindfoot. Results in
c
hildren who had severe, symptomatic flatfoot and skewfoot.
J Bone Joint Surg

1995;77A:500
-
512.

22.

Mosca

VS:

Calcaneal lengthening osteotomy for valgus deformity of the hindfoot.
In: Skaggs DL and Tolo VT, editors.
Master Techniques in Orthopaedic Surgery:
Pe
diatrics.

Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008;263
-
276.

23.

Mosca VS
: Calcaneal lengthening osteotomy for the treatment of hindfoot valgus
deformity. In: Wiesel S, editor.
Operative Techniques in Orthopaedic Surgery.

Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins,

2010:1608
-
1618.

24.

Phillips GE:

A review of elongation of os calcis for flat feet.
J Bone Joint Surg

1983;65B:15
-
18.

25.

Rathjen KE, Mubarak SJ:

Calcaneal
-
cuboid
-
cuneiform osteotomy for the
correction of valgus foot deformities in children.
J Pediatr Orthop

1998
;18:775
-
782.

26.

Ross PM, Lyne ED:

The Grice procedure: indications and evaluation of long
-
term
results.
Clin Orthop

1980;153:194
-
200.

27.

Scott SM, Janes PC, Stevens PM:

Grice subtalar arthrodesis followed to skeletal
maturity.
J Pediatr Orthop

1988;8:176
-
183.

28.

Se
ymour N:

The late results of naviculo
-
cuneiform fusion.
J Bone Joint Surg

1967;49B:558
-
559.

29.

Smith SD, Millar EA:

Arthrorisis by means of a subtalar polyethylene peg implant
for correction of hindfoot pronation in children.
Clin Orthop

1983;181:15
-
23.

30.

Sout
hwell RB, Sherman FC:

Triple arthrodesis: a long
-
term study with force plate
analysis.
Foot Ankle

1981;2:15
-
24.