EC Life Cycle and Development

offbeatnothingSoftware and s/w Development

Dec 2, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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1

Lecture 7


E
-
Commerce Life Cycle
& Development

Electronic Commerce

2

This Lecture


Systems approach to development


Systems development life cycle


Methodologies for development


Techniques and tools


Web application considerations


Evaluation


3

Systematic Approach


Systems should not be built “ad
-
hoc”
but should be developed following a
systematic approach

4

Systems Theory

“The trans
-
disciplinary study of abstract
organisation of phenomena, independent of
their substance, type, or spatial or temporal
scale of existence. It investigates both the
principles common to all complex entities,
and the models which can be used to
describe them.”


Francis Heylighten & Cliff Joslyn in Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy

5


client (sponsor)


system analyst

IMPLEMENTATION



install and test


train users


documentation & user manuals


system analyst


developers


users


system analyst


developers


developers


users


system analyst


managers


users

FEASIBILITY STUDY



establish feasibility & business case

SYSTEM DESIGN



physical design the system

POST INSTALLATION & REVIEW


fix errors


maintain program


add enhancements

SYSTEM ANALYSIS


determine system requirements


understand old system and problems



logical view of the system

Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

6

Worlds in System Development

Usage World

Subject World

System World

Development
World

Scenarios

Analysis
Model

Requirements
model

Design
Model

Systems
Specification

Computer
System

Justify
System?

Make sense
of usage
world?

Represent
Information?

Design
System?

Source: Hawryszkiewycz (2001) p.83

7

Models in Development

Strategic
Design

Business
Model

System
Model

Implementation
Model

SWOT

Rich pictures

Scenarios

Structured systems analysis

Object modelling

Programs & databases

8

Major Strategies for

Systems Development


Modern Structured Analysis


Information Engineering


Object
-
oriented Analysis


Rapid Application Development


Evolutionary Design & Prototyping


Joint Application Development


Business Process Redesign/Re
-
engineering


Modular and Component Development


Reverse and Reengineering


Combination

9

Modern Structured Analysis


Systems and business analysts draw a series of process
models called data flow diagrams that depict the
essential processes of a system along with inputs,
outputs, and files.



The models are structured pictures which define
business requirements and information system designs.



The model (the logical design for the system) becomes
the design blueprint for constructing the final system

10

Club
Member
Club
Member
Warehouse
Accounts
Orders
Process
Automatic
Orders
Process
Bonus
Orders
Process
Member
Orders
Member order response
Credit rating and limit
Credit rating
and limit
Credit
rating
and
limit
Order to be
filled
Order to be filled
Revised automatic order
Existing order details
Bonus
Order
Order
to be
filled
A Process Model

Data
Flow
Diagram

11

Information Engineering (IE)


Information engineering is a data
-
centered, but process
-
sensitive technique that is applied to the organization as
a whole (or a significant part therefore


such as a
division), rather than on an ad
-
hoc, project
-
by
-
project
basis (as in structured analysis).



In addition to data models, information engineers also
draw process models similar to those drawn in
structured analysis



The basic concept of information engineering is that
information systems should be engineered like other
products.

12

Member

Agreement

is enrolled under;

applies to

Club

established by;

established

Member

Order



Product

Promotion

sponsors;

is sponsored by

is featured in;

features

generates;

generated by

sells;

is sold on

placed by;

places

A Data Model

Entity Relationship Diagram

13

Prototyping


Prototyping is a technique used to develop
partial, but functional versions of a system or
applications.



When extended to system design and
construction, a prototype can evolve into the
final, implemented system.


Evolutionary Prototyping


14

Joint Application Development
(JAD)


Uses highly organized and intensive workshops to
bring together system stakeholders to jointly
define and design systems.



A systems analyst usually plays the role of
facilitator for a workshop.



A JAD workshop will typically run from 3
-
5 full
working days.


This workshop may replace months of traditional
interviews and follow
-
up meetings.

15

Rapid Application
Development (RAD)


Aims at delivering systems solutions fast


Combines five techniques


Evolutionary Prototyping


CASE tools with code generation


Specialists with Advanced Tools (SWAT)


Interactive JAD


Timeboxing

16

Business Process

Re
-
engineering


“the
fundamental

rethinking and
radical

design of business
processes

to achieve
dramatic

improvements in critical
contemporary measures of performance,
such as cost, quality service, and speed”


Source: Hammer, M. (1993) The Promise of Reengineering, Fortune, 3 May, p.95

17

Business Process Redesign
(BPR)



Business process redesign (also called business
process reengineering) is the application of
systems analysis (and design) methods to …..
the goal of dramatically changing and
improving the fundamental business processes
of an organization, independent of information
technology.

18

Object
-
Oriented Analysis
(OOA)


Data and the processes that act upon that data are
combined or encapsulated into things called
objects.


The only way to create, delete, change, or use the
data in an object (called properties) is through one
of its encapsulated processes (called methods).


used to


(1) study existing objects to see if they can be reused or
adapted for new uses


(2) define new or modified objects that will be
combined with existing objects into a useful business
computing application.

19

Reverse Engineering

Legacy
System

Reverse
Engineering

Required
Model

Forward
Engineering

New

System

Reference Model/Blueprint

20

1

Survey
Phase
2

Study
Phase
3

Definition
Phase
4

Targeting
Phase
6

Design
Phase
7

Construction
Phase
5

Purchasing
Phase
(if necessary)
8

Delivery
Phase
System
Users
System
Owners
Information
Technology
Vendors
Unplanned System Problem
Planned
System
Project
Project and
System Scope
System
Objectives
Business
Requirements
Technology
Requirements
Design
Requirements
Technology
Integration
Requirements
Design
Specifications
Prototypes
Operational
System
Business Requirements
Business
Requirements
Request
for
Proposals
Proposals
Production System
System
Development
Phases

21

Techniques in Development


SWOT analysis


Business Plans


Requirement modelling


Rich Pictures


Scenarios


Use Cases


Entity Relationship
Diagrams


Hierarchy Charts


Normalisation


Object Model Diagrams


Data Flow Diagrams


Workflow Diagrams


Pseudocode, Structured
English


Transitions Diagrams


Interaction or Sequence
Diagrams


Decision Tables & Trees


Flowcharts


Prototypes


Network and
Infrastructure diagrams


Database schema


Form, screen & report
layouts

22

Tools


Diagramming software


eg Visio, ABC Flowchart, Smartdraw


Code and Application generators


eg MyFirstStore, EziStore, ColdFusion


Computer Aided Software Engineering
(CASE) Tools


System Architect, Visible Analyst


23

Choosing the right approach


This is influenced by the nature of the
problem or opportunity



May be based on


Degree of system structure


Familiarity with technology


The project size

24

Cross Life Cycle Activities


Activities that overlap many or all phases of
the methodology are known as cross life
cycle


Activities include:


fact finding


documentation and presentation


estimation and measurement


feasibility analysis


project & process management


25

ID
Task Name
1
Survey Phase
2
Study Phase
3
Def inition Phase
4
Targeting Phase
5
Design Phase
6
Purchasing Phase
7
Construction Phase
8
Implementation Phase
9
10
Fact Finding
11
Documentation
12
Presentation
13
Estimation
14
Measurement
15
Feasibility Analysis
16
Project management
17
Process management
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
12/31
1/7
1/14
1/21
1/28
2/4
2/11
2/18
2/25
3/3
3/10
3/17
3/24
3/31
4/7
4/14
4/21
4/28
5/5
5/12
5/19
January
February
March
April
May
Project Management

Gantt Chart

26

Systems Support


System support is the ongoing maintenance
of a system after it has been placed into
operation.



Systems support consists of activities
including:


Fixing software ‘bugs’.


Recovering the system.


Assisting users.


Adapting the system to new requirements.

27

Implementation EC Plan


Starts with organising a project team


Undertake a few pilot projects (help discover
problems early) => Prototyping


Implementing EC


Redesigning existing business processes


Back
-
end processes must be automated as much as
possible


Company must set up workflow applications by
integrating EC into existing accounting and financial
back
-
ends

28

Uncovering Specific EC

Opportunities and Application


Understand:


How digital markets operate


How Internet customers behave


How competition is created and what infrastructure



is needed


What are the dynamics of EC


Map opportunities that match current
competencies and markets


Many opportunities to create new products and services

29


Finding IT Applications


Brainstorming by a group of employees


Soliciting the help of experts, such as consultants


Review what the competitors are doing


Ask the vendors to provide you with suggestions


Read the literature to find out what’s going on


Use analogies from similar industries or business
processes


Use a conventional IS requirement analysis
approach

30

Organization and Staffing


Define the roles and responsibilities of:


Gatekeepers


Web team

Building
System
Infrastructure

Web Page
Design

Business
Process
Reengineering

Security
and Control

Marketing

Finance

Accounting

Information
Technology

EC Project Team


Senior management


Web champion


Webmaster

31

E
-
Business Development Team


Analysts


Project Manager


Network specialists


Database administrator


Programmers


Technical and
professional
communicators


Security Experts


System Integrators


Graphic artists


Multimedia designers


User Interface
Designers


Legal experts
Managers


Users

32

Evaluating Outsourcing


Factors to consider:


Ease of configuration and setup


Database and scripting support


Payment mechanism


Sample storefronts


Workflow management


Documented database support


Integration into existing accounting and


financial back ends

33

Web Hosting


Hosting Internally Vs. Hosting Using ISP


System Cost



bandwidth


capabilities and specifications


firewall system


wireless delivery


buy, rent, or lease


maintenance, upgrade, and service of the
equipment

34

Web Hosting (cont.)


Purchase a suite of software that claims to
integrate storefront functions into a single box


iCat Corp.’s Electronic Commerce Suite and
Commerce Publisher


Open Market’s Transact and LiveCommerce


Microsoft Corp.’s Site Server Commerce Edition


IBM Corp.’s Net. Commerce Pro


Saqqara Systems’ StepSearch Professional


AT&T


35

Web Hosting (cont.)


Making a Web catalog into a multimedia
extravaganza


Not easy and expensive


Lower end systems : begin at $25,000 USD


May not link to existing systems


High end systems : $250,000 to $2 million

36

Web Content Design


Content takes many shapes


Will change dramatically


More robust, comprehensive, and usable medium


Challenges in developing a successful online
storefront


Choosing the right software solution for your site


3 options


build your own software


purchase a commercial software product


rent from a Web host

37

Web content design
considerations


The services wanted


How much your company
can contribute to the site,
from manpower to
electronic content


The time to design your site


The time to create and
program your site


Extra fees for software
development


Fees for off
-
the
-
shelf
applications tools


The size of the site


The amount of traffic the
site generates
Vs
. flat rate


Training requirements


Installation and server
maintenance


Programming


On corporate site hosting
Vs. off
-
site


Secure Server for financial
transactions


Your bandwidth needs


Your server capacity needs


Location of your server at
the Web company or ISP
company location

38

Web Application Features


Electronic shopping mall


Unique URL


Electronic
commerce/financial
transactions


Shopping cart software


Online catalogs


Direct order procedures


Dynamic databases


Static databases


Multimedia


Telephony


Audio


Video


FTP


Forms


Chat rooms


VRML


Statistics


Customer tracking


E
-
mail response and
forwarding


Java applications


Animation


Security

39

Evaluate the EC Project


Perform a post
-
implementation review


Collect information


Measure results


Determine success


Are the goals and requirements being met


Is return on investment being achieved


Overall project cost


Suggest improvements or correction

40

Strategy Reassessment


Webs grow in unexpected ways




e.g. Genentec and Lockheed Martin


Reasons for a not having a worthwhile project


The goals were unrealistic


The web server was inadequate to handle traffic


The actual cost savings were not as much as expected


Important


Develop a checklist


Project Team compiles statistics that can be tracked


CIOs and other executives are trying to extract the business
value from their investment in information technologies

41

Management Issues


Considering the strategic value of EC


Conducting strategic planning


Considering the risks


Integration


Existing data bases & legacy applications


Development approach & implementation


Pilot project

42

Summary


Systems approach to development


Systems development life cycle


Methodologies for development


Techniques and tools


Web application considerations


Evaluation


43

Private Study






Question ?