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Nov 5, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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KNOWLEDGE SHARING

Prof. B. Ramesh Babu

Department of Information Science

University of Madras

Chennai 600 005


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KNOWLEDGE SHARING


"Share everything." So says Robert
Fulghum in his book "
All I Really Need to
Know I Learned in Kindergarten
.



" Sadly, for many, it's a concept that
hasn't translated well into adulthood.

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WHAT IS KNOWLEDGE SHARING?




Knowledge sharing refers to “activities of transferring
or disseminating knowledge from one person, group, or
organization to another”



In IT context, the use of given knowledge bases or
portions of knowledge bases either at sites other than
those at which those knowledge bases were developed
or in a context of new computer programs at the same
site, possibly within software environments that are
quite different from those in which the knowledge bases
were first developed.




The process of knowledge sharing involves both the
creation and the transfer of knowledge through different
artifacts, such as documentation or communication,
among entities. The entities may refer to individuals ,
groups , organizations or networks of organizations .

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WHAT IS KNOWLEDGE SHARING?


Contd


Traditionally, knowledge sharing has always taken place
informally and manifests itself in many forms


whether
you're aware of it or not.



It happens when you pass a colleague in the hallway and ask
them their opinion on a problem; when you solicit user
feedback on a project or topic; when you're in roundtable
meetings with colleagues; even when you're at the local pub
on a Friday night sharing the week's office war stories.



There's little permanence in this type of knowledge sharing,
however. Knowledge is passed from mouth to mouth with
little permanent record. And when knowledge bearers leave
an organization, they take all their expertise with them.




The only hope is that they imparted enough of their
knowledge onto the remaining staff so that they can continue
to carry on this information life cycle.

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WHAT IS KNOWLEDGE SHARING?


Contd


Intranet technology sought to change this


to give this
valuable, albeit ethereal, mass of knowledge a permanent
place to reside within the organization.



Knowledge sharing intranets tear down the figurative walls
that confine information within small corporate cliques and
makes it much more widely available to large audiences.



The idea is sound: A knowledge network with multiple points
of content entry maintained in a centralized location.



Based on intranet architecture, the information would be
made widely available to all employees, thus substantiating
an organization's knowledge and giving it some sense of
longevity.


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IMPORTANCE OF SHARING KNOWLEDGE



Intangible products
-

ideas, processes and information are
taking a growing share of global trade from the traditional,
tangible goods of the manufacturing economy.



The application of new knowledge.



Increasing turn over of staff. When someone leaves an
organization their knowledge walks out of the door with them.



The problem in an organization is that we don't know what
we know.




Large global or even small geographically dispersed
organizations do not know what they know. Expertise learnt
and applied in one part of the organization is not leveraged in
another.


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IMPORTANCE OF SHARING KNOWLEDGE


Contd.,



Accelerating change
-

technology, business and
social. As things change so does our knowledge
base erode


in some businesses, as much of 50% of
what you knew 5 years ago is probably obsolete
today.



To help an organization as a whole to meet its
business objectives. We are not doing it for its own
sake
.



Learning to make knowledge productive is as
important if not more important than sharing
knowledge.



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MOTIVATING KNOWLEDGE SHARING



The reasons that motivates knowledge users for
sharing are as follows:



Knowledge is a perishable
. Knowledge is increasingly
short
-
lived. If you do not make use of knowledge then it
rapidly loses its value.



Even with the low level of knowledge sharing that goes
on today


if you do not make your knowledge
productive than someone else with that same
knowledge will. You can almost guarantee that
whatever bright idea you have someone else
somewhere in the organization will be thinking along
the same lines.



By sharing your knowledge, you gain more than you
lose.


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MOTIVATING KNOWLEDGE SHARING





Contd.,



Sharing knowledge is a synergistic process



you get more
out than you put in
.



If I share a product idea or a way of doing things with
another person


then just the act of putting my idea into
words or writing will help me shape and improve that idea.




If I get into dialogue with the other person then I'll benefit
from their knowledge, from their unique insights and
improve my ideas further.



To get most things done in an organization today requires a
collaborative effort.



If you try to work alone


you are likely to fail


you need not
only the input from other people but their support and buy
-
in. Being open with them; sharing with them, helps you
achieve your objectives.



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MOTIVATING KNOWLEDGE SHARING








Contd.,



Sharing knowledge is not just about
giving. But it is about.



Soliciting feedback.



Asking questions.



Telling people what you plan to do before
doing it.



Asking other people for help.



Asking someone to work with you in some
way
-

however small.


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MOTIVATING KNOWLEDGE SHARING





Contd.,


Telling people what you are doing and
more importantly why you are doing it.



Asking people what they think; asking
them for advise.



Asking people what would they do
differently.



Not just sharing information but know
-
how and know.


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MEANS OF KNOWLEDGE SHARING



Key knowledge sharing behaviors include:


Seeking ways to document and share your own knowledge


Taking advantage of other people’s experience when starting a
new activity


Re
-
using and building on previous work from within your own
organization or other sources.



There are three factors that contribute the most to successful
mergers, consolidations and other major organizational changes.



Successful organizations demonstrate these characteristics at all
times, but they are most critical in times of organizational change.
They are:


Leadership


Constant communication


Knowledge sharing.

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Knowledge Mgmt
(static)
Content
(dynamic)
Taxonomies/Metadata
Facilitative IT Tools
Intellectual Capital

Tacit/Implicit Knowledge

Explicit Knowledge
Social Capital

Communities/Networks

Collaboration

Culture
Human Capital

Organizational Learning

Succession Planning

Business Processes
Information Mgmt
(lifecycle mgmt)
Content
Mgmt
Data Mgmt
(repositories)
Information “Resources”
Mgmt
Technology
Mgmt
(infrastructure)
Document Mgmt

Versions

Workflow
Records Mgmt
Information Services

Library

Research

Knowledge repositories
Application
Mgmt
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CONTEXT OF KNOWLEDGE
SHARING



Successful knowledge sharing requires the
use of
three interdependent types

of
knowledge
-
sharing activities such as
--



Those focused on assessing the form and
embeddedness of the knowledge;


Those focused on establishing and managing an
administrative structure through which differences
and issues between the parties can be
accommodated and reduced; and


Those focused on transferring the knowledge

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Barriers in KS




The barriers in knowledge sharing can be
divided into three categories .




1.
Individual knowledge sharing barriers

2.
Organisational knowledge sharing barriers

3.
Technological knowledge sharing barriers

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1. Individual knowledge sharing barriers


General lack of time to share knowledge, and time to
identify colleagues in need of specific knowledge;


Apprehension of fear that sharing may reduce or
jeopardise people’s job security;


Low awareness and realisation of the value and
benefit of possessed knowledge to others;


Dominance in sharing explicit over tacit knowledge
such as know
-
how and experience that requires
hands
-
on learning, observation, dialogue and
interactive problem solving;


Use of strong hierarchy, position
-
based status, and
formal power (“pull rank”);


Insufficient capture, evaluation, feedback,
communication, and tolerance of past mistakes that
would enhance individual and organisational
learning effects;


Differences in experience levels;


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1.
Individual knowledge sharing barriers









contd.,



lack of contact time and interaction between knowledge
sources and recipients;


poor verbal/written communication and interpersonal skills;



age differences;


gender differences;


lack of social network;


differences in education levels;


taking ownership of intellectual property due to fear of not
receiving just recognition and accreditation from managers
and colleagues;


lack of trust in people because they misuse knowledge or
take unjust credit for it;


lack of trust in the accuracy and credibility of knowledge
due to the source; and


differences in national culture or ethnic background; and
values and beliefs associated with it (language is part of
this).


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2. Organisational knowledge sharing barriers


integration of KM strategy and sharing initiatives
into the company’s goals and strategic approach is
missing or unclear;


lack of leadership and managerial direction in terms
of clearly communicating the benefits and values of
knowledge sharing practices;


shortage of formal and informal spaces to share,
reflect and generate (new) knowledge;


lack of transparent rewards and recognition systems
that would motivate people to share more of their
knowledge;


existing corporate culture does not provide
sufficient support for sharing practices;


deficiency of company resources that would provide
adequate sharing opportunities;


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2. Organisational knowledge sharing barriers


external competitiveness within business units or
functional areas and between subsidiaries can be
high (e.g. not invented here syndrome);


communication and knowledge flows are restricted
into certain directions (e.g. top
-
down);


physical work environment and layout of work areas
restrict effect sharing practices;


internal competitiveness within business units,
functional areas, and subsidiaries can be high;


hierarchical organisation structure inhibits or slows
down most sharing practices; and


size of business units often is not small enough and
unmanageable to enhance contact and facilitate
ease of sharing

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3. Technological knowledge sharing barriers


lack of integration of IT systems and processes impedes on
the way people do things;


lack of technical support (internal and external) and
immediate maintenance of integrated IT systems obstructs
work routines and communication flows;


unrealistic expectations of employees as to what technology
can do and cannot do;


lack of compatibility between diverse IT systems and
processes;


mismatch between individuals’ need requirements and
integrated IT systems and processes restrict sharing
practices;


reluctance to use IT systems due to lack of familiarity and
experience with them;


lack of training regarding employee familiarisation of new IT
systems and processes; and


lack of communication and demonstration of all advantages
of any new system over existing ones.


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Knowledge Sharing

:
A Vision


A vision of the future in which the idea of knowledge
sharing is commonplace. If this vision is realized,
building a new system will rarely involve constructing a
new knowledge base from scratch.


Instead, the process of building a knowledge
-
based
system will start by assembling reusable components.


Portions of existing knowledge bases would be reused
in constructing the new system, and special
-
purpose
reasoners embodying problem
-
solving methods would
similarly be brought in.


Some effort would go into connecting these pieces,
creating a “custom shell'' with preloaded knowledge.



However, the majority of the system development effort
could become focused on creating only the specialized
knowledge and reasoners that are new to the specific
task of the system under construction.

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Knowledge

Sharing: A Vision


The vision would be , the new system could interoperate with
existing systems and pose queries to them to perform some of its
reasoning.


Furthermore, extensions to existing knowledge bases could be
added to shared repositories, thereby expanding and enriching
them.


For end users, this vision will change the face of information
systems in
three ways:




1. it will provide sources of information that serve the same functions
as books and libraries but are more flexible, easier to update, and
easier to query.


2. it will enable the construction and marketing of prepackaged
knowledge services, allowing users to invoke (rent or buy) services.


3. it will make it possible for end users to tailor large systems to their
needs by assembling knowledge bases and services rather than
programming them from scratch.

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Knowledge Sharing: A Vision


One can expect changes and enhancements in the ways that
developers view and manipulate knowledge
-
based systems.



In particular, one can see
three mechanisms

that would increase
their productivity by promoting the sharing and reuse of
accumulated knowledge.



First among these are libraries of multiple layers of reusable
knowledge bases that could either be incorporated into software or
remotely consulted at execution time. At a level generic to a class of
applications, layers in such knowledge bases capture
conceptualizations, tasks, and problem
-

solving methods.


Second, system construction will be facilitated by the availability of
common knowledge representation systems and a means for
translation between them.



Finally, this new reuse
-
oriented approach will offer tools and
methodologies that allow developers to find and use library entries
useful to their needs as well as preexisting services built on these
libraries. These tools will be complemented by tools that allow
developers to offer their work for inclusion in the libraries.

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ROLES AND COMPETENCIES OF
KM PROFESSIONALS


Knowledge and innovation professionals who shape
and formulate knowledge
-
based programs.


KM professionals who have expertise in KM
implementation.


Knowledge cataloguers, researchers, and media
specialists who have skills in Web Technology, the
Internet, Libraries and content development.


Knowledge and competitive intelligence professionals
who are able to create and develop positions and
have online research savvy and god presentation
skills.


Knowledge and strategic integration professionals,
such as thinkers, planers, and marketers.


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ROLES AND COMPETENCIES OF
KM PROFESSIONALS


Knowledge academicians, theorists and
visionaries who focus primarily on discussion
within an academic setting as well as
developing and testing models and
applications.


Knowledge facilitators, trainers and corporate
educators who focus on learning and
education in a corporate setting.


Knowledge and expert systems professionals
whose primary focus is information
technology
.


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Skills of KM Professionals


Cognitive skills


Management skills


Organization and business skills include
communication, leadership, facilitation,
networking, negotiating, consensus
building, team working, coaching and
mentoring skills.


Information Processing skills


Information technology skills

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KM Framework for Success

Leadership

Structures
-

Cultures
-

HR Policies
-

Vision

Processes

People

Measure
-

ment

‘Hard’ infrastructure
-

Intranet, groupware
etc.

‘Soft’
-

Skills, learning,

Enablers

Levers

Foundations

Information

Space

Tools and

Techniques

+

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KM IMPACT ON LIS EDUCATION


KM

is

a

multidisciplinary

and

interdisciplinary

topic

which

includes,

four

disciplines

such

as

business

and

management,

communication

and

cognitive

science,

information

technology

and

LIS
.


There

is

confusion

whether

KM

as

a

profession

belongs

to

the

field

of

management,

Computer

Science,

or

Library

and

Information

Science
.



There

is

an

urgent

need

to

make

LIS

professionals

including

students

to

understand

the

various

KM

processes

such

as

knowledge

capture,

knowledge

generation,

knowledge

transfer

and

knowledge

sharing

.


Private

sector

libraries

today

look

forward

to

get

ISO

9004

accreditation

and

certification

as

a

part

of

their

organisational

policy

for

KM
.



Therefore

KM

is

considered

as

a

discipline

of

study

in

the

digital

era



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KM IMPACT ON LIS EDUCATION



KM as a subject was being disseminated through
seminars, workshops, and conferences etc
organised by the corporate sector and also by the
LIS professionals.



Skills and competencies acquired by information
professionals during early career stages are not
likely to withstand the pressures beyond a few years.




The employers especially corporate and private
sectors are looking forward getting accredited or
certified by the ISO for KM.


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KM IMPACT ON LIS EDUCATION



Such a situation would influence the Educators of LIS to
emphasise on KM in their curriculum.



LIS schools have the responsibility to prepare the
professionals to handle KM practices effectively through
the learning process.



LIS programmes must be restructured to respond to
education and training needs of the knowledge society
.


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KM Course contents


UNIT I
-

Knowledge Management: Concept and definitions


Need
for Knowledge
-
Management in the emerging and changing
business environment


Understanding knowledge; Types of
knowledge
-

Knowledge works
-
Changing role of Library and
Information professionals.




UNIT II
-

Knowledge creation and capturing; Knowledge creation
models



UNIT III
-

Knowledge codification and organization: Knowledge
base
-
Knowledge mapping, decision trees, decision tables and
frames etc.



UNIT IV
-

Knowledge transfer and sharing steps in knowledge
transfer. Knowledge transfer in E


Word, Role of internet, E


Business / E
-

Commerce.



UNIT V
-

Tools for knowledge Management
-

Neural network Data
mining


Legal and ethical issues in Knowledge Management

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Conclusion


LIS

Professionals

in

order

to

meet

the

challenges

of

the

Knowledge

economy

are

to

build

a

KM

system

for

Libraries

which

demand

an

urgent

attention
.



It

may

be

pointed

out

that

though

KM

education

in

India

is

still

in

its

infancy

stage

in

LIS

schools,

but

it

will

certainly

take

a

strong

roots

and

foundation

in

the

near

future
.


To

quote

--


“Ultimately knowledge literate people are those who
have learnt to learn”.


“They

know

how

to

learn

because

they

know

how

knowledge

is

organised,

how

to

find

information

and

how

to

use

information

in

a

such

a

way

that

others

can

learn

from

them”
.




“They

are

people

prepared

for

life

long

learning

because

they

can

always

find

the

information

needed

for

any

task

or

decisions

at

hand”
.

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